How to build your own Quadrocopter

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A presentation held at SAPO CodeBits 2010 (http://codebits.eu/intra/s/session/114), describing the operational theory and basics as well as the building blocks of a remote-controlled model quadrocopter.

A video of this talk can be found here: http://videos.sapo.pt/HZSIm9FUl3D3bfqmVcsv

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How to build your own Quadrocopter

  1. 1. How to build your own QuadrocopterHow to build your own Quadrocopter Lenz Grimmer <lenz@grimmer.com> http://www.lenzg.net/ Twitter: @lenzgr SAPO Codebits 2010, Lisbon, Portugal
  2. 2. OutlineOutline ● Basics / Operational Theory ● Building Blocks ● References/URLs ● Demo
  3. 3. FeaturesFeatures ● A “VTOL UAV” ● Simple to build ● Simple mechanics ● No servos required ● Parts Availability / Accessibility
  4. 4. Lab/Tech RequirementsLab/Tech Requirements ● Soldering station ● Powerdrill / Dremel ● Others (Screwdrivers, Saws, Files) ● Power supply
  5. 5. Operational theoryOperational theory ● Physics ● Flight Dynamics ● Movement / Control
  6. 6. PhysicsPhysics ● 2 pairs of counter rotating props ● Compensate rotary momentum ● Different RPMs = different thrust
  7. 7. Flight DynamicsFlight Dynamics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flight_dynamics_with_text.png
  8. 8. Movement/ControlMovement/Control ● Regular remote control ● Behaves like a helicopter ● Nick / Roll / Yaw ● Up / Down ● “X”, “+” or “Y” flight configuration ● Pilot skills
  9. 9. Momentum CompensationMomentum Compensation
  10. 10. Yaw/RotationYaw/Rotation
  11. 11. Vertical MovementVertical Movement F F FF m·g 4⋅F=m⋅g 4⋅Fm⋅g 4⋅Fm⋅g Ascending Descending
  12. 12. Nick/RollNick/Roll F1 F2
  13. 13. Nick/RollNick/Roll F1 F2
  14. 14. Building blocksBuilding blocks ● Frame ● Motors ● Propellers ● Battery ● Electronics
  15. 15. FrameFrame
  16. 16. FrameFrame ● Center plate ● Arms ● Battery mount ● Motor mounts ● Protective dome ● Landing gear
  17. 17. PropellersPropellers
  18. 18. PropellersPropellers ● Diameter: 8, 10, 12 inch ● 2 blades ● Directly attached to motor ● 2 each rotating CW and CCW ● Proper balance reduces vibrations
  19. 19. MotorsMotors
  20. 20. Brushed MotorBrushed Motor + -
  21. 21. Brushless MotorBrushless Motor Phase A Phase C Phase B
  22. 22. MotorsMotors ● Brushless ● Outrunner vs. Inrunner ● Direct drive (no transmission) ● 3-phase powered ● Requires special BL controller ● Weight (g) / RPMs/V / max. current (A)
  23. 23. Brushless ControllerBrushless Controller
  24. 24. Brushless ControllerBrushless Controller ● Converts DC power to 3-phase AC signal ● Drive motor to indicated RPMs ● Controller speed is essential ● Receives RPM info from receiver/control unit ● PWM signal ● I2C ● UART (Serial)
  25. 25. BatteryBattery
  26. 26. BatteryBattery ● Lithium Polymer (LiPo) (or Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePo4) ● Lightweight ● High currents and capacity ● Handle with care! ● Voltage / Capacity / Max discharge / Weight
  27. 27. Power Distribution / WiringPower Distribution / Wiring Battery Motor BLC Sensors Motor BLC Motor BLC Motor BLC RX Central Control
  28. 28. Power DistributionPower Distribution
  29. 29. Power DistributionPower Distribution ● Supply the BLCs / Motors ● Supply the central controller / Sensors ● Support high currents ● Main switch or battery plugs ● Wires or PCB
  30. 30. Transmitter / ReceiverTransmitter / Receiver
  31. 31. Transmitter / ReceiverTransmitter / Receiver ● Frequencies: 35/40 MHz, 2.4 GHz ● Minimum: 4 channels ● Receiver output: PPM (sum signal) or individual channels from receiver (PWM)
  32. 32. SensorsSensors
  33. 33. SensorsSensors ● IMU ● Gyroscopes (Rotation) ● Accelerometers (Movement) ● Optional ● Pressure Sensor (Altitude) ● Compass/Magnetometer (Attitude) ● GPS (Location)
  34. 34. Central ControllerCentral Controller
  35. 35. Central ControllerCentral Controller ● Collects sensor data ● Receives control commands ● Calculates orientation/location ● Sends updated motor commands to BLCs ● Microcontroller (e.g. Arduino, ARM...)
  36. 36. Configuration SoftwareConfiguration Software
  37. 37. AccessoriesAccessories ● Camera mount ● Zigbee for telemetry data ● Video goggles
  38. 38. Legal aspectsLegal aspects ● Check local laws for regulations ● Consider getting an insurance
  39. 39. Practical tipsPractical tips ● Double-check propeller positions and directions ● Double-check Flight Control orientation ● Avoid vibration where possible for stable flight ● Test outside, away from people ● Don't attach the propellers on the motors until everything is tested!
  40. 40. References / URLsReferences / URLs ● Forums ● RCGroups - http://www.rcgroups.com/ ● DIYDrones - http://diydrones.com/ ● Portuguese Forum - http://forum.rcmpt.com/ ● Projects ● Mikrokopter - http://www.mikrokopter.de/ ● UAVP-NG - http://ng.uavp.ch/ ● Arm-O-Kopter - http://www.armokopter.at/ ● Arducopter - http://code.google.com/p/arducopter/ ● Aeroquad - http://aeroquad.com/ ● KK-Multicopter - http://kkmulticopter.com/ ● OpenPilot - http://openpilot.org/ ● Quadrocopter and Tricopter Info Mega Link Index http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1097355
  41. 41. References / URLsReferences / URLs ● Parts ● HobbyKing - http://www.hobbyking.com/ ● SparkFun - http://www.sparkfun.com/ ● DIYdrones - http://store.diydrones.com/

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