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Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)
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Development Administration chapter 7 (UNPAS 2012)

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  • 1. Prof. Ginandjar Kartasasmita Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2012
  • 2. THERE IS AMPLE EVIDENCE OF DYSFUNCTIONAL BUREAUCRACIES AVIDLY DEVOURING SCARCE RESOURCES BUT FAILING TO PRODUCE ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES. IT IS NOT DIFFICULT TO FIND POLICIES THAT SERVE TO KEEP ILLEGITIMATE GOVERNMENTS IN OFFICE RATHER THAN ATTENDING TO THE BUSINESS OF STRENGTHENING THE ECONOMY AND IMPROVING WELFARE FOR THE POOR. THERE HAS BEEN CONSIDERABLE CRITICISM OF OFFICIAL AID AGENCIES THAT GIVE OR LEND MONEY FOR PROJECTS THAT BRING LIMITED GAINS TO TARGET POPULATIONS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 2
  • 3. THE DECADES SINCE THE END OF WORLD WAR TWO HAVE WITNESSED AN UNRIVALLED DRIVE FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT BY THE MAJORITY OF THE WORLDS NATIONS. HOWEVER, THE ACHIEVEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN A SHORT TIME HAS PROVED ELUSIVE FOR ALL EXCEPT A SMALL NUMBER OF TIGERS IN EAST ASIA. MANY PROCESSES AND FACTORS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DIFFERING LEVELS OF ACHIEVEMENT, AND PROMINENT AMONGST THESE HAS BEEN THE ARGUMENT THAT PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS HAVE OFTEN PERFORMED POORLY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 3
  • 4. COMMON ATTRIBUTES OF ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIESFRED RIGGS FERREL HEADY OTHERSOVERLAP IMMITATIONS RATHER THAN OVERSTAFFED PUBLIC IDIGENOUS ORGANIZATIONHETEROGENITY DEFICIENCY OF SKILLS UNDERPAID PUBLIC EMPLOYESSFORMALISM NONPRODUCTION-ORIENTED LOW PRODUCTIVITY BUREAUCRACIESDIFFUSSION FORMALISM LACK OF INNOVATIVE AND SKILLED PUBLIC MANAGERSPARTICULARISM AUTONOMY EXCESSIVELY CENTRALIZED DECISION MAKINGASCRIPTION CORRUPTION THAT REGULARLY IMPEDES REFORM ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES THAT MIRROR THE POLITICAL CONTEXS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 4
  • 5. THE MAIN THEMES OF ADMINISTRATIVEDEVELOPMENT FIRST, THE ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT CANNOT BE REDUCED TO A TECHNICAL FIX. THUS, ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION ARE NOT SIMPLY A MATTER OF INSTALLING SOME PIECE OF MANAGERIAL TECHNOLOGY WHICH HAS PROVED EFFECTIVE ELSEWHERE. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNIQUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNS ARE NOT NEUTRAL VALUE-FREE PHENOMENA.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 5
  • 6. THE SECOND THEME CONCERNS THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS, THAT ENVELOPE OF FACTORS AND FORCES IN WHICH ORGANIZATIONS OPERATE. ORGANIZATIONS ARE NOT CLOSED TECHNICAL SYSTEMS. THEY ARE NECESSARILY INVOLVED IN MULTIPLE RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS. COMPLEX WEBS OF RELATIONSHIPS ARE THUS WOVEN AND HAVE PROFOUND EFFECTS ON THE OPERATION OF ORGANIZATIONS. NATIONAL CULTURE MAY BE A KEY DETERMINANT OF THE WAY IN WHICH ACTIVITIES ARE CONDUCTED AND MAY INFLUENCE OPERATIONAL NORMS AND PRACTICES AS MUCH AS THE PUBLIC SERVICE MANUAL OF PROCEDURES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 6
  • 7. THE THIRD THEME EMPHASIZES ONE ASPECT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE ENVIRONMENT, THAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN ADMINISTRATIVE ANALYSIS AND PRACTICE. ORGANIZATIONAL ACTION TAKES PLACE IN POLITICAL CONTEXTS. POWER AND AUTHORITY PERMEATE RELATION-SHIPS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS AND BETWEEN THESE PERSONS AND THOSE IN THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 7
