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How to build your own Quadrocopter

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A presentation held at SAPO CodeBits 2010 (http://codebits.eu/intra/s/session/114), describing the operational theory and basics as well as the building blocks of a remote-controlled model ...

A presentation held at SAPO CodeBits 2010 (http://codebits.eu/intra/s/session/114), describing the operational theory and basics as well as the building blocks of a remote-controlled model quadrocopter.

A video of this talk can be found here: http://videos.sapo.pt/HZSIm9FUl3D3bfqmVcsv

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How to build your own Quadrocopter Presentation Transcript

  • 1. How to build your own Quadrocopter Lenz Grimmer <lenz@grimmer.com> http://www.lenzg.net/ Twitter: @lenzgr SAPO Codebits 2010, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2. Outline ● Basics / Operational Theory ● Building Blocks ● References/URLs ● Demo
  • 3. Features ● A “VTOL UAV” ● Simple to build ● Simple mechanics ● No servos required ● Parts Availability / Accessibility
  • 4. Lab/Tech Requirements ● Soldering station ● Powerdrill / Dremel ● Others (Screwdrivers, Saws, Files) ● Power supply
  • 5. Operational theory ● Physics ● Flight Dynamics ● Movement / Control
  • 6. Physics ● 2 pairs of counter rotating props ● Compensate rotary momentum ● Different RPMs = different thrust
  • 7. Flight Dynamics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flight_dynamics_with_text.png
  • 8. Movement/Control ● Regular remote control ● Behaves like a helicopter ● Nick / Roll / Yaw ● Up / Down ● “X”, “+” or “Y” flight configuration ● Pilot skills
  • 9. Momentum Compensation
  • 10. Yaw/Rotation
  • 11. Vertical Movement F F Ascending 4⋅F m⋅g F F 4⋅F =m⋅g 4⋅F m⋅g Descending m·g
  • 12. Nick/Roll F1 F2
  • 13. Nick/Roll F1 F2
  • 14. Building blocks ● Frame ● Motors ● Propellers ● Battery ● Electronics
  • 15. Frame
  • 16. Frame ● Center plate ● Arms ● Battery mount ● Motor mounts ● Protective dome ● Landing gear
  • 17. Propellers
  • 18. Propellers ● Diameter: 8, 10, 12 inch ● 2 blades ● Directly attached to motor ● 2 each rotating CW and CCW ● Proper balance reduces vibrations
  • 19. Motors
  • 20. Brushed Motor + -
  • 21. Brushless Motor Phase A Phase C Phase B
  • 22. Motors ● Brushless ● Outrunner vs. Inrunner ● Direct drive (no transmission) ● 3-phase powered ● Requires special BL controller ● Weight (g) / RPMs/V / max. current (A)
  • 23. Brushless Controller
  • 24. Brushless Controller ● Converts DC power to 3-phase AC signal ● Drive motor to indicated RPMs ● Controller speed is essential ● Receives RPM info from receiver/control unit ● PWM signal ● I2C ● UART (Serial)
  • 25. Battery
  • 26. Battery ● Lithium Polymer (LiPo) (or Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePo4) ● Lightweight ● High currents and capacity ● Handle with care! ● Voltage / Capacity / Max discharge / Weight
  • 27. Power Distribution / Wiring Motor Motor Motor Motor Sensors RX BLC BLC BLC BLC Central Control Battery
  • 28. Power Distribution
  • 29. Power Distribution ● Supply the BLCs / Motors ● Supply the central controller / Sensors ● Support high currents ● Main switch or battery plugs ● Wires or PCB
  • 30. Transmitter / Receiver
  • 31. Transmitter / Receiver ● Frequencies: 35/40 MHz, 2.4 GHz ● Minimum: 4 channels ● Receiver output: PPM (sum signal) or individual channels from receiver (PWM)
  • 32. Sensors
  • 33. Sensors ● IMU ● Gyroscopes (Rotation) ● Accelerometers (Movement) ● Optional ● Pressure Sensor (Altitude) ● Compass/Magnetometer (Attitude) ● GPS (Location)
  • 34. Central Controller
  • 35. Central Controller ● Collects sensor data ● Receives control commands ● Calculates orientation/location ● Sends updated motor commands to BLCs ● Microcontroller (e.g. Arduino, ARM...)
  • 36. Configuration Software
  • 37. Accessories ● Camera mount ● Zigbee for telemetry data ● Video goggles
  • 38. Legal aspects ● Check local laws for regulations ● Consider getting an insurance
  • 39. Practical tips ● Double-check propeller positions and directions ● Double-check Flight Control orientation ● Avoid vibration where possible for stable flight ● Test outside, away from people ● Don't attach the propellers on the motors until everything is tested!
  • 40. References / URLs ● Forums ● RCGroups - http://www.rcgroups.com/ ● DIYDrones - http://diydrones.com/ ● Portuguese Forum - http://forum.rcmpt.com/ ● Projects ● Mikrokopter - http://www.mikrokopter.de/ ● UAVP-NG - http://ng.uavp.ch/ ● Arm-O-Kopter - http://www.armokopter.at/ ● Arducopter - http://code.google.com/p/arducopter/ ● Aeroquad - http://aeroquad.com/ ● KK-Multicopter - http://kkmulticopter.com/ ● OpenPilot - http://openpilot.org/ ● Quadrocopter and Tricopter Info Mega Link Index http://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1097355
  • 41. References / URLs ● Parts ● HobbyKing - http://www.hobbyking.com/ ● SparkFun - http://www.sparkfun.com/ ● DIYdrones - http://store.diydrones.com/