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Promoting synergy among professionals
Transforming livestock productivity
and trade in sub-Saharan Africa
Jimmy Smith, Dir...
Overview
• Animals are essential for food,
nutrition and health of people and the planet
> Animal-source food provides inc...
Overview (cont)
• Filling the gaps?
> Actual: Gaps filled by non-professionals

• Closing the gaps:
Professional synergies...
Animals are essential
4
Africa’s assets: One billion livestock

250,000,000

Number, millions

200,000,000

150,000,000

Shoats
Cattle

100,000,00...
Four out of 5 of the highest value
global commodities are livestock
Developing-country gains in meat consumption
outpace those in developed countries

FAO 2006
Global trade of livestock products
(million tonnes, milk excluded)

Adapted from FAO 2012
Global trade of livestock products
(million tonnes, milk included)

Adapted from FAO 2012
Key points about
smallholder competitiveness
• Smallholders will continue to supply most of the livestock products
in most...
Opportunities and challenges
in the livestock sector
Provides food and nutritional security
BUT overconsumption can cause ...
Minding the gaps
Identifying the gaps
• Productivity gaps
> Precludes stable market participation
> Underpinned by health, breeds, feeds

•...
Identifying the gaps
• Productivity gaps
> Precludes stable market participation
> Underpinned by health, breeds, feeds

•...
Productivity gaps: Milk
Some developing country regions have gaps of up to 430% in milk

FAO 2006
Animal disease is a key constraint in Africa
•

Animal disease is a key constraint:
Remove it and animal productivity incr...
Animal disease costs billions annually
8
7

Billion $ lost yearly

6

Africa
South Asia

5
4
South Asia
3

Africa

2
1
0

...
Zoonoses
Costs of emerging zoonotic disease outbreaks
Period

Cost (US$ billion)
(conservative estimates)

1998−2009

38.7

2002−20...
The reporting gap: Significant losses to disease
(mostly unreported)
The vet gap

21
Orders of
magnitude
Tens of millions
- Animals
- Livestock
keepers
50−100
- Public vets
- Private vets

22
Gap filling?

ILRI Spearheading a
New Way Forward
Reality: Productivity gap is filled by imports
(Africa is a net importer of animal-source foods)
• Production will not
kee...
Reality: Reporting gap
is filled by rumour and media
Reality: Human resource gap
is filled by non-professionals
Around 80% of farmers rely on other health service providers

B...
Closing the gaps
Ideal: Professional synergies close gaps
One Health
• Medical & veterinary
• People, animals,
plants, ecosystems
• Inter-d...
Benefits of One Health
• Improving animal and human health globally
> Collaboration among all the health sciences

• Meeti...
Example: Avian influenza response
In Nigeria and other countries, vets and medics shared
resources when responding to dise...
Reducing the animal and human disease burden
20th century vet
• Focus on disease
and treatment
• Public service seen
as ma...
What is ILRI doing to support One Health?
Conducting integrated
human & livestock
disease research &
capacity development ...
Take-home messages
• Rapid, demand-driven growth of Africa’s livestock
sector depends on animal health and provides
new op...
Better lives through livestock
ilri.org

The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distri...
Productivity gap: Meat

Biomass is calculated as inventory x average liveweight.
Output is given as carcass weight.
FAO 20...
The reporting gap

Source: HealthMap

Africa
•
•
•
•

253 million SLU
25 million lost annually
12-13 million from notifiab...
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Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa

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Presented by Jimmy Smith, Director General, ILRI at the Veterinary Council of Nigeria & Nigeria Veterinary Medical Association Colloquium, Abuja, Nigeria, 12 November 2013


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Promoting synergy among professionals: Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa

  1. 1. Promoting synergy among professionals Transforming livestock productivity and trade in sub-Saharan Africa Jimmy Smith, Director General International Livestock Research Institute Veterinary Council of Nigeria & Nigeria Veterinary Medical Association Colloquium Abuja, Nigeria, 12 November 2013
  2. 2. Overview • Animals are essential for food, nutrition and health of people and the planet > Animal-source food provides income, nutrition > Smallholder production is key > Opportunities and challenges • Minding the gaps: Livestock productivity > Productivity gaps are large – Health gaps are an important component » Health provider gaps underlie health gaps
  3. 3. Overview (cont) • Filling the gaps? > Actual: Gaps filled by non-professionals • Closing the gaps: Professional synergies > Ideal: Gaps filled by professional synergies?
  4. 4. Animals are essential 4
  5. 5. Africa’s assets: One billion livestock 250,000,000 Number, millions 200,000,000 150,000,000 Shoats Cattle 100,000,000 Pigs 50,000,000 0 Western Africa East Africa Northern Middle Africa Southern Africa Africa FAO 2013
  6. 6. Four out of 5 of the highest value global commodities are livestock
  7. 7. Developing-country gains in meat consumption outpace those in developed countries FAO 2006
  8. 8. Global trade of livestock products (million tonnes, milk excluded) Adapted from FAO 2012
  9. 9. Global trade of livestock products (million tonnes, milk included) Adapted from FAO 2012
  10. 10. Key points about smallholder competitiveness • Smallholders will continue to supply most of the livestock products in most developing countries – but productivity needs to increase • There will be different trajectories of livestock growth, with strongest dynamics in Asia • Increasingly in many regions, smallholders will commercialize their operations and produce for markets • Demand for animal health inputs will increase 10
  11. 11. Opportunities and challenges in the livestock sector Provides food and nutritional security BUT overconsumption can cause obesity Powers economic development BUT equitable development can be a challenge Improves human health BUT animal-human/emerging diseases and unsafe foods need to be addressed Enhances the environment BUT pollution, land/water degradation, GHG emissions and biodiversity losses must be greatly reduced
  12. 12. Minding the gaps
  13. 13. Identifying the gaps • Productivity gaps > Precludes stable market participation > Underpinned by health, breeds, feeds • Participation and knowledge gaps > Smallholder access to markets - Animal health, food safety, zoonoses > Translating research outputs to development outcomes • Animal health gaps > Reporting > Veterinary care
  14. 14. Identifying the gaps • Productivity gaps > Precludes stable market participation > Underpinned by health, breeds, feeds • Participation and knowledge gaps > Smallholder access to markets - Animal health, food safety, zoonoses > Translating research outputs to development outcomes • Animal health gaps > Reporting > Veterinary care
  15. 15. Productivity gaps: Milk Some developing country regions have gaps of up to 430% in milk FAO 2006
  16. 16. Animal disease is a key constraint in Africa • Animal disease is a key constraint: Remove it and animal productivity increases greatly • Risk and cost associated with animal diseases are major disincentives for investment • As livestock systems intensify in developing countries, diseases may increase Annual mortality of African livestock (About half due to preventable or curable diseases) Young Adult Cattle 22% 6% Shoat 28% 11% Poultry 70% 30% Otte & Chilonda, IAEA
  17. 17. Animal disease costs billions annually 8 7 Billion $ lost yearly 6 Africa South Asia 5 4 South Asia 3 Africa 2 1 0 Estimates from BMGF
  18. 18. Zoonoses
  19. 19. Costs of emerging zoonotic disease outbreaks Period Cost (US$ billion) (conservative estimates) 1998−2009 38.7 2002−2004 41.5 1998−2009 80.2 6 outbreaks excluding SARS − Nipah virus (Malaysia) − West Nile fever (USA) − HPAI (Asia, Europe) − BSE (US) − Rift Valley fever (Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia) − BSE (UK) costs 1997−09 only SARS Total over 12 years Giving an annual average of US$6.7 billion World Bank 2012
  20. 20. The reporting gap: Significant losses to disease (mostly unreported)
  21. 21. The vet gap 21
  22. 22. Orders of magnitude Tens of millions - Animals - Livestock keepers 50−100 - Public vets - Private vets 22
  23. 23. Gap filling? ILRI Spearheading a New Way Forward
  24. 24. Reality: Productivity gap is filled by imports (Africa is a net importer of animal-source foods) • Production will not keep pace with consumption growth Quantity (Tonnes) Africa total meat trade 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Imports Exports 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 • Africa expected to continue being a net importer of animalsourced foods • Global trade share: 3% • Intra-regional trade (2009): 10% Calculated from FAO data (FAOSTAT, 2013)
  25. 25. Reality: Reporting gap is filled by rumour and media
  26. 26. Reality: Human resource gap is filled by non-professionals Around 80% of farmers rely on other health service providers Berenil Grace 2004
  27. 27. Closing the gaps
  28. 28. Ideal: Professional synergies close gaps One Health • Medical & veterinary • People, animals, plants, ecosystems • Inter-dependence • Multi-disciplinary • Added value Humans Ecosystems Wildlife Domestic animals
  29. 29. Benefits of One Health • Improving animal and human health globally > Collaboration among all the health sciences • Meeting new global challenges through collaboration > Vet medicine, human medicine, environmental and social sciences, wildlife and public health • Developing centres of excellence for research, education and training > Vet medicine, human medicine and public health One Health Initiative Task Force: Final Report, 15 July 2008
  30. 30. Example: Avian influenza response In Nigeria and other countries, vets and medics shared resources when responding to disease outbreaks, thus reducing costs and generating better information on transmission and epidemiology Joint response Bird flu vehicle with communication equipment AICP 2011
  31. 31. Reducing the animal and human disease burden 20th century vet • Focus on disease and treatment • Public service seen as main career path • Male dominated • Vet as sole provider of health care • Reliance on clinical skills for treatment 21st century vet • Focus on health and prevention • Private sector increasingly important • Gender balanced • Vet as part of a multidisciplinary team • Technology increasingly important
  32. 32. What is ILRI doing to support One Health? Conducting integrated human & livestock disease research & capacity development in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Zambia, Senegal Supporting One Health resource centres in Vietnam, Thailand, India and Indonesia Training doctors in Kenya, dairy farmers in India and meat inspectors in Ethiopia
  33. 33. Take-home messages • Rapid, demand-driven growth of Africa’s livestock sector depends on animal health and provides new opportunities for vets • One Health provides a rationale and methodology for assuring health for people, animals and ecosystems; vets have a major role • All these opportunities need vets who can work with social scientists, ecologists, animal scientists and medics in novel partnerships that close the gaps between the veterinary profession and poor men and women livestock keepers
  34. 34. Better lives through livestock ilri.org The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI.
  35. 35. Productivity gap: Meat Biomass is calculated as inventory x average liveweight. Output is given as carcass weight. FAO 2006
  36. 36. The reporting gap Source: HealthMap Africa • • • • 253 million SLU 25 million lost annually 12-13 million from notifiable disease 80,000 reported = 99.8% un-reported

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