  • 8. THE FOURTH THEME FLOWS FROM THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES. IT IS THAT ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENT IS NOT A PANACEA FOR DEVELOPMENT. DEVELOPMENT IS MULTI-FACETED AND SUCCESS OR FAILURE ARE BASED ON MORE THAN ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN, ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM OR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. SUCH ITEMS HAVE A STRONG BEARING ON WHETHER DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESS WILL OCCUR BUT THEY ARE NEVER THE SOLE DETERMINANTS, ADMINISTRATION WORKS ONLY IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER FACTORS OF CHANGE. FURTHERMORE, PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS CAN BE UTILIZED TO OPPRESS OR TO DEFEND THE PRIVILEGES OF CERTAIN CLASSES AND GROUPS IN SOCIETY. THEY ARE NOT INNATELY BENIGN BUT MUST BE DIRECTED TOWARDS THE ATTAINMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 8
  • 9. ADMINISTRATIVES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 9
  • 10. DEVELOPMENT FAILURES INAPPROPRIATE POOR STATE POLICY CHOICES INSTITUTIONSS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 10
  • 11. BUREAUCRACY BUREAUCRACY EMERGED AS A DOMINANT FEATURE OF THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD. VIRTUALLY EVERYWHERE ONE LOOKED IN BOTH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POLITICAL LIFE WERE EXTENSIVELY AND EVER INCREASINGLY INFLUENCED BY BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS. BUREAUCRACY, WHILE IT IS OFTEN USED AS A GENERAL INVECTIVE TO REFER TO ANY ORGANIZATION THAT IS PERCEIVED TO BE INEFFICIENT, IS MORE PROPERLY USED TO REFER TO A SPECIFIC SET OF STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 12
  • 12. THE BASIC CONCEPTS SPECIALIZED JURISDICTIONS, OFFICES, AND TASKS, THAT IS, A DIVISION OF LABOR AND AUTHORITY REGARDING THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION’S GOALS. A HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY TO COORDINATE THE ACTIVITIES OF THE SPECIALIZED OFFICES AND INTEGRATE THEIR JURISDICTIONAL AUTHORITY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 13
  • 13. MINISTER VICE/DEPUTY MINISTER ASSISTANT MINISTER DIRECTOR SECRETARY INSPECTOR GENERAL GENERAL GENERAL DIRECTOR BUREAU INSPECTORREGIONAL SUB- WORKING OFFICE DIRECTORATE UNIT DIVISION S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 14
  • 14. BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE TENDS TO BE PERMANENT. IT REMAINS INTACT REGARDLESS OF THE FLOW OF MEMBERS IN AND OUT OF IT. SOCIETY BECOMES DEPENDENT ON THE BUREAUCRACY’S FUNCTIONING TO THE EXTENT THAT CHAOS RESULTS IF IT IS DESTROYED. BY IMPLICATION, BUREAUCRACIES ARE LARGE ORGANIZATIONS (WEBER, 1947)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 15
  • 15. IDEAL TYPE BUREAUCRACY CONTEMPORARY THINKING ALONG THESE LINES BEGINS WITH THE WORK OF THE BRILLIANT GERMAN SOCIOLOGIST MAX WEBER. HIS ANALYSIS OF BUREAUCRACY, FIRST PUBLISHED IN 1922 AFTER HIS DEATH, IS STILL THE MOST INFLUENTIAL STATEMENT –THE POINT OF DEPARTURE FOR ALL FURTHER ANALYSES– ON THE SUBJECT. WEBER USED AN "IDEAL-TYPE" APPROACH TO EXTRAPOLATE THE CENTRAL CORE OF FEATURES CHARACTERISTIC OF THE MOST FULLY DEVELOPED BUREAUCRATIC FORM OF ORGANIZATION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 16
  • 16. WEBER’S IDEAL TYPE BUREAUCRACY 1. BUREAUCRACY IS BASED UPON RULES WHICH ARE ACCEPTED (IN BOARD TERMS) BY THE MEMBERS OF THE ORGANIZATION. 2. BUREAUCRACY IS RELATIVELY COUNTINUOUS IN ITS OPERATION. 3. THE SPHERES OF COMPETENCE OF BUREAUCRATIC ADMINISTRATION ARE SPECIFIED. 4. BUREAUCRACY IS BASED UPON THE IDEA OF HIERARCHY. 5. THE OFFICIALS ARE TRAINED SO THAT THE STRUCTURES CAN FUNCTION IN THE WAYS INTENDED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 17
  • 17. 6. OFFICIALS IN BUREAUCRACY ARE NOT THEMSELVES OWNERS OF THE MEANS OF PRODUCTIONS.7. OFFICIALS DO NOT ‘OWN’ THEIR JOBS, THAT IS, THE JOB ITSELF BELONGS TO THE ORGANIZATION, NOT TO THE INDIVIDUAL WHO HAPPENS TO BE OCCUPYING IT.8. THE SUCCESSFUL AND COUNTINUING OPERATION OF BUREAUCRACY DEPENDS TO A LARGE EXTENT UPON WRITTEN RECORD.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 18
  • 18. THE BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURES OF THE STATE CONSTITUTE THE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH AND THROUGH WHICH PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT MANAGERS FUNCTION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 19
