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Visual principles edu711


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Visual principles edu711

  2. 2. VISUAL LITERACY • The ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages • Two routes to visual literacy: o Input Strategies / Decode • Read visuals / visual analysis skills o Output Strategies / Encode • Write visuals / expressions and communications 2
  3. 3. If you can read maps, draw a diagram or interpret these symbols, then you are visually literate. 3
  4. 4. EXAMPLE 4 Why use cutaway diagrams in the classroom? To show the key features of animals, which are often hidden. To show how engines, machines, or equipment work. To provide a vocabulary list of key terms needed in an explanation (such as "How a ... works") To write a report (such as "What are the differences between birds, mammals and dinosaurs?")
  5. 5. EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES 5 CRITICAL THINKING • Heightened awareness of hyper-mediated visual culture (media literacy) COMMUNICATION • Support effective teaching and learning
  6. 6. LEARNING & INSTRUCTION • Connection between visual imagery, sound, memory & perception o mind - cognition & senses – affective domain • Theories about how memory works o Information processing theory o Dual-coding theory 6
  7. 7. INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY – George A Miller 7 Visual & AuditoryShort Term Memory Long Term Memory Sensory & Working Selecting Organizing Visual & Language Integration
  9. 9. DUAL-CODING THEORY - Paivio • Separate memory systems for different types of information o Verbal: language systems (auditory/speech) o Imaginal: (picture, sound, taste, nonverbal thoughts & imagination) o Concrete (cat) vs. Abstract ideas/emotions (fickle) – which is easiest to remember? 9
  11. 11. ROLES OF VISUAL IN INSTRUCTION 1. Provide a concrete referent for ideas  iconic i.e. more easily to be remembered as compared to words This visual image of an apple (elma in Turkish) is the referent of the word ‘elma’ 11
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  13. 13. ROLES OF VISUAL IN INSTRUCTION 2. Motivate learners  by attracting learners’ attention and generating emotional responses 13
  14. 14. ROLES OF VISUAL IN INSTRUCTION 3. Simplify information that is difficult to understand Imagine if there are no pictures but just text First….then….swing….. 14
  15. 15. ROLES OF VISUAL IN INSTRUCTION 4. Provide redundant channel  comprehend spoken and written information 15
  16. 16. EXAMPLE 16 Why use flow charts in the classroom? To plan an explanation, a procedure (instructions), a recount (such as a news story), a narrative, or an argument. (More about visual planning can be found here.) To summarize an explanation, a procedure, a recount, a narrative, or an argument. (More about visual summaries can be found here.) Examples of topics that suit flow charts include the water cycle, life cycles, how products are made, where a certain food comes from, preparation for a debate, how machines work, and so on. Flow charts are in fact one of the most useful and adaptable visual texts in the
  17. 17. 17 Why use exploded diagrams in the classroom? To show details that are otherwise hidden or hard to see in a normal (integrated) diagram. Topics might include how toys are made, how engines work, parts of a flower, etc. To name those parts (as a pictorial vocabulary list). To prepare a report or descriptive text about a topic that has many hidden (or partly hidden) details. To follow instructions to assemble equipment (such as a tent, a model plane, etc.). To follow instructions in order to build or make something from separate pieces (as in a craft activity, carpentry, dressmaking). To illustrate instructions ("How to make a model windmill") or explanations ("How insects pollinate a flower")
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  19. 19. DEVELOPING VISUAL LITERACY 1. Input strategies  Help learners to decode (read) visuals proficiently 2. Output strategies  Help learners to encode (write) visuals to express themselves and communicate with others 19
  20. 20. VISUAL LITERACY: INPUT STRATEGIES 1. Developmental effect  How learners decode visual / information depends on the age of development 20
  21. 21. VISUAL LITERACY: INPUT STRATEGIES • Younger  Literal interpretation  Parts instead of whole • Older  Summarize whole scene 21
  22. 22. VISUAL LITERACY: INPUT STRATEGIES 2. Cultural effect Usually thumbs up gesture means positive or okay But, for Balinese the thumbs-up is part of a ritual way of showing respect to someone of a higher caste 22
  23. 23. VISUAL LITERACY: INPUT STRATEGIES 3. Visual preferences  Teacher should select between the preferred visual and effective visual  Learner will not necessarily learn best from the visual they preferred  Eg colors, photos or line drawing, simple or complex 23
