Innovations and incentives inagricultural research for poor countries                      Delia Grace and Tom Randolph   ...
Outline The livestock laboratory CGIAR: science, evidence, or innovations? Case studies   Community-based tsetse contr...
International Livestock Research Institutemember of the CGIAR Consortium which conducts livestock, food andenvironmental r...
Agriculturefor Nutrition &HealthCGIAR Research Program 4  IFPRI  ILRI  BIOVERSITY  CIAT  CIMMYT  CIP  ICARDA  ICRAF  ICRIS...
Livestock support livelihoods•   In many developing countries, especially SSA, livestock contributes at least    40% agric...
Livestock nourish billions• Over half developing world’s food  (crops and livestock) comes from                           ...
Livestock bring lethal gifts …..•   Low income countries:     • Zoonoses & diseases emerged from animals 26% IDB, 10% tota...
Livestock have a long shadow…          • 31% of total freshwater use is for is for livestock          • Livestock impact o...
Growing, urbanising, hungry populations                                  Photo by NYT
Impacts of the CGIAR 65% of the total area planted to the world’s 10 most important food  crops is sown to improved varie...
Evolution of the CGIAR                           IMPACT                          EVIDENCE                          SCIENCE...
2 casestudies
Case study 1:Innovations that fail Community-based tsetse control    Trypanosomosis: the most     important disease of ca...
What was done? Community based tsetse Innovation    Screens that kill tsetse Science showed    Tryps the most importan...
Often triedAlways worksNever sustained                  15
Case study 1:Innovation that succeeds    Kenya smallholder dairy Milk: 2nd largest item of    urban household    expendit...
What was done? Training informal milk sellers    Innovation       Training, branding, certification of        informal s...
Impacts of training informal actors   Policy change      Informal sector recognised   Impacts      Increase in milk ha...
Some differences between case studiesCommunity-based tsetse control        Training informal sector milk sellers   Novel ...
LESSONS AROUND INOVATION & INCENTIVE   FAILURE IS GETTING EASIER TO PREDICT – but not necessarily    success   INNOVATIO...
t“Thank you for your attention”
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Innovations and incentives in agricultural research for poor countries

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Presented by Delia Grace and Tom Randolph at the third annual conference on Agricultural Research for Development: Innovations and Incentives, Uppsala, Sweden, 26-27 September 2012

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  • CRP4 was submitted by IFPRI; proposal was prepared in close collaboration with ILRI, and with support from 10 other Centers and an extensive consultation process with a large number of partners from ag, health, nutr
  • Innovations and incentives in agricultural research for poor countries