  • 19. DIFFERENTIATED PUBLIC THE NORMAL TENDENCY IN BUREAUCRACY IS TO REGARD ITS CLIENTELE AS AN UNDIFFERENTIATED PUBLIC TO WHOM REGULATIONS ARE TO BE APPLIED AND SERVICES DELIVERED UNIFORMLY, THEREFORE OBJECTIVELY AND EQUITABLY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 20
  • 20. THE THEME OF “REPRESENTATIVE BUREAUCRACY” DESCRIBES BUREAUCRATS AS A KIND OF RANDOM SAMPLE OF THE POLITY, DESERVING OF THE SAME TREATMENT ACCORDED OTHER CITIZENS. PUCLIC ADMINISTRATION ARE EXPECTED TO HELP RESTRAIN ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION WITHIN THEIR OWN RANKS IN ORDER TO REDUCE COMMUNAL TENSION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 21
  • 21. BUREAUCRATS ARE RARELY SYMPATHETIC FIGURES EVEN WHEN THEY ARE HELPING PEOPLE PARTICIPATE IN BENEFITS TO WHICH THEIR CITIZENSHIP ENTITLES THEM. (JOHN D. MONTGOMERY, 1988)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 22
  • 22. EMPOWERMENT BUREAUCRATIC EXPLOITATION POPULISM S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 23
  • 23. THE THEORY OF BUREAUCRATIC POPULISM DEPENDS UPON THE ASSUMPTION THAT GOVERNMENTS CAN MOTIVATE THE PEOPLE TO PRODUCE A PUBLIC GOOD THAT PROVIDES OPPORTUNITIES FOR THEM TO GENERATE PRIVATE GOODSS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 24
  • 24. AS SOCIETY BECAME MORE COMPLEX AND ORGANIZATIONS GREW LARGER, ORGANIZATIONS (BOTH PRIVATE AND PUBLIC) INCREASED THEIR DIVISION OF LABOR INTO MORE AND SMALLER SPECIALIZED UNITS. LARGER INSTITUTIONS BEGAN TO DEFER TO THE JUDGMENTS OF THESE UNITS, WHICH SHOWS THAT A MAJOR FOUNDATION OF BUREAUCRATIC POWER IS EXPERTISE, EXPERTISE OR SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE KNOWLEDGE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 25
  • 25. DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION LARGELY REMAINS BURDENED BY A COMBINATION OF INHERITED STRUCTURES AND BEHAVIORS AND DEEPLY INTERNALIZED LOCAL CULTURAL PATTERNS. UNABLE TO ATTAIN A TIMELY CORRECTION OF ITS DEFICIENCIES OR TO LEARN FROM ITS FAILURES. THIS COMBINATION OF LEGACIES HAS HAD THE EFFECT OF IMPEDING PERFORMANCE AND WASTING BADLY NEEDED INSTITUTIONAL ENERGIES ON OTHER THAN PRODUCTIVE ENDEAVORS TO ACCOMPLISH DEVELOPMENTAL MANDATES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 26
  • 26. ALL ORGANIZATIONS OPERATE WITH IMPERFECTION; ALL ARE INFECTED WITH BUREAUPATHOLOGIES. THIS DOES NOT STOP THEM PERFORMING WELL, BUT IF LEFT UNTREATED THE BUREAUPATHOLOGIES WILL SPREAD AND INTENSIFY AND EVENTUALLY IMPEDE PERFORMANCE NOTICEABLY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 27
  • 27. TENDENCY TO MAINTAIN AND ENLARGE POWER AND CONTROLS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 28
  • 28. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AS BOTH PROFESION AND SCIENTIFIC STUDY FROM THE BEGINNING HAS BEEN VERY MUCH CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS OF CORRUPTION OR ABUSE OF POWER.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 29
  • 29. A CORRUPTED BUREAUCRACY, BY DEFITION, IS ONE THAT, DOES NOT DO WHAT IT IS SUPPPOSED TO, SINCE ILLEGAL PAYMENTS TO OFFICIALS ARE PRESSUMABLY NOT MADE UNLESS THOSE WHO RECEIVE PAYMENT CAN AND DO CONTRAVENE THE INTENT OF THE LAWS THEY ARE SUPPOSED TO APPLY. ALTHOUGH FORMALLY SALARIED, BUREAUCRATS IN SUCH QUASI-SALARY SYSTEMS INDULGE IN SELF-ENRICHMENT ON A LARGE SCALE (RIGGS,1995).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 30
  • 30. Authority -Control Public Agency -Check and balance Accountable to control Legislative Excecutive Election People/Public/VotersS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 32
  • 31. ACCOUNTABILITY ACCOUNTABILITY IS THE DEGREE TO WHICH A PERSON MUST ANSWER TO SOME HIGHER AUTHORITY FOR ACTIONS IN THE LARGER SOCIETY OR IN THE AGENCY. ELECTED PUBLIC OFFICIALS ARE ACCOUNTABLE TO VOTERS. PUBLIC AGENCY MANAGERS ARE ACCOUNTABLE TO ELECTED EXECUTIVES AND LEGISLATURES. AGENCY LEADERS ARE HELD ACCOUNTABLE TO THE POLITICAL CULTURE OF SOCIETY, WHICH HOLDS GENERAL VALUES AND IDEAS OF DEMOCRACY AND PUBLIC MORALITY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 33
