SOFTWARES IN LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS Ask not what computers can do for language teaching; instead, ask what you can do for language teaching using computers Takako Kawabata Aichi Gakuin University
COMPUTER ACCELERATED INSTRUCTION (CAI) Present data in a straight forward manner or fill in therole of a tutor in which the student is tested on his abilityto understand meanings. The term CALI (Computer-assisted language instruction) was in use before CALL,reflecting its origins as a subset of the general term CAI(COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION).CALI fell out of favour among language teachers,however, as it appeared to imply a teacher-centredapproach (instructional), whereas language teachers aremore inclined to prefer a student-centred approach,focusing on learning rather than instruction. CALL beganto replace CALI in the early 1980s (Davies & Higgins 1982: p. 3)
• COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) Originated from CAI. It is a symbiotic relationship betweenTechnology and Pedagogy ( Principles and Methods ofInstruction). Computer Assisted Language Learning lays strongemphasis on self-learning and has two features: Interactive andIndividualized Learning.
COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL)• Founded in the 1960s, Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is adequately described as the design, development and use of computing resources to promote improved language learning environments.• Related branches of CALL include: Technology Enhanced Language Learning; Computer Aided Language Testing; Online Language Instruction, Computer-Aided Learning; and more recently Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition (CASLA).
COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL) Warschauer (1996) and Warschauer & Healey (1998) took a differentapproach. Rather than focusing on the typology of CALL, they identified threehistorical phases of CALL, classified according to their underlying Pedagogicaland Methodological Approaches• STRUCTURAL (1970S): Formal representational systems that focused on drill and practice exercises. Learner accuracy was the primary learning outcome. Users assume a passive learner role.• COMMUNICATIVE (1980S): Cognitive-driven systems (influenced by memory models and schema representations) that promoted communicative, interactive exercises. Learner fluency was the primary learning outcome. Users assume a reactive learner role.• INTEGRATIVE (1990S - PRESENT): Socio-cognitive systems (reflecting the importance of social and cognitive interaction) that promoted authentic discourse. Here the learner is accorded greater autonomy and agency in the learning process. Users assume a more proactive role.
CALL ACTIVITIES - MULTIPLE-CHOICE & TRUE/FALSE QUIZZES - GAP-FILLING EXERCISE/CLOZE - MATCHING - RE-ORDERING/SEQUENCING - CROSSWORD PUZZLES - GAMES - SIMULATIONS - WRITING & WORD-PROCESSING - CONCORDANCING - WEB QUESTS/SEARCHING - WEB PUBLISHING- ONLINE COMMUNICATION (SYNCHRONOUS AND ASYNCHRONOUS)
• CALL SPECIFIC SOFTWARE: Applications designed to develop and facilitate language learning, such as CD-ROMs, web-based interactive language learning exercises/quizzes (see CD-ROM examples for language learning)• -GENERIC SOFTWARE: Applications designed for general purposes, such as word- processors (Word), presentation software (PowerPoint, see an e-book made by students "Many Moons“), and spreadsheet (Excel), that can be used to support language learning (see examples of usingExcel for language learning & teaching) *Also see Microsoft Office Online Templates• WEB BASED LEARNING PROGRAMS: Online dictionaries, online encyclopedias, online concordancers, news/magazine sites, e-texts, web-quests, web publishing, blog, wiki, etc.• COMPUTER MEDIATED COMUNICATION (CMC) PROGRAMS: SYNCHRONOUS. Online Chat. ASYNCHRONOUS. E-Mail, Discussion Forum, Message Board
TRADITIONAL CALL PROGRAMS• Traditional CALL programs presented a stimulus to which the learner had to provide a response. In early CALL programs the stimulus was in the form of text presented on screen, and the only way in which the learner could respond was by entering an answer at the keyboard. http://www.camsoftpartners.co.uk/clef.htm
EXPLORATIVE CALLMore recent approaches to CALL have favoured a learner-centred, explorative approach rather than a teacher-centred, drill-basedapproach to CALL. The explorative approach is characterised by the useof concordance programs in the languages classroom - an approachdescribed as Data-Driven Learning (DLL) by Tim Johns (Johns & King 1991).There are a number of concordance programs on the market,e.g. MonoConc, Concordance,Wordsmith and SCP - all of which are describedin ICT4LT Module 2.4, Using concordance programs in the modern foreignlanguages classroom: http://www.ict4lt.org/. See also Tribble & Jones (1990).The explorative approach is widely used today, including the use of Webconcordancers and other Web-based CALL activities
Multimedia CALL• Characteristics:• They create a more authentic learning environment using different media.• Language skills are easily integrated through multimedia.• Students have a high degree of control over their learning through hypermedia.• It facilitates a principle focus on the content without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form.
WEB BASED CALL• Characteristics:• A) CMC –Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Programs.• It providesauthentic synchronous and asynchronous communication channels. Language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively, and conveniently with other learners or native speakers of the target language at any time and in any place.• CMC can be carried out in several forms; it can be one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-one.• B) The Web –• Students can search through millions of files around the world within minutes to locate and access authentic materials exactly tailored to their own personal interests.• Students can use the Web to publish their texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the general public.
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS FOR CALL• EUROCALL: The leading European professional association for CALL. The ReCALL journal is published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of EUROCALL: http://www.eurocall- languages.org• CERCLES: The European Confederation of Language Centres in Higher Education. http://www.cercles.org/. CERCLES embraces a similar constituency to IALLT in North America.• CALICO: The leading North American professional association for CALL. Publishes the CALICO Journal:http://www.calico.org/• IALLT: International Association for Language Learning Technology, based in North America: http://www.iallt.org/. IALLT publishes the IALLT Journal of Language Learning Technologies and embraces a similar constituency to CERCLES in Europe.• CCALL/ACELAO: Currently in the process of establishing itself as a formal professional association in Canada. No website is available at present.• LLA: The Language Laboratory Association of Japan, also known as LET, which now embraces a wider range of language learning technologies:. http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/lla• ATELL: The Australian Association for Technology Enhanced Language Learning consortium:http://www.arts.uq.edu.au/ATELL. ATELL used to publish On-CALL, which has now merged with CALL-EJ (Japan).