PISA 2009 results

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PISA 2009 results

  1. 1. Programme for International Student Assessment 1 1What students know and can do Embargo until PISA 2009 7 December Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 11:00 Paris time Evaluating systems to improve education The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by nationalPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for standards alone but the best performing education systems Andreas Schleicher Special advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy Head of the Indicators and Analysis Division, EDU
  2. 2. 2 2 PISA 2009 in brief PISA countries in 2001 2003 2000 2009 2006 1998What students know and can do  Over half a million of world economy 83% Coverage students… 87% 86% 85% 81% 77%  representing 28 million 15-year-olds in 74* countries/economies … took an internationally agreed 2-hour test… Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010  Goes beyond testing whether students can reproduce what they were taught… … to assess students’ capacity to extrapolate from what they know and creatively apply their knowledge in novel situationsPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for … and responded to questions on…  their personal background, their schools and their engagement with learning and school  Parents, principals and system leaders provided data on…  school policies, practices, resources and institutional factors that help explain performance differences . * Data for Costa Rica, Georgia, India, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Venezuela and Vietnam will be published in December 2011
  3. 3. 3 3 PISA 2009 in brief PISA countries in 2001 2003 2000 2009 2006 1998What students know and can do  PISA seeks to… of world economy 83% Coverage 87% 86% 85% 81% 77% … Support governments to prepare students… … to deal with more rapid change than ever before… Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 … for jobs that have not yet been created… … using technologies that have not yet been invented… … to solve problems that we don’t yet know will arise … Provide a basis for policy dialogue and globalPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for collaboration in defining and implementing educational goals, policies and practices – Show countries what achievements are possible – Help governments set policy targets in terms of measurable goals achieved elsewhere – Gauge the pace of educational progress – Facilitate peer-learning on policy and practice .
  4. 4. 4 4 PISA 2009 in brief PISA countries in 2001 2003 2000 2009 2006 1998What students know and can do  Key principles  ‘CrowdCoverage of world economy sourcing’ and collaboration 83% 87% 86% 85% 81% 77% – PISA draws together leading expertise and institutions from participating countries to develop instruments and methodologies… Andreas Schleicher … guided by governments on the basis of shared policy interests 7 December 2010  Cross-national relevance and transferability of policy experiences – Emphasis on validity across cultures, languages and systems – Frameworks built on well-structured conceptual understanding of assessment areas and contextual factorsPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for  Triangulation across different stakeholder perspectives – Systematic integration of insights from students, parents, school principals and system-leaders  Advanced methods with different grain sizes – A range of methods to adequately measure intended constructs with different grain sizes to serve different decision-making needs – Productive feedback, at appropriate levels of detail, to fuel improvement at multiple levels .
  5. 5. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas SchleicherInternational Student Assessment 7 December 2010 10 10 What 15-year-olds can do
  6. 6. Shanghai-China High reading performance 16 16 Average performance of 15-year-olds inWhat students know and can do Korea 540.000 Finland reading – extrapolate Hong Kong-China and apply Singapore Canada New Zealand 520.000 Japan Performance distribution in US Australia Andreas Schleicher 18% do not reach baseline Level 2 7 December 2010 Netherlands Norway , when excluding immigrants) (16% Suburban schools Belgium Northeast Poland, Switzerland Midwest Estonia Liechtenstein 6%, Canada 9%) (Finland United States Iceland 500.000 Germany, Sweden France, Ireland Chinese Taipei Hungary, United Kingdom DenmarkEconomic cost: 72 trillion $ Portugal Macao-China 10% are top performers Italy West Urban schools Latvia (Shanghai 20%)PISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Slovenia Greece South Spain 480.000 Slovak Republic, Czech Republic Croatia Luxembourg, Israel Austria Lithuania Turkey 460.000 Dubai (UAE) Russian Federation Chile Serbia 440.000 55 45 35 25 … 17 countries perform below this line Low reading performance
  7. 7. High reading performance 27 27 Average performance Highof 15-year-olds inWhat students know and can do High average performance average performance Large socio-economic disparities science – extrapolate High social equity and apply Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Strong socio- Socially equitable economic impact on distribution of learning student performance opportunitiesPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Low average performance Low average performance Large socio-economic disparities High social equity Low reading performance