  • 32. ETHICS ETHICS CONCERN WITH WHAT IS RIGHT AND WHAT IS WRONG. (FREDERICKSON, 1994) ETHICS CAN BE CONSIDERED A FORM OF SELF- ACCOUNTABILITY, OR AN “INNER CHECK” ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS CONDUCT. (ROOSENBLOOM, KRAVCHUCK, 2005)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 34
  • 33. STANDARDS AND NORMS STANDARDS AND NORMS ARE DEFINED AS PRINCIPLES OF RIGHT ACTION BINDING UPON THE MEMBERS OF A GROUP AND SERVING TO GUIDE, CONTROL, OR REGULATE PROPER AND ACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOR. STANDARDS AND NORMS ARE THE CODIFICATION OF GROUP, ORGANIZATIONAL, COMMUNITY, OR GOVERNMENTAL VALUES, LAWS, REGULATIONS, CODES OF ETHICS. RULES ARE TYPICAL OF STANDARDS AND NORMS. (FREDERICKSON, 1994)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 35
  • 34. ADMINISTRATIVE ETHICS ADMINISTRATIVE ETHICS INVOLVES THE APPLICATION OF MORAL PRINCIPLES TO THE CONDUCT OF OFFICIALS IN ORGANIZATIONS. BROADLY SPEAKING, MORAL PRINCIPLES SPECIFY 1) THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES THAT INDIVIDUALS SHOULD RESPECT WHEN THEY ACT IN WAYS THAT SERIOUSLY AFFECT THE WELL- BEING OF OTHER INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY; AND 2) THE CONDITIONS THAT COLLECTIVE PRACTICES AND POLICIES SHOULD SATISFY WHEN THEY SIMILARLY AFFECT THE WELL- BEING OF INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY. (DENNIS THOMPSON, 1985)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 36
  • 35. FOUR LEVELS OF ETHICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION THERE IS A HIERARCHY OF LEVELS OF ETHICS, EACH OF WHICH HAS ITS OWN SET OF RESPONSIBILITIES. 1) PERSONAL MORALITY—THE BASIC SENSE OF RIGHT AND WRONG. THIS IS A FUNCTION OF OUR PAST AND IS DEPENDENT ON FACTORS SUCH AS PARENTAL INFLUENCES, RELIGIOUS BELIEFS, CULTURAL AND SOCIAL MORES, AND ONES OWN PERSONAL EXPERIENCES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 37
  • 36. 2) PROFESSIONAL ETHICS. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS INCREASINGLY RECOGNIZE A SET OF PROFESSIONAL NORMS AND RULES THAT OBLIGATE THEM TO ACT IN CERTAIN "PROFESSIONAL" WAYS. OCCUPATIONS SUCH AS LAW AND MEDICINE, WHILE OPERATING WITHIN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ALSO HAVE THEIR OWN INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONAL CODES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 38
  • 37. 3) ORGANIZATIONAL ETHICS. EVERY ORGANIZATION HAS AN ENVIRONMENT OR CULTURE THAT INCLUDES BOTH FORMAL AND INFORMAL RULES OF ETHICAL CONDUCT. PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS TYPICALLY HAVE MANY SUCH RULES. PUBLIC LAWS, EXECUTIVE ORDERS, AND AGENCY RULES AND REGULATIONS ALL CAN BE TAKEN AS FORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL NORMS FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 39
  • 38. 4) SOCIAL ETHICS. THE REQUIREMENTS OF SOCIAL ETHICS OBLIGE MEMBERS OF A GIVEN SOCIETY TO ACT IN WAYS THAT BOTH PROTECT INDIVIDUALS AND FURTHER THE PROGRESS OF THE GROUP AS A WHOLE. SOCIAL ETHICS ARE FORMAL TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY CAN BE FOUND IN THE LAWS OF A GIVEN SOCIETY, INFORMAL TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY ARE PART OF AN INDIVIDUALS SOCIAL CONSCIENCE. (SHAFRITZ, RUSSEL, CHRISTOPHER, 2007)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 40
  • 39. THE ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF DECISION MAKING WHEN MAKING DECISIONS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS INEVITABLY PURSUE CERTAIN GOALS, WHETHER PERSONAL, ORGANIZATIONAL, OR SOME MIXTURE OF BOTH. THE PURSUIT OF GOALS INVOLVES STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL CHOICES TO ACHIEVE THEM (MEANS AND ENDS). SUCH DECISIONS RAISE QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PROPRIETY OF THE MEANS USED IN IMPLEMENTING A COURSE OF ACTION TO DEAL WITH A PUBLIC PROBLEM.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 41
