Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Day 13 notes


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Day 13 notes

  1. 1. Courts, Judges, and the Law <ul><li>Day 13 </li></ul><ul><li>TCI ch15 </li></ul><ul><li>July 10, 2008 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Notes - Day 13 <ul><li>(last day of notes!!) </li></ul><ul><li>(TCI ch15) </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Question: How is the US judicial system organized to ensure justice? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Resolving Society’s Conflicts <ul><li>criminal law - to protect the welfare of society and provide punishments for those who fail to comply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proven beyond a reasonable doubt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>civil law - conflicts between private parties (or occasionally private party vs. gov’t) </li></ul><ul><li>burden of proof is less - preponderance of evidence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Players in a Court of Law <ul><li>defendant - accused (criminal or civil) </li></ul><ul><li>prosecution - gov’t lawyer, represents the people </li></ul><ul><li>plaintiff - accuser in civil trial </li></ul>
  5. 5. Role of Citizens <ul><li>witnesses - testify in court </li></ul><ul><li>jurors - usually 12 people who make decisions in court </li></ul>
  6. 6. US Dual Court System <ul><li>two court systems - state and federal </li></ul><ul><li>usually independent but can overlap </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jurisdiction <ul><li>original jurisdiction - authority to hear case for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>appellate jurisdiction - (appeals) - review decisions by lower courts </li></ul>
  8. 8. State Courts <ul><li>most cases are heard in state courts </li></ul>
  9. 9. Choosing State Judges <ul><li>judicial election - pro: public input, debate - con: interferes with impartiality ($$ to run) </li></ul><ul><li>judicial appointment - governor or state legislature appoints judges - pro: avoid poorly informed voters - con: may appoint supporters </li></ul><ul><li>merit selection - committee nominates judges </li></ul>
  10. 10. Federal Judges <ul><li>Article III of Constitution gives their power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cases of federal law or state vs. state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. US District Courts 2. US Appellate Courts 3. Supreme Court (last appellate court) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Supreme Court <ul><li>President nominates and Senate approves </li></ul><ul><li>only hears 100-150 cases each year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>writ of certiorari - Courts requests a case </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Supreme Court Decisions <ul><li>uphold or overrule decision of lower court </li></ul><ul><li>majority opinion - explain position of majority </li></ul><ul><li>dissenting opinion - explains position of minority </li></ul><ul><li>concurring opinion - agree with majority but for different reasons </li></ul>