  8. 8. Australia High reading performance 28 28 Belgium 2009 2009 Canada DurchschnittlicheWhat students know and can do High average performance High average performance Chile Czech Rep Large socio-economic disparities Schülerleistungen im High social equity Denmark Bereich Mathematik Finland Germany Greece Hungary Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Iceland Ireland Israel Strong socio- Socially equitable Italy economic impact on distribution of learning Japan student performance opportunities KoreaPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Low average performance Low average performance Sweden SwitzerlandLarge socio-economic disparities High social equity UK 55 45 35 25 15 US Low reading performance
  9. 9. Australia High reading performance 29 29 Belgium 2009 Canada DurchschnittlicheWhat students know and can do High average performance High average performance Chile Czech Rep Large socio-economic disparities Schülerleistungen im High social equity Denmark Bereich Mathematik Finland Germany Greece Hungary Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Iceland Ireland Israel Strong socio- Socially equitable Italy economic impact on distribution of learning Japan student performance opportunities KoreaPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Low average performance Low average performance Sweden SwitzerlandLarge socio-economic disparities High social equity UK US Low reading performance
  10. 10. Australia High reading performance 30 30 Belgium 2000 Canada DurchschnittlicheWhat students know and can do High average performance High average performance Chile Czech Rep Large socio-economic disparities Schülerleistungen im High social equity Denmark Bereich Mathematik Finland Germany Greece Hungary Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Iceland Ireland Israel Strong socio- Socially equitable Italy economic impact on distribution of learning Japan student performance opportunities KoreaPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Low average performance Low average performance Sweden SwitzerlandLarge socio-economic disparities High social equity UK US Low reading performance
  11. 11. Australia High reading performance 31 31 Belgium 2000 Canada DurchschnittlicheWhat students know and can do High average performance High average performance Chile Czech Rep Large socio-economic disparities Schülerleistungen im High social equity Denmark Bereich Mathematik Finland Germany Greece Hungary Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Iceland Ireland Israel Strong socio- Socially equitable Italy economic impact on distribution of learning Japan student performance opportunities KoreaPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Low average performance Low average performance Sweden SwitzerlandLarge socio-economic disparities High social equity UK US Low reading performance
  12. 12. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas SchleicherInternational Student Assessment 7 December 2010 54 54 Quality differences between schools
  13. 13. What students know and can do PISA Variance OECD Programme for Andreas Schleicher 56 100 80 60 20 20 40 60 80 100 40 0 International Student Assessment 7 December 2010 56 ArgentinaTrinidad and Tobago Italy Qatar Turkey Bulgaria Israel Panama Germany Peru Hungary between schools Dubai (UAE) Austria Belgium Luxembourg students within schools Netherlands Japan Performance differences Performance variation of Chile Uruguay Greece Brazil Czech Republic Slovenia Romania Croatia Serbia United States Mexico Singapore Jordan Kyrgyzstan Colombia Montenegro Hong Kong-China Albania Tunisia Slovak Republic Liechtenstein Kazakhstan Macao-China Ireland United Kingdom Chinese Taipei Korea Switzerland Australia New Zealand Portugal Shanghai-China Azerbaijan Russian Federation between and within schools Canada Sweden Lithuania Indonesia Spain Poland Variability in student performance Estonia Latvia Iceland Thailand Denmark Norway Finland
  14. 14. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas SchleicherInternational Student Assessment 7 December 2010 59 59 How do social background and learning outcomes interact?
  15. 15. 71 School performance and socio-economic background 71 United StatesWhat students know and can do Private school Public school in rural area Public school in urban area School performance and schools’ socio-economic background Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools 643 700 Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Student performancePISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for 350 -2 -1 0 1 2 Disadvantage PISA Index of socio-economic background Advantage
  16. 16. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas Schleicher % 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 International Student Assessment 7 December 2010 79 79 Shanghai-China Hong Kong-China Korea Macao-China Singapore Finland Japan Turkey Canada Portugal Chinese Taipei Poland New Zealand Spain students among Liechtenstein Estonia Netherlands disadvantaged students More than 30% resilient Italy Switzerland Latvia Australia OECD average France Belgium Ireland Iceland Mexico United States Greece Thailand Croatia Tunisia Norway Hungary social background) Sweden Slovenia Indonesia Denmark Chile United Kingdom students among Israel Colombia Resilient student: Comes from the bottom quarter of the socially most disadvantaged Germany students internationally (after accounting for disadvantaged students Brazil students but performs among the top quarter of Czech Republic Slovak Republic Between 15%-30% of resilient Luxembourg Lithuania disadvantaged students Austria Russian FederationTrinidad and Tobago Uruguay Serbia Jordan Albania Argentina Dubai (UAE) Romania Percentage of resilient students among Bulgaria Panama Montenegro Kazakhstan students among Peru Azerbaijan Less than 15% resilient Qatar disadvantaged students Kyrgyzstan
  17. 17. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas SchleicherInternational Student Assessment 7 December 2010 94 94 Does it all matter?
