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Innovations and incentives in agricultural research for poor countries

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Presented by Delia Grace and Tom Randolph at the third annual conference on Agricultural Research for Development: Innovations and Incentives, Uppsala, Sweden, 26-27 September 2012 …

Presented by Delia Grace and Tom Randolph at the third annual conference on Agricultural Research for Development: Innovations and Incentives, Uppsala, Sweden, 26-27 September 2012

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  • CRP4 was submitted by IFPRI; proposal was prepared in close collaboration with ILRI, and with support from 10 other Centers and an extensive consultation process with a large number of partners from ag, health, nutr
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    • 1. Innovations and incentives inagricultural research for poor countries Delia Grace and Tom Randolph Agricultural Research for Development: Innovations & Incentives Uppsala, Sweden, 26-27 September 2012
    • 2. Outline The livestock laboratory CGIAR: science, evidence, or innovations? Case studies  Community-based tsetse control  Smallholder dairy development Innovations + incentives = impacts?
    • 3. International Livestock Research Institutemember of the CGIAR Consortium which conducts livestock, food andenvironmental research  to help alleviate poverty  and improve food security, health & nutrition,  While protecting the natural resource base. India Mali 700 full time staff-1000 total 100 scientists & researchers 54% from 22 developing countries China more than 30 scientific Vietnam disciplines 2012 budget USD 60 million Laos ILRI works with a range of Nigeria research & development partners Mozambique across 7 CGIAR research Kenya programs Ethiopia Thailand
    • 4. Agriculturefor Nutrition &HealthCGIAR Research Program 4 IFPRI ILRI BIOVERSITY CIAT CIMMYT CIP ICARDA ICRAF ICRISAT IITA IWMI WORLDFISH
    • 5. Livestock support livelihoods• In many developing countries, especially SSA, livestock contributes at least 40% agriculture GDP• Around one billion poor people depend on livestock: 70% of the rural and 25% urban poor. Dependency: 12-50%• Livestock high value and rapidly growing sector Projected global consumption in 2050 Rosegrant et al., 2009
    • 6. Livestock nourish billions• Over half developing world’s food (crops and livestock) comes from population (millions) mixed crop livestock systems - livestock are integral• Livestock provide food for over 480.3 295.1 830 million food insecure people: 6-36% of protein and 2-12% of 1099.2 calories• Small amounts of animal source foods make a huge difference to nutrition (cognitive development, maternal health) 2674
    • 7. Livestock bring lethal gifts …..• Low income countries: • Zoonoses & diseases emerged from animals 26% IDB, 10% total burden• High income countries: • Zoonoses & emerged 0.7% IDB, 0.02% total burden
    • 8. Livestock have a long shadow… • 31% of total freshwater use is for is for livestock • Livestock impact on climate change- 18%? • Livestock compete for other land uses Additional grains 1048 million tonnes more to 2050 HumanLivestock consumption430 million MTMonogastrics mostly 458 million MT Biofuels 160 million MT
    • 9. Growing, urbanising, hungry populations Photo by NYT
    • 10. Impacts of the CGIAR 65% of the total area planted to the world’s 10 most important food crops is sown to improved varieties The overall economic benefits of the CGIAR estimated at US$14 - $120 billion For every $1 invested in CGIAR research, $9 worth of additional food is produced in the developing world Without CGIAR research developing countries would produce 8% less food and have converted12 million more hectares to farm land Around 80,000 students, scientists and professionals have benefited from capacity-building (The CGIAR at 40 and beyond, 2011)
    • 11. Evolution of the CGIAR IMPACT EVIDENCE SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY
    • 12. 2 casestudies
    • 13. Case study 1:Innovations that fail Community-based tsetse control  Trypanosomosis: the most important disease of cattle wherever present  Spread by the unusual tsetse fly  Also causes sleeping sickness  Controlled initially by bush clearing, game culling, areal spraying insecticides…
    • 14. What was done? Community based tsetse Innovation  Screens that kill tsetse Science showed  Tryps the most important disease. 10% infected.   production by 15%  Screens cheap, effective  High satisfaction  High use (until..)
    • 15. Often triedAlways worksNever sustained 15
    • 16. Case study 1:Innovation that succeeds  Kenya smallholder dairy Milk: 2nd largest item of urban household expenditure Milk: Per capita daily consumption of 0.2-0.4 kg 3.5% of Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 14% of the agricultural GDP. Smallholder farmers produce around 80% of the total production
    • 17. What was done? Training informal milk sellers  Innovation  Training, branding, certification of informal sector Fail to meet standards  Metal milk cans, quality checks 100%  Science showed  Importance of smallholder dairy  Milk hazards high but health risks low  Formal milk no safer than informal Raw milk Pasteurised  Training hawkers increases safety
    • 18. Impacts of training informal actors Policy change  Informal sector recognised Impacts  Increase in milk handled  Around 80% actors trained  Around 50% licensed  $33 million USD annual benefits  Vibrant smallholder sector  Major donor investment
    • 19. Some differences between case studiesCommunity-based tsetse control Training informal sector milk sellers Novel behaviour  Socially endorsed behaviour Collective action required  Individual action required Risk averse target group  Entrepreneurial target group With success, motivation fades  With success, motivation remains Distant link with behaviour and  Clearlink between behaviour and income income Innovation in a static market  Innovation in dynamic market
    • 20. LESSONS AROUND INOVATION & INCENTIVE FAILURE IS GETTING EASIER TO PREDICT – but not necessarily success INNOVATIONS ARE THE LEVER – but often succeed in the project context but not in the real world PICKING WINNERS IS WISE BUT PORTOFOLIO SHOULD BE WIDER– strong markets and growing sectors drive uptake INCENTIVES ARE CENTRAL: value chain actors need to capture visible benefits POLICY: not creating enabling policy, so much as stopping the dead hand of disabling policy and predatory policy-implementers  “think like a systemicist, act like a reductionist”
    • 21. t“Thank you for your attention”

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