  • 40. INSTITUTIONAL ETHICS WHEN AN INSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT PURSUES ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND SETS ON A COURSE OF ACTION TOWARD REACHING THOSE GOALS, THE END ITSELF MAY BE SEEN AS SO COMPELLING AS TO SEEMINGLY JUSTIFY ANY MEANS. ORGANIZATIONS HAVE OFTEN STRIVEN TO CLARIFY SUCH DILEMMAS IN DECISION MAKING BY ARTICULATING CODES OF ETHICS TO GUIDE THE BEHAVIOR OF THEIR MEMBERS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 42
  • 41. PERSONAL ETHICS OFTEN AT ISSUE IN DECISION MAKING ARE PERSONAL ETHICS. THE TEMPTATION TO DIVERT SOME OF PUBLIC FUNDS OR RESOURCES TO PERSONAL USE CAN BE GREAT AND THE RISK OF EXPOSURE OFTEN SMALL. THE MAIN REASON FOR THE WORLDWIDE PRESENCE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIVE CORRUPTION IS THAT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS HAVE SOMETHING TO ALLOCATE THAT OTHER PEOPLE WANT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 43
  • 42. INTENDED OR DESIGNED CHANGES INTO ESTABLISHED OR ROUTINE WAYS OF LIFE (FARAZMAND, 2007)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 44
  • 43. THE MEANING OF ‘REFORM’ IS QUITE DISTINCT FROM THE IDEA OF ‘REVOLUTION’, WHICH IMPLIES THE TOTAL OVERTHROW OF OLD STRUCTURES AND SYSTEM, AND THEIR REPLACEMENT BY NEW ONES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 45
  • 44. ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM A USEFUL WORKING DEFINITION OF ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM IS THE INDUCED, PERMANENT IMPROVEMENT IN ADMINISTRATION. (WALLIS, 1993)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 46
  • 45. THE WORD ‘INDUCED’ INDICATES A FORM OF ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE WHICH IS DELIBERATELY BROUGHT ABOUT, NOT ONE WHICH JUST HAPPENS BY ACCIDENT OR WITHOUT THE MAKING OF ANY CONSCIOUS EFFORT. THE WORD ‘PERMANENT’ CARRIES THE CONNOTATION THAT THE CHANGES INTRODUCED WILL BE LONG-TERM, NOT JUST TEMPORARY. SIMPLY PUT TO IMPROVE MEANS ‘TO MAKE BETTER’.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 47
  • 46. THE FOCUS IS ON THE NATIONAL ADMINISTATIVE SYSTEM AS THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS AND IT TENDS TO CONCENTRATE ON BUREAUCRACY AS A NATIONAL INSTITUTION AS WELL AS THE BUREAUCRACY’S RELATIONS WITH THE ENVIRONMENT, PARTICULARLY THE POLITICAL AUTHORITY AND THE PEOPLE AS REPRESENTED AMONG OTHERS BY THE CIVIL SOCIETY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 48
  • 47. FOCUS OF ANALYSIS POLITICAL SOCIETY AUTHORITYS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 49
  • 48. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 50
  • 49. CVS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 51
  • 50. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 52
  • 51. IN A CLIMATE OF SOCIAL VALUES THAT STRESS PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY, BUREAUCRACIES WITH THEIR CENTRALIZED STRUCTURES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL ARE ANACHRONISTIC. (PFEFFER AND SALANCIK, 1978) POLITICAL DEMOCRACY, SOCIETAL TRANSFORMATIONS, AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS HAVE MODIFIED THE STRUCTURES AND VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 53
  • 52. A COMPLEX PROCESS OF FUNCTIONAL AND SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATION HAS GRADUALLY ERODED THE RIGIDITIES OF HIERARCHICAL AUTHORITY STRUCTURES AND FURTHER MITIGATED THE OLD PERCEIVED ANTINOMY BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND CHANGE. CHANGE IN MANY WAYS, DEBUREAUCRATIZATION IS THE MANY­SIDED OUTCOME OF THIS CUMULATIVE PROCESS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 54
  • 53. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 55
  • 54. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CULTURE IS CHANGING TRANSNATIONAL MULTINATIONAL NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS CORPORATIONS ORGANIZATIONS POLICY POLICY POLICY LEGISLATORS PUBLIC MANAGER POLICY PUBLIC 1 PUBLIC 5 PUBLIC 3 PUBLIC 4 PUBLIC 2 S3-Unpas_2012 56 SOURCE: JONATHAN F. ANDERSON IN FARAZMAND, PINKOWSKI, 2007
  • 55. GLOBALIZED PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS FLEXIBLE RULE BOUND INNOVATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS REFORM ORIENTED DYNAMIC RESULT ORIENTED ENTERPRENEURIAL FOCUS ON INPUTS RATHER THAN RESULT ENTERPRISINGS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 57