  18. 18. 95 Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19/21 95 associated with PISA reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada)What students know and can do after accounting for school engagement, gender, mother tongue, place of residence, parental, education and family income (reference group PISA Level 1) Odds ratio higher Andreas Schleicher education 20 7 December 2010 entry 18 16 14 12 10PISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for 8 6 4 2 0 Age 19 Age 21 Age 21 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2
  19. 19. 10 100 Policy Policies and practices R System R School E EquityWhat students know and can do 0 Learning climate Discipline  Teacher behaviour  Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Parental pressure  Teacher-student relationships  Dealing with heterogeneityPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Grade repetition    Prevalence of tracking  Expulsions    Ability grouping (all subjects)    Standards /accountability Nat. examination 
  20. 20. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas Schleicher 1International Student Assessment 7 December 2010 101 10 What does it all mean?
  21. 21. 10 104  A commitment to education and the belief that competencies can be learned andWhat students know and can do 4 therefore all children can achieve  Universal educational standards and personalisation as the approach to heterogeneity in the student body… Andreas Schleicher … as opposed to a belief that students have 7 December 2010 different destinations to be met with different Lessons from PISA expectations, and selection/stratification as on successful the approach to heterogeneity Clear articulation who is responsible for education systems PISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for ensuring student success and to whom
  22. 22. High reading performance 10 106 2009 DurchschnittlicheWhat students know and can do High average performance High average performance 6 Schülerleistungen im Large socio-economic disparities High social equity Bereich Mathematik Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Strong socio- Socially equitable economic impact on distribution of learning student performance opportunitiesPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Early selection and Low average performance Low average performance institutional differentiation Large socio-economic disparities High social equity High degree of stratification Low degree of stratification Low reading performance
  23. 23. 10 107  Clear ambitious goals that are shared acrossWhat students know and can do 7 the system and aligned with high stakes gateways and instructional systems  Well established delivery chain through which curricular goals translate into instructional systems, instructional practices and student Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 learning (intended, implemented and achieved) Lessons of metacognitive content of  High level from PISA instruction on successful education systemsPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for
  24. 24. 10 109What students know and can do 9  Capacity at the point of delivery Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010  Attracting, developing and retaining high quality Lessons from PISAand a work teachers and school leaders organisation in which they can use their on successful potential education leadership and human resource Instructional systemsPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for  management in schools  Keeping teaching an attractive profession  System-wide career development
  25. 25. 11 110What students know and can do 0  Incentives, accountability, knowledge management  Aligned incentive structures For students  How gateways affect the strength, direction, clarity and nature of the incentives operating on students at each stage of their education Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010  Degree to which students have incentives to take tough courses and study hard  Lessons from PISA Opportunity costs for staying in school and performing well For teacherson successful Make innovations in pedagogy and/or organisation Improveeducation systemsPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for   their own performance and the performance of their colleagues  Pursue professional development opportunities that lead to stronger pedagogical practices  A balance between vertical and lateral accountability  Effective instruments to manage and share knowledge and spread innovation – communication within the system and with stakeholders around it  A capable centre with authority and legitimacy to act
  26. 26. School autonomy, accountability 11 115 and student performanceWhat students know and can do Impact of school autonomy on performance in systems with and without 5 PISA score in reading accountability arrangements 500 Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 495 490PISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for School autonomy in resource allocation Schools with more autonomy 480 Schools with less autonomy Systems with more accountability Systems with less accountability System’s accountability arrangements
  27. 27. 11 119 Local responsibility and system-level prescriptionWhat students know and can do 9 Trend in OECD countries Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 System-level prescription ‘Tayloristic’ work organisation Schools today Schools Finland today The industrial tomorrow? Every school anPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for model, detailed Building capacity effective school prescription of what schools do Schools leading reform Teachers as ‘knowledge workers’
