The constitution created the Supreme Court, but Congress created all the lower federal courts. 2 types of lower federal courts: Constitutional Courts Legislative courts
Constitutional Courts include: 1. Federal District Courts 2. Federal Courts of Appeal 3. The Court of International trade
Trial Court- 94 Districts throughout the U.S. Two types of juries Grand jury 16-23 people Determines if there is enough evidence to send a person to trial Petit Jury 6 or 12 people Determines guilty or not guilty
Over 80% of all cases go to district courts Most of the time they make the final decision-few cases are appealed. Appointed officials who work for the district court: Attorney for each district court - defends the govt. and prosecutes people charged with crimes U.S. magistrate- issues arrest warrants Bankruptcy judge U.S. marshal- makes arrests , gets jurors, keeps order in court
Created to deal with all the people trying to appeal to the Supreme Court 13 Courts of Appeal throughout the U.S. 12 circuits courts, 1 national appeals court (U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit)
Each cases usually has 3 judges who make the decision Court has 3 options: 1. uphold the original decision 2. reverse the original decision 3. send it back to a lower court for a re-trial
Used be called the U.S. Customs Court Located in NYC Deals with cases regarding tariffs – people who think the tariffs for bringing goods in/out of the country are too high
Help congress exercise its powers Power to tax- U.S. Tax Court Power to regulate armed forces- Court of Military Appeals Power to govern territories- Territorial Courts Power to supervise D.C. – Courts of the District of Columbia Other Courts- Court of Federal Claims- $ damages Court of Veteran’s Appeals Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court- spies and terrororists
Appointed by president- usually from same political party It’s a way for the president to have a lasting affect even after their presidential term is over Life term Most have had LOTS of judicial experience Former attorneys, law school professors, congress members, and judges
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