  • 56. INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING. INSTITUTIONAL EMPOWERMENT. SKILL AND PROFFESIONAL DEVELOPMENT --> CAPACITY BUILDING. DECENTRALIZATION. DEBUREAUCRATIZATION. PRIVATIZATION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 59
  • 57. APPROACHES TO ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM OUTCOMES PROCESS BOTHS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 60
  • 58. THE OUTCOMES: THE MEANS TO MAKE THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM A MORE EFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT FOR SOCIAL CHANGE, A BETTER INSTRUMENT TO BRING ABOUT POLITICAL EQUALITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH (SAMONTE, 1970) ON PROCESS: CHANGING ESTABLISHED BUREAUCRATIC PRACTISE, BEHAVIOURS AND STRUCTURES (KHAN, 1981) INTERPORATE BOTH VIEWS BY LINKING THE PROCESSUAL CHANGED TO THE PRODUCTION OF A MORE EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT BUREAUCRACY (QUAH, 1976 AND JREISAT, 1988)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 61
  • 59. THE DIFFICULTIES LACK OF AWARENESS OF HOW BAD THE ADMINISTRATION’S PERFORMANCES IS, OR HOW IMPROVEMENTS MIGHT BE UNDERTAKEN. THE CHANGE INVOLVED IN ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM MAY MEET CONSIDERABLE RESISTANCE. BUREAUCRACIES THEMSELVES TEND TO DISLIKE CHANGE, ESPECIALLY WHEN THEIR OWN INTEREST ARE AT STAKE. PROPOSALS FOR CHANGE MAY BE TOO VAGUE OR CONFUSED TO BE EASILY PUT INTO PRACTISE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 62
  • 60. THOSE WHO ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION MAY HAVE VERY LITTLE UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IS SUPPOSED TO BE HAPPENING OR OF WHAT HAS BEEN PROPOSED WHAT MAY WORK IN ONE SITUATION MAY BE QUITE UNWORKABLE IN ANOTHER.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 63
  • 61. THESE MORE TRADITIONALLY ORIENTED GROUPS WANT TO HOLD ON TO THEIR EXISTING POSITIONS AND RESIST EFFORTS BY THE MODERNIZING ELITE TO TRANSFORM THEM. THEY MAY EVEN TURN INTO AN ANTIMODERN ELITE USING, HOWEVER, MODERN METHODS, TO PUSH NONMODERN DEMANDS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 64
  • 62. TO OVERCOME THE DIFFICULTIES THE PROGRAM OF ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM SHOULD BE AS BROAD AS POSSIBLE, SPREADING INTO AS MANY INTERSTICES OF THE SOCIAL ORDER AS IS POSSIBLE. ATTENTION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS THAT MIGHT ULTIMATELY RESTRAIN BUREAUCRATIC EXCESS. THE QUALITY OF LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT AND JUDICIAL SCRUTINY OF BUREAUCRATIC BEHAVIOR ARE IMPORTANT ELEMENTS. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SCRUTINY IS ALSO IMPORTANT, SUCH AS PLAYED BY THE MEDIA AND CIVIL SOCIETY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 65
  • 63. THE REFORMERS TASK IS TO IDENTIFY CORRECTLY THE PROBLEMS AND SUPPLY ANSWERS WHICH ARE FEASIBLE BOTH TECHNICALLY AND POLITICALLY. THE REFORMS NEED TO ADDRESS THE FIT BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS AND ENVIRONMENT. ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD ARE UNCERTAIN AND TURBULENT. THIS MEANS THAT REFORM WILL BE PERMANENTLY ON THE AGENDA BUT VARYING IN INTENSITY ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF TURBULENCE, THE FUNDING AVAILABLE AND THE LEVEL OF FAITH IN THIS FORM OF ORGANIZATIONAL ENGINEERING.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 66
  • 64. 1945-1950 1950-1959 1959-1966 1966-1999 1999-SEKARANG REVOLUSI DEMOKRASI DEMOKRASI ORDE BARU DEMOKRASI PARLEMEN TERPIMPIN BAGIAN DARI REZIM YANG BERKUASA LOYALITAS ? DEPOLITI- POLARISASI TUNGGAL SASI IDEOLOGI BIROKRASI MENDUKUNG POLITISASI TRILOGI IDEOLOGI- BIROKRASI PARPOL PEM- SASI MENDUKUNG BIROKRASI BANGUNAN DEMOKRASIS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 68
