Electric Energy

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  • *little blue arrows illustrate FORCE
  • Which elements would NOT hold their electrons tightly? (those with unpaired electrons or unfilled energy shells)
  • *NOT flow or constant movement of electrical energy GOOD CONDUCTORS = metals, water
  • Antistatic mats and wrist strap Electricity always "flows downhill" - it looks for a "ground" or neutral - The planet is a good conductor, and it's huge, so it makes a handy return path for electrons. "Ground" in the power-distribution grid is literally the ground that's all around you when you are walking outside. It is the dirt, rocks, groundwater and so on.
  • Electric Energy

    1. 1. Electrical Energy What is it? How does it work? Where does it come from?
    2. 2. Electricity <ul><li>Electricity is the movement of charged particles from one place to another. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways do you use electric energy? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Charged Particles <ul><li>Two types of charged atoms (ions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cations : positive (+) missing electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anions : negative (-) has extra electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ions exert forces on one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wool cap (hair stands up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socks in dryer (stick together) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightning strikes (splits/burns a tree) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like particles REPEL each other </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite charges ATTRACT each other </li></ul>+ + - +
    4. 4. Electrical Forces <ul><li>The amount of electric force: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>directly relates to the magnitude of the charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inversely relates to the distance between two objects </li></ul></ul>As the number of ions in an object increases ... ...the electrical force between those objects increases . As the distance increases ... ...the electrical force decreases . + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
    5. 5. Electric Fields <ul><li>Electric fields are areas in which forces are exerted around an electrical charge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are always perpendicular to the object's surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>positive (+) ions exert forces outward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>negative (-) ions exert forces inward </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Static Electricity <ul><li>Some atoms hold their electrons more tightly than others. </li></ul><ul><li>When materials touch, loosely-held electrons can be transferred. </li></ul><ul><li>An accumulation of charges will then exert a force on other nearby objects. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Induction <ul><li>This process is called induction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons are rearranged when a negative field repels the electrons of the nearby object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When electrons move away, an &quot;induced&quot; positive electric field results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A strong enough charge in one object can create an electric field nearby in an otherwise neutral object. </li></ul>PhET App
    8. 8. Electrostatic Discharge <ul><li>A shock from static electricity involves a momentary discharge of electric energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by an accumulation of - charges (electrons) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT a flow or constant movement of electric energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes visible as an arc of electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only occur between good conductors </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Electrical Conduction <ul><li>Conductors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow electrons to move along their surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most metals (copper, aluminum, iron, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is also a good conductor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your body is made of 50 - 70% water, so YOU are a pretty good conductor of electricity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Electrical Insulation <ul><li>Insulators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hold their electrons tightly in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>don't allow electrons to move/flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most types of gas (including air) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plastic, wood, glass, ceramic </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Electrostatic Shock <ul><li>Electric arcs can be dangerous! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Startling and painful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can ignite fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage electronic equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>humidity reduces static </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>devices can help eliminate </li></ul></ul></ul>

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