  24. 24. VISUAL LITERACY: OUTPUT STRATEGIES • Learners create their own visual presentation which help understanding  using camera / camcorder etc.  sequencing – ability to arrange visuals in logical order 24
  25. 25. TYPES OF VISUALS FOR CLASSROOMS USE • Pictures o Photographic or photograph-like o Represent people, places and things o Two dimensional o Can be 3D by providing different angles o Sequential pictures suggest motion 25
  26. 26. TYPES OF VISUALS FOR CLASSROOMS USE • Drawings o Includes sketches and diagrams o Arrangements of lines can represent person, places, things and concept o Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Smart Art 26
  27. 27. TYPES OF VISUALS FOR CLASSROOMS USE • Charts o Representations of abstract relationships o Chronologies, quantities, hierarchies o Should express one major concept or concept relationship 27
  28. 28. TYPES OF VISUALS FOR CLASSROOMS USE • Graphs o Representation of numerical data o Illustrate relationships among units of data and trends over time o Major types – bar, pictorial, circle and line 28
  29. 29. TYPES OF VISUALS FOR CLASSROOMS USE • Posters o Images, lines, colors, words o Intended to capture and hold the viewer’s attention long enough to communicate a brief message, usually persuasive appeal o Must grab attention and communicate messages briefly o Purpose – stimulate interest, announcement, promote social skills 29
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  31. 31. TYPES OF VISUALS FOR CLASSROOMS USE • Cartoons o Appeal to all ages o Can be used to make or reinforce a point of instruction o Make sure the cartoons used are within the experiential and intellectual range of the students o TooDoo 31
  32. 32. PURPOSE OF VISUALS • Provide concrete referent for ideas • Visuals are iconic o They have some resemblance to what they represent o An easily remembered link to an idea 32
  33. 33. PURPOSE OF VISUALS • Make abstract ideas concrete • Motivate learners • Direct attention (visual pointers) • Repeat information • Recall prior learning • Reduce learning effort 33
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  36. 36. SERIES OF DESIGN DECISION Visual Design Element Visual Design Pattern Visual Design Arrangement Visual Element Verbal Element Realistic Analogic Organization Letter style Colour Capitals Number of style Size Spacing Alignment Style Balance Shape Colour scheme Colour appeal Add Appeals Surprise Texture Interaction Proximity Directionals Figure-ground contrast Consistency 36
  37. 37. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN 1. Elements – selecting the verbal/visual elements to be incorporated into display 2. Pattern – choosing an underlying pattern for the elements of the display 3. Arrangement – arranging the individual element within the underlying pattern 37
  38. 38. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : ELEMENTS • Visual elements / categories o Realistic o Analogical o Organizational o Relational o Transformational o Interpretive 38
  39. 39. ELEMENTS : VISUAL ELEMENTS 1. Realistic Visuals o Show the actual object under study ABSTRACT REALISTIC 39
  40. 40. ELEMENTS : VISUAL ELEMENTS • Realistic visuals o The more realistic a visual is, the closer it is to the original 40
  41. 41. ELEMENTS : VISUAL ELEMENTS • Analogical visuals o Convey topic by showing something else and implying a similarity o E.g. white blood cells fighting off infection with an army attacking a stronghold 41
  42. 42. ELEMENTS : VISUAL ELEMENTS • Organizational visuals o Such as flowcharts, graphs, maps, classification charts o Show qualitative relationship among elements 42
  43. 43. ELEMENTS : VISUAL ELEMENTS • Relational visuals o Communicates quantitative relationships o Bar and pie charts, line or pictorial graphs 43
  44. 44. ELEMENTS : VISUAL ELEMENTS • Transformational visuals o Illustrates movement or change in time and space o E.g animated diagram to show a procedure 44
  45. 45. ELEMENTS : VISUAL ELEMENTS • Interpretive visuals o Illustrates theoretical or abstract relationships o E.g. the food pyramid o Help build mental models of events or processes that are invisible, abstract or both 45
  46. 46. ELEMENTS : VERBAL ELEMENTS • Capitals o Use lowercase letters o Adding capitals when it is necessary o Headlines can be in capitals but not more than 3 words 46
  47. 47. ELEMENTS : VERBAL ELEMENTS • Number of lettering styles o Not more than 2 different type styles o Limit variations (bold, italic, underline, size changes) to four 47 Two roads diverge in a yellow wood And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could
  48. 48. ELEMENTS : VERBAL ELEMENTS • Colour of lettering o The lettering color should contrast with the background color o Think about your audience.. 48 4) Colour of lettering  The lettering color should contrast with the background color  Think about your audience..