  • 65. 1945 BIROKRASI RI PENINGGALAN BELANDA DAN MENUNJANG PERJUANGAN KEMERDEKAAN S.D. JEPANG DAN KEDAULATAN 1950 1950 DEMOKRASI LIBERAL/PARLEMENTER S.D. UPAYA REFORMASI ADMINISTRASI 1959 SUDAH DIMULAI BIROKRASI TERKOTAK-KOTAK DALAM PARTAI PANITIA ORGANISASI KEMENTRIAN POLITIK (WILOPO), 1952 1959 DEMOKRASI TERPIMPIN BADAN PENGAWAS S.D. KEGIATAN APARATUR 1966 POLARISASI NEGARA (BAPEKAN), 1959 (IDEOLOGI) PANITIA REFORMASI BIROKRASI APARATUR NEGARA (PARAN) 1962 PERAN PERAN NEGARA APARATUR MAKIN NEGARA BESAR MEMBESARS3-Unpas_2011 www.ginandjar.com 69
  • 66. 1966 ORDE BARU TAP MPRS NO. 1/1966 S.D. 1998 BIROKRASI MENYATU DENGAN TIM PAAP KEKUASAAN (LOYALITAS TUNGGAL) SISTEM OTORITER MENTERI PAN PADA AWAL ORDE BARU MENGHASILKAN: WAKIL KETUA •STABILITAS BAPPENAS •PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI •PEMERATAAN/PENGURANGAN KEMISKINAN MENKO WASBANG PAN TRILOGI PEMBANGUNAN 1998 DEMOKRASI MENPAN S.D.SEKARANG PEMISAHAN PENGUASA TIM POLITIK DENGAN REFORMASI BIROKRASI BIROKRASI (DEPOLITISASI NASIONAL BIROKRASI) MENPAN DAN REFORMASI BIROKRASIS3-Unpas_2011 www.ginandjar.com 70
  • 67. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 71
  • 68. LITHMUS TEST KINERJA BIROKRASIINSTITUSI TERTATA BAIK?SDM BERKUALITAS?CARA KERJA - EFISIEN? - EFEKTIF?S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 72
  • 69. ETIKA - JUJUR? - BERSIH? AKUNTABILITAS - TEGAS? - JELAS? TRANSPARANSI TERBUKA?S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 73
  • 70. KONTROL - BERFUNGSI? MASYARAKAT - RESPONSIF? HASIL KARYA OPTIMAL?S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 74
  • 71. KAUFMANN-KRAAY (KK) COUNTRY POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL ASSESSMENT (CPIA) DOING BUSINESS INVESTMENT CLIMATE SURVEY (ICS) GLOBAL INTEGRITY INDEX (GII) PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY (PEFA)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 75
  • 72. TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL CORRUPTION INDEX UNDP: GOVERNANCE INDICATORS: A USER GUIDES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 76
  • 73. GOOD THEORY, BAD POLICY? GOOD POLICY, BAD PRACTICE? INSTITUSI : BERKEMBANG PESAT LEMBAGA-LEMBAGA BARU KOMISI-KOMISI BADAN-BADAN DEWAN-DEWAN DESENTRALISASI : - 33 PROVINSI - 398 KABUPATEN PEMEKARAN - 93 KOTA REFORMASI : SISTEM PENGGAJIAN KHUSUS BIROKRASI BEBERAPA INSTANSIS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 77
  • 74. GOOD THEORY GOOD POLICY GOOD PRACTICES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 78
  • 75. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 79
  • 76. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 80
  • 77. CHIEF EXECUTIVE EXECUTIVE STAFF SOCIOCULTURAL AGENCIES NORMS OUTSIDE LEGISLATURE AUDITORS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS: LEGISLATIVE MEDIA STAFF AGENCIES DEPARTMENT AND AGENCY HEAD INTEREST COURTS GROUPS POLITICAL PARTIES OTHER AGENCIES, OTHER AGENCIES, SAME LEVEL DIFFERENT LEVELS (ROSENBLOOM, KRAVCHUCK, 2005)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 81
  • 78. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN A DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL SYSTEM: THE CONVERSION PROCESS ENVIRONMENT INPUTS ADMINISTRATIVE OUTPUTS • CULTURAL LINE AGENCIES • DEMANDS FOR • GOODS CHANGES AND PROGRAMS AND “WITHIN-PUTS” EVENTS • SERVICE SERVICES • RULES • ECONOMIC • POLICIES SUPPORT CHANGES AND • PROCEDURES • PROGRAMME EVENTS • MONEY • GOALS • POLITICAL • INFORMATION • STAF CHANGES AND • STRUCTURE EVENTS ROLES PLAYED • PERSONAL BY • SOCIETAL CHANGES • EXPERIENCE AND EVENTS • PARTY • INTEREST GROUP • STAFF AGENCIES LEAD TO (ROSENBLOOM, KRAVCHUCK, 2005)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 82
  • 79. ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AND PERSISTING CHALLENGES OF MODERN GOVERNMENT IS HOW TO RECONCILE THE DEMANDS OF DEMOCRACY WITH THE IMPERATIVES OF BUREAUCRACY. BUREAUCRACIES ARE HIERARCHICAL INSTITUTIONS THAT CAN PROVIDE THE CAPACITY AND EXPERTISE TO ACCOMPLISH COMPLEX SOCIAL TASKS, BUT THEY ARE FREQUENTLY CHARACTERIZED, AS UNDEMOCRATIC AND EVEN THREATENING TO DEMOCRACY. DEMOCRACIES ARE SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT THAT ARE BASED, DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY, ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULAR CONTROL.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 83
