The Judicial Branch

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The Judicial Branch

  1. 1. The Judicial Branch <ul><li>What are type of cases go to the federal courts? </li></ul><ul><li>What are federal courts function in protecting democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the courts create de facto law? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Structure US Government Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch
  3. 3. Structure US Government Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch President Vice President Cabinet
  4. 4. Structure US Government Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch President Vice President Cabinet Congress Senate House of Representatives
  5. 5. Structure US Government Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch President Vice President Cabinet Congres s Senate House of Representatives Supreme Court Federal Courts State Courts
  6. 6. The Constitution <ul><li>Article III: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Section 1: Judicial Power </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Constitution <ul><li>Article III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec.2: federal jurisdiction (type of crimes the feds can try) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec.3 : cases of treason </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Political Cartoon
  9. 9. Appointments <ul><li>Article II, Sec. 2: Federal judges appointed by the president </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 840 federal judgeships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearings held in the Judiciary Committee in Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are they looking for in a nominee? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judiciary Committee of Senate can recommend or reject appointment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Senate votes to confirm or reject the nominee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once confirmed, federal judges have the job for life </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Federal Courts
  11. 11. Federal Courts <ul><li>United States Supreme Court (Highest judicial body) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It provides leadership in judicial branch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duties are to interpret the Constitution and federal precedents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolve disputes between states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oversight on the legality of state laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Circuit Courts (grouped district courts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Country is divided into circuits for the purpose of designating the area to a particular Supreme Court justice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Circuit is assigned to 2 Justices and one Circuit judge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circuit Appeals Court (final appeals before the Supreme Court) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They operate under a system of mandatory review which means they must hear all appeals from the lower courts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not operate like trial courts. Only reviews briefs of disputed rulings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one in each circuit. Three judges sit in each appellate court. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Federal Courts <ul><li>The Federal District Courts (general federal trial courts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original Jurisdiction: deal with violations of federal laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with civil and criminal cases under federal jurisdiction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hears cases of litigants of different states or countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appellate jurisdiction: hears appeals from lower court decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>94 federal districts courts in the 50 states. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Courts of Appeals (Intermediate appellate courts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that the law is interpreted and applied consistently and uniformly within the district. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Subject-Matter Jurisdiction Courts <ul><li>United States Bankruptcy Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bankruptcy cases cannot be filed in state court. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of the 94 federal judicial districts handles bankruptcy matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States Tax Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses disputed with federal taxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States Court of International Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction over cases involving international trade and customs duties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized Federal Courts and the War on Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The FISA Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alien Removal Courts </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Judicial Philosophy <ul><li>Judicial Activism/Broad Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic role of the Supreme Court to check the activities and powers of governmental bodies when they are exceeded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks at context and purpose when interpreting the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Legacy of the Warren Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil rights (Brown Vs. Board of Edu) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy (Griswold Vs. Connecticut) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from the police (Miranda) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Judicial Philosophy <ul><li>Judicial Restraint/Strict Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static role of the Supreme Court to defer decision making to elected officials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret the Constitution and statues literally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example Legacy Rehnquist Court: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McConnell v. Federal Election Commission and other FEC cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. v. Lopez </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Supreme Court Rulings as De Facto Law <ul><li>Precedent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All lower courts act in accordance to Stare Decisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal and state level laws cannot oppose Supreme Court Rulings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brown VS. Board </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roe VS. Wade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lawrence VS. Texas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Landmark Cases <ul><li>Marbury VS. Madison (1803) </li></ul><ul><li>Plessey VS. Ferguson (1892) </li></ul><ul><li>Brown VS. Board of Education (1954) </li></ul><ul><li>Roe VS. Wade (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>The United States VS. Nixon (1974) </li></ul><ul><li>Put in Your Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Read the summary of the case. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the plaintiff and the defendant. </li></ul><ul><li>How is this a constitutional issue? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Checks and Balances Supreme Court Ruling Enforced by the Executive Constitutional Amendments
  19. 19. Quiz <ul><li>Why are confirmation hearings of federal judges and Supreme Court Justices so vital in American democracy? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Key Vocabulary <ul><li>Jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Courts </li></ul><ul><li>State Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Appellate Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Suit </li></ul><ul><li>District Attorney </li></ul><ul><li>Plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>Public Defender </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Stare Decisis </li></ul><ul><li>Class Action Suit </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Review </li></ul><ul><li>Writ of Certiorari </li></ul><ul><li>Solicitor General </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Constitution <ul><li>Article III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sec.1 (creation)-The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in Office . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Article III </li></ul>

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