  50. 50. ELEMENTS : VERBAL ELEMENTS • Spacing between lines o Letters should be not too cramped or too widely separate o Text is most legible when separation is 1 1/2 times average letter height 50
  51. 51. ELEMENTS : VERBAL ELEMENTS • Spacing between letters o Consider ‘optical spacing’ o Estimating approximately equal amounts of with space between letters L A B W O R K 51
  52. 52. ELEMENTS : VERBAL ELEMENTS • Size of lettering o Rule of thumb: make lower case letters ½ inch high for each 10 feet of viewer distance 52
  53. 53. ELEMENTS : VERBAL ELEMENTS • Letter style o It should be consistent and harmonize with the other visual elements o Straightforward and plain style 53
  54. 54. 54 Typeface as an Expressive Form Typeface as an Expressive Form
  55. 55. ELEMENTS : ELEMENTS THAT ADD APPEALS • Surprise o Think unusual metaphor, a dramatic change of size • Texture o Use 3 dimensional visuals (if possible) o It can convey clearer idea 55
  56. 56. ELEMENTS : ELEMENTS ADD APPEAL • No effect if you visual does not capture and hold viewers attention • Techniques to provide appeal: o Style o Surprise o Texture o Interaction 56
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  58. 58. ELEMENTS : ELEMENTS THAT ADD APPEALS • Interaction • R of the ASSURE MODEL • Analyze learners State objectives Select instructional methods, media, and materials Utilize media and materials Require learner participation Evaluate and revise • Ask learners to respond visual displays by manipulating materials on the display 58
  59. 59. 59 A noun names a person, place or thing. Take a star and write your noun on it and put it near the moon
  60. 60. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : PATTERN 60 Alignment Shape Balance Style Color Scheme Color appeal
  61. 61. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : PATTERN • Alignment o Balance alignment o Same imaginary horizontal and vertical line o Viewer expend little effort making sense out of what they are seeing 61
  62. 62. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : PATTERN • Shape o Put and arrange visual into shape that familiar to learner o Simple geometric figure – circle, rectangle o Consider of the ‘Rule Of Thirds’ 62
  63. 63. Rule of Thirds  Place your important elements where these lines intersect  Good places to put things; third of the way up, third of the way in from the left  Duff places to put things; right in the middle, right at the top, right at the bottom, away in the corner 63
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  67. 67. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : PATTERN • Balance o The ‘weight’ of the elements in a display is equally distributed either horizontally or vertically 67
  68. 68. BALANCE • A psychological sense of equilibrium • Achieved when the ‘weight’ of the elements in a visual is equally distributed on each side of the axis, horizontally or vertically or both 68
  69. 69. 69 Approximate horizontal symmetry Radial symmetry Asymmetry Horizontal symmetry
  70. 70. THREE TYPES OF BALANCE 70 Balance is repeated on each side – highly symmetrical – can be boring Jarring, dynamic, but can be distracting – best to avoid Preferred – surprising but not distracting or jarring – rough equivalence of weight but use of different elements adds surprise
  71. 71. BALANCE • E-Learning 71 TEXT Graphic 1. TEXT Graphic 2. TEXTGraphic 3. Graphic Text 4.
  72. 72. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : PATTERN • Style o Simple, uncluttered o Primary color for children o Realistic color for adult 72
  73. 73. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : PATTERN • Color scheme o Consider the harmoniousness of the color – color wheel • Color appeal o Consider ‘warm’ and ‘cool’ color o Warm color – active learner, children o Cool color – thoughtful learner, adult o Consider cultural basis 73
  74. 74. Complimentary colors: any two colors that lie directly opposite each other Analogous colors: colors that lie next to each other Complimentary and Analogous colors may form pleasing combinations when used together in a display The Color Wheel 74
  75. 75. COLOR 75 Complementary Analogous Triadic
  76. 76. COLOR • Colored words or images in a monochrome display will draw eye. 76
  77. 77. COLOR Background Foreground Images and Text Highlights white dark blue red, orange light gray blue, green, black red blue light yellow, white yellow, red light blue dark blue, dark green red-orange light yellow violet, brown red 77 Effective combinations for background and images for PP slides and computer screens
  78. 78. COLOR • Consider the harmoniousness of the colors you choose • Look at the color wheel 78
  79. 79. COLOR How to choose colors • Be inspired by art and nature • Explore color palettes of templates • Use psychological associations (color and mood/meaning) o Red: passion, bloodshed, power, zeal o Blue: serenity, tranquility o Green: growth, hope, disease, terror 79
  80. 80. • Use cool color for background • Highlight important cues in warm color such as red and orange 80
  81. 81. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : ARRANGEMENT • Is equal to overall “look”. • The ideas of establishing an underlying pattern • To determine how the viewer’s eye will flow across your display • For PP, multipage handouts – consistent in arrangement of elements • Viewers will form unconsciously a set of rules about where information will appear 81
  82. 82. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : ARRANGEMENT • Proximity o Element that close to each other are related and vice versa • Directionals o Can be used to direct attention o Eye movement pattern o E.g. arrow, bold, ‘bullet’ 82
  83. 83. PROCESS OF VISUAL DESIGN : ARRANGEMENT • Figure-ground contrast o Wording should contrast to the background • Consistency o Consistent in the arrangement of the elements o Place similar element in similar location o Use same text for headlines 83
  84. 84. VISUAL DESIGN GUIDELINES • Visuals selection or production is carried out after you have determined students’ need, interests regarding the topic and decided what objective(s) you hope to achieve through the visuals 84