    1. 1. Innovations and incentives inagricultural research for poor countries Delia Grace and Tom Randolph Agricultural Research for Development: Innovations & Incentives Uppsala, Sweden, 26-27 September 2012
    2. 2. Outline The livestock laboratory CGIAR: science, evidence, or innovations? Case studies  Community-based tsetse control  Smallholder dairy development Innovations + incentives = impacts?
    3. 3. International Livestock Research Institutemember of the CGIAR Consortium which conducts livestock, food andenvironmental research  to help alleviate poverty  and improve food security, health & nutrition,  While protecting the natural resource base. India Mali 700 full time staff-1000 total 100 scientists & researchers 54% from 22 developing countries China more than 30 scientific Vietnam disciplines 2012 budget USD 60 million Laos ILRI works with a range of Nigeria research & development partners Mozambique across 7 CGIAR research Kenya programs Ethiopia Thailand
    4. 4. Agriculturefor Nutrition &HealthCGIAR Research Program 4 IFPRI ILRI BIOVERSITY CIAT CIMMYT CIP ICARDA ICRAF ICRISAT IITA IWMI WORLDFISH
    5. 5. Livestock support livelihoods• In many developing countries, especially SSA, livestock contributes at least 40% agriculture GDP• Around one billion poor people depend on livestock: 70% of the rural and 25% urban poor. Dependency: 12-50%• Livestock high value and rapidly growing sector Projected global consumption in 2050 Rosegrant et al., 2009
    6. 6. Livestock nourish billions• Over half developing world’s food (crops and livestock) comes from population (millions) mixed crop livestock systems - livestock are integral• Livestock provide food for over 480.3 295.1 830 million food insecure people: 6-36% of protein and 2-12% of 1099.2 calories• Small amounts of animal source foods make a huge difference to nutrition (cognitive development, maternal health) 2674
    7. 7. Livestock bring lethal gifts …..• Low income countries: • Zoonoses & diseases emerged from animals 26% IDB, 10% total burden• High income countries: • Zoonoses & emerged 0.7% IDB, 0.02% total burden
    8. 8. Livestock have a long shadow… • 31% of total freshwater use is for is for livestock • Livestock impact on climate change- 18%? • Livestock compete for other land uses Additional grains 1048 million tonnes more to 2050 HumanLivestock consumption430 million MTMonogastrics mostly 458 million MT Biofuels 160 million MT
    9. 9. Growing, urbanising, hungry populations Photo by NYT
    10. 10. Impacts of the CGIAR 65% of the total area planted to the world’s 10 most important food crops is sown to improved varieties The overall economic benefits of the CGIAR estimated at US$14 - $120 billion For every $1 invested in CGIAR research, $9 worth of additional food is produced in the developing world Without CGIAR research developing countries would produce 8% less food and have converted12 million more hectares to farm land Around 80,000 students, scientists and professionals have benefited from capacity-building (The CGIAR at 40 and beyond, 2011)
    11. 11. Evolution of the CGIAR IMPACT EVIDENCE SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY
    12. 12. 2 casestudies
    13. 13. Case study 1:Innovations that fail Community-based tsetse control  Trypanosomosis: the most important disease of cattle wherever present  Spread by the unusual tsetse fly  Also causes sleeping sickness  Controlled initially by bush clearing, game culling, areal spraying insecticides…
    14. 14. What was done? Community based tsetse Innovation  Screens that kill tsetse Science showed  Tryps the most important disease. 10% infected.   production by 15%  Screens cheap, effective  High satisfaction  High use (until..)
    15. 15. Often triedAlways worksNever sustained 15
    16. 16. Case study 1:Innovation that succeeds  Kenya smallholder dairy Milk: 2nd largest item of urban household expenditure Milk: Per capita daily consumption of 0.2-0.4 kg 3.5% of Kenya’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 14% of the agricultural GDP. Smallholder farmers produce around 80% of the total production
    17. 17. What was done? Training informal milk sellers  Innovation  Training, branding, certification of informal sector Fail to meet standards  Metal milk cans, quality checks 100%  Science showed  Importance of smallholder dairy  Milk hazards high but health risks low  Formal milk no safer than informal Raw milk Pasteurised  Training hawkers increases safety
    18. 18. Impacts of training informal actors Policy change  Informal sector recognised Impacts  Increase in milk handled  Around 80% actors trained  Around 50% licensed  $33 million USD annual benefits  Vibrant smallholder sector  Major donor investment
    19. 19. Some differences between case studiesCommunity-based tsetse control Training informal sector milk sellers Novel behaviour  Socially endorsed behaviour Collective action required  Individual action required Risk averse target group  Entrepreneurial target group With success, motivation fades  With success, motivation remains Distant link with behaviour and  Clearlink between behaviour and income income Innovation in a static market  Innovation in dynamic market
    20. 20. LESSONS AROUND INOVATION & INCENTIVE FAILURE IS GETTING EASIER TO PREDICT – but not necessarily success INNOVATIONS ARE THE LEVER – but often succeed in the project context but not in the real world PICKING WINNERS IS WISE BUT PORTOFOLIO SHOULD BE WIDER– strong markets and growing sectors drive uptake INCENTIVES ARE CENTRAL: value chain actors need to capture visible benefits POLICY: not creating enabling policy, so much as stopping the dead hand of disabling policy and predatory policy-implementers  “think like a systemicist, act like a reductionist”
    21. 21. t“Thank you for your attention”

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