  • 80. THEY ATTEND IN DIFFERING MEASURES TO PRINCIPLES OF MAJORITY RULE AND DEFERENCE TO THE PERSPECTIVES OF INTENSE INTERESTS AMONG THE PUBLIC. BUT AS SUCH, THEY NEED NOT NECESSARILY SHOW KEEN ATTENTION TO THE VALUES OF EFFICIENCY, EFFECTIVENESS, OR SPECIALIZED EXPERTISE. BUREAUCRACY MAY BE THOUGHT OF AS GOVERNMENTS TOOL TO EXERCISE COERCION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR PRODUCTIVE ACTION. AS INSTITUTIONAL FORMS DESIGNED TO EMPHASIZE DIFFERENT VALUES, BUREAUCRACY AND DEMOCRACY SIT IN AN UNEASY RELATIONSHIP WITH EACH OTHER.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 84
  • 81. Democracy >< Bureaucracy Transactional costS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 85
  • 82. TENSION BUREAUCRATIC/ DEMOCRATIC TECHNOCRATIC PROCESS PROCESSS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 86
  • 83. www.ginandjar.com DEMOCRATIC BUREAUCRATIC IMPERATIVES VS PROFESIONALISM SOVEREIGN RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE EFFICIENCY VS & EFFECTIVENESS ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES CONTEST FOR POWER ACCOUNTABLES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 87
  • 84. POLITICAL BUREAUCRATIC CORRUPTION CORRUPTION POLITICAL BUREAUCRATIC REFORM REFORM THE BEST INTEREST OF THE PEOPLES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 88
  • 85. A GOVERNANCE APPROACH SEEKS TO INTEGRATE POLITICAL AND BUREAUCRATIC FORCES AT MULTIPLE LEVELS TO INDICATE HOW PROGRAMS ARE DESIGNED, ADOPTED, IMPLEMENTED, AND EVALUATED IN TERMS OF BOTH EFFECTIVENESS AND DEMOCRACY. SUCH A POINT OF VIEW CLEARLY RECOGNIZES THAT ONLY WITH EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTING INSTITUTIONS CAN SOCIETIES GENERATE THE FAIRNESS AND SLACK RESOURCES THAT PERMIT DEMOCRACIES WITH THEIR LARGE TRANSACTION COSTS TO EXIST AND PROSPER.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 90
  • 86. IN CONCLUSION THE PROGRAM OF ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM SHOULD BE AS BROAD AS POSSIBLE, SPREADING INTO AS MANY INTERSTICES OF THE SOCIAL ORDER AS IS POSSIBLE. ATTENTION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS THAT MIGHT ULTIMATELY RESTRAIN BUREAUCRATIC EXCESS. THE QUALITY OF LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT AND JUDICIAL SCRUTINY OF BUREAUCRATIC BEHAVIOR ARE IMPORTANT ELEMENTS. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC SCRUTINY IS ALSO IMPORTANT, SUCH AS PLAYED BY THE MEDIA AND CIVIL SOCIETY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 91
  • 87. THE REFORMERS TASK IS TO IDENTIFY CORRECTLY THE PROBLEMS AND SUPPLY ANSWERS WHICH ARE FEASIBLE BOTH TECHNICALLY AND POLITICALLY. THE REFORMS NEED TO ADDRESS THE FIT BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS AND ENVIRONMENT. ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD ARE UNCERTAIN AND TURBULENT. THIS MEANS THAT REFORM WILL BE PERMANENTLY ON THE AGENDA BUT VARYING IN INTENSITY ACCORDING TO THE DEGREE OF TURBULENCE, THE FUNDING AVAILABLE AND THE LEVEL OF FAITH IN THIS FORM OF ORGANIZATIONAL ENGINEERING. POLITICAL CORRUPTION IS NO LESS EVIL THAN BUREAUCRATIC CORRUPTION. THUS POLITICAL REFORM IS AS IMPORTANT AS BUREAUCRATIC REFORM.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 92
  • 88. DIMANA KITA SEKARANG?PRE- MODERN POST-MODERN MODERN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MORE OLD PUBLIC NEW PUBLIC ARTS ADMINISTRATIO ADMINISTRATION THAN NSCIENCE ENTRE- FREDERICKSON’S NPM PRENEURIAL NPS NPA GOVERN- MENT CORE WEBERIAN VALUES: BUREAUCRACY II EFFICIENCY PRE EFFECTIVENWILSONIA ESS CULTURAL “TEN N ECONOMY COMPETENCE AND COMMAND- IMPERSONAL SOCIETAL MENTS” IMPARTIAL VALUES PERFORMANCE AFFIRMATIVE OUTSOURCING CONTRACTINGCOLONIA PUBLIC =L STUCTURE FUNCTION CUSTOMERFEUDAL HIERARCHY IITRADI-TIONAL RULES/PROCEDURE/PROCESS GOVERNANCE NETWORK COLLABORATIVE ETHICS, ACCOUNTABILITY, TRANSPARENCY PARTICIPATORY STAKEHOLDER E-GOVERNANCE DEMOCRACY DISINI? DISINI? DISINI? DISINI? S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 93

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