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Introduction to CALL

Introduction to CALL

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  • Lecture 1 : Introduction
    • Introduction to CALL
      • Definition
      • CALL Applications/Materials
      • History of CALL
      • Disciplines Related to CALL
      • CAI
    • Generic CALL
      • Microsoft Words
    • Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was the expression agreed upon at the 1983 TESOL convention in a meeting of all interested participants.
    • This term is widely used to refer to the area of technology and second language teaching and learning despite the fact that revisions for the term are suggested regularly ( Chapelle , 2001, p. 3).
    • Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) may also be defined as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning ( Levy , 1997, p.1).
    • Given the breadth of what may go on in computer-assisted language learning (CALL), a definition of CALL that accommodates its changing nature is any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language ( Beatty , 2003, p. 7).
    • CALL has come to encompass issues of materials design , technologies , pedagogical theories and modes of instruction .
    • Materials for CALL can include those which are purpose-made for language learning and those which adapt existing computer-based materials, video and other materials ( Beatty , 2003, pp. 7-8).
    • CALL - Computer-assisted language learning, sometimes expanded as computer-aided language learning  
    • CELL -  Computer-enhanced language learning: suggests the computer's role is to make learning better   
    • TELL - Technology-enhanced language learning: this accommodates more than just computers, often bringing in video and seeing the computer as just one part of a larger system. It is increasingly popular as a generic term
    • TALL -  Technology-assisted language learning: variant of CALL and TELL
    • CALI -   Computer-assisted language instruction: with "instruction" in it, it's more teaching oriented 
    • CBLT -  Computer-based language training: views elements of language learning as "training" and tends to use an approach with definable, measurable objectives
    • IT and ICT -  Information Technology/Information and Communication Technologies are common acronyms outside of language teaching, particularly in Europe; sometimes this is presented as IT or ICT for LT (Language Teaching)
    • NBLT - Network-Based Language Teaching: focuses on computer-mediated communication and the web
    • Two distinct types of Applications or materials for CALL
      • Generic Software Application
      • CALL Software Application
    • Generic Applications
      • Multi-purpose programs NOT designed for language learning and teaching’
      • E.g. – MS Words, MS Power Point, MS Excel
        • Writing, quizzes, teaching
      • Computer-mediated-communication (CMC) E-mail, weblog, chat, discussion group, SMS etc
        • Writing, grammar, speaking, listening
      • Web-Browser – using the World Wide Web for Language teaching and learning
      • Authoring Package – Macromedia Flash, Director, ToolBook, Authorware (can be used for any subjects)
    • Generic
    • Adaptation of existing computer-based materials, videos and others.
    • Extremely useful in language teaching when used in well-designed activities which seek to apply aspects of the functionality of the software to language learning situations.
      • For example, the use of a word-processor to encourage drafting, critical reflection and editing is an excellent use of generic software to further a number of language learning objectives.
    • CALL Software Application
      • Programs designed specifically to promote language learning
      • D esigned to promote explicit or implied language learning objectives and are usually based on the software authors' beliefs about the ways in which students learn languages.
    • Offer support in the acquisition of knowledge about language and in the application of that knowledge both in discrete and in mixed skill activities.
    • Can be content-specific in that the teacher cannot change the linguistic content or the format of the activities which seek to teach that content.
      • Multimedia software supplied on CD-ROM is content-specific because it is impossible to make any changes to it
    • CALL software applications can also be content-free in that the teacher can provide the content which the software then uses as data for the pre-programmed activities
    • Example:
      • Wida’s Authoring Suite :
        • http://www.wida.co.uk/frame.htm
      • Hot Potato
        • http://www.englishquizzes.prv.pl
      • WinCALIS
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    • There are many other easy-to-use authoring packages, for example:
    • JClic : A freeware application, formerly know simply as CLIC, developed by Francesc Busquets, for the development of multimedia activities for language learners. With JClic you can create different types of activities: puzzles, associations, crosswords, identification activities, exploration activities, open-ended answers, multiple choice, etc.
    • ContentGenerator : Flash -based tools for the generation of quizzes, games and other applications.
    • Hot Potatoes : This software was especially developed to create Web-based language exercises, including multiple choice, gap-filling, matching, jumbled sentences, crosswords and short text entry. It is used extensively on websites that provide interactive exercises and tests. Visit the Hot Potatoes website to find out more, download the software and see lots of examples: http://hotpot.uvic.ca . See Winke & MacGregor (2001) for a review of Hot Potatoes .
    • MaxAuthor , an authoring system used to create the Critical Language Series series of Web materials and CD-ROMs at the University of Arizona. It is available free of charge.
    • Quandary , a package from the Hot Potatoes team (see above). What is an Action Maze ?
    • Quia : Includes lots of ready-made examples in foreign languages and a variety of other subjects - all submitted by keen registered users.
    • TaskMagic by mdlsoft.co.uk is another easy-to-use authoring package, ideally suited for creating exercises suitable for children of secondary school age. It includes a range of multiple-choice, gap-filling and matching exercises, including exercises containing audio stiumuli.
    • SpellMaster , a simple authoring package for creating vocabulary exercises.
    • Vokabel : Vocabulary Training Exercises. Choose an exisiting quiz of create your own.
    • Crossword Puzzles :
      • Instant Online Crossword Puzzle Maker at http://www.puzzle-maker.com/CW/ .
      • Here's another one, called EclipseCrossword: http://www.greeneclipsesoftware.com/eclipsecrossword/ .
    • 1960s and 70s
      • Confined to universities with prestigious computer science department
      • Only on big mainframe computers
      • The PLATO Project (1960, University of Illinois)
        • Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations
        • A drill & practice materials – more on vocabulary and grammar drill
      • TICCIT project (1971, Brigham Young University) (Time-Shared, Interactive, Computer Controlled Information Television)
        • Combined TV and computer
    • 1980s
      • Microcomputer boom
        • Apple the most popular
      • Boom in CALL as well
      • CALL reached the masses
      • The professional associations CALICO (1983) & EUROCALL (1986) are established
      • Teachers were more involved in CALL design
      • Word-processing came into the picture
      • Hypercard & Storyboard
        • An authoring system was popular
        • Text-production (non-linear)
        • Reconstruct a text, word by word,
    • 1990s
      • Advent of the Web, the Internet, the world wide network of networks
      • Publically available in 1993
      • In Malaysia probably around 1996
      • Websites
      • Email
      • Discussion groups
      • Chats
    • 2000s
      • Broadband becomes more widely available, opening up new possibilities for delivering audio and video materials via the Web.
      • Blogs and podcasts appear.
      • You Tube etc
      • And many more technologies will appear
      • Thus, CALL will evolve, as technologies advances
  • Disciplines Related to CALL Educational Technology Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Artificial Intelligence Computational Linguistics Corpus Linguistics Psychology Human-Computer Interaction Instructional Technology and Design Applied Linguistics Computer-Assisted Assessment
    • The bigger term
    • Traditional Term
        • Computers are used ‘to guide the user through a prescribed course of learning and testing.
        • The computer assumes the role of teacher, asking questions and assessing the user’s responses
      • It refers to the use of computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction .
      • All are approaches to present topics and test students’ understanding.
    • Drills and Practice
      • Exercises for practice
    • Tutorials
      • Learning points
    • Simulation
      • Real situations (e.g. flight simulations)
    • Problem Solving
      • Series of problems and questions to be solved
    • Instructional Games
      • Learning via games
    • Test
      • Online TOEFL etc.
    • All types of programs can be combined into one courseware or websites
  • http://a4esl.org/q/h/mc001-ck.html
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  • Please visit the blog for today’s lecture notes