  28. 28. 12 120What students know and can do Public and private schools Government schools Observed performance difference Government dependent private 0 Government independent private Difference after accounting for socio-economic background of students and schools 0 20 40 60 80 -150 100 -100 -50 0 50 100 % Score point difference Australia Austria Canada Chile Czech Republic Andreas Schleicher Denmark 7 December 2010 Estonia Finland Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan Private schools Korea perform betterPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Public schools Poland perform better Portugal Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States Argentina Brazil Hong Kong-China Indonesia Jordan Russian Federation Shanghai-China Singapore Chinese Taipei
  29. 29. 12 122What students know and can do 2 Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 Lessons from PISA on successful education systemsPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for  Investing resources where they can make most of a difference  Alignment of resources with key challenges (e.g. attracting the most talented teachers to the most challenging classrooms)  Effective spending choices that prioritise high quality teachers over smaller classes
  30. 30. 12 123What students know and can do 3 Andreas Schleicher A learning system 7 December 2010   Lessons from PISA An outward orientation of the system to keep the system learning, international benchmarks as the ‘eyes’ and ‘ears’ onthe system of successful education systems Recognising challenges and potential futurePISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for  threats to current success, learning from them, designing responses and implementing these
  31. 31. 12 Coherence of policies and practices 124 What students know and can do 4 Alignmentaspects of the system across all of policies   Coherence of policies over sustained periods of time Consistency of implementation Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010   Fidelity of implementation (without excessive control) from Lessons PISA on successful education systemsPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for
  32. 32. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas Schleicher 5International Student Assessment 7 December 2010 125 12 Beyond schooling
  33. 33. PISA What students know and can do OECD Programme for Andreas Schleicher 6 International Student Assessment 7 December 2010 126 Score point difference 0 -10 20 30 40 50 60 10 Lithuania Germany Denmark CroatiaHong Kong-China Korea Macao-China Portugal Hungary primary school New Zealand Chile (weekly or daily) and those who do not: "talk about what they had done" Italy Panama 12 Parental support at the beginning of Qatar Score point difference between students whose parents often do
  34. 34. Score pointWhat students know and can do PISA difference OECD Programme for Andreas Schleicher 7 0 100 120 20 40 60 80 International Student Assessment 7 December 2010 127 12 Israel Singapore Belgium Qatar Macao-China Italy France Hong Kong-China Switzerland Denmark United Kingdom Liechtenstein Dubai (UAE) Greece Kyrgyzstan Uruguay Argentina Shanghai-China Germany Spain New Zealand Australia Slovak Republic Sweden Brazil Hungary Performance advantage after Luxembourg Observed performance advantage Mexico ThailandTrinidad and Tobago Canada accounting for socio-economic factors OECD average Chinese Taipei Indonesia Poland Iceland Kazakhstan Panama Romania Czech Republic Japan Tunisia Peru Beyond schooling Austria Jordan Bulgaria Norway Albania Azerbaijan Russian Federation Colombia Portugal Chile United States Lithuania Turkey Serbia Montenegro Netherlands Ireland primary school for more than one year and those who did not Slovenia Croatia Performance difference between students who had attended pre- Finland Korea Latvia Estonia
  35. 35. 12 128 Education reform trajectoriesWhat students know and can do 8 The old bureaucratic system The modern enabling system Student inclusion Some students learn at high levels All students need to learn at high levels Andreas Schleicher Curriculum, instruction and assessment 7 December 2010 Routine cognitive skills, rote learning Learning to learn, complex ways of thinking, ways of working Teacher qualityPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for Few years more than secondary High-level professional knowledge workers Work organisation ‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical Flat, collegial Accountability Primarily to authorities Primarily to peers and stakeholders
  36. 36. 13 133What students know and can do 3 Find out more about PISA at…  OECD www.pisa.oecd.org – All national and international publications Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010 – The complete micro-level database U.S. White House www.data.gov Thank you !  Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.orgPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for  … and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion
  37. 37. 13 PISA 2009 results 134What students know and can do 4  Five volumes released on 7 December  Volume I, What Students Know and can Do: Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science Andreas Schleicher 7 December 2010  Volume II, Overcoming Social Background: Equity in Learning Opportunities and Outcomes  Volume III, Learning to Learn: Student Engagement, Strategies and PracticesPISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for  Volume IV, What Makes a School Successful? Resources, Policies and Practices  Volume V, Learning Trends: Changes in student Performance since 2000  One volume to be released in June 2011  Volume VI, Students On Line: Reading and Using Digital Information

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