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Hi NIDA Batch 19 friends,

This is the slide for "Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction" By William Dunn.

Best.
B

Transcript

  1. 1. Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction William N. Dunn Associate Dean and Professor University of Pittsburg Dr. Dunn is a scholar, educator, and academic administrator. His most well-known publication is Public Policy Analysis, 4th ed.,which is one of the most widely cited books on the methodology of policy research and analysis in print.
  2. 2. What is Policy Analysis: Definitions  The use of reason and evidence to select the best policy among a number of alternatives to address a particular policy problem. (MacRae and Wilde).  “An applied social science that utilizes multiple research methods, in argumentation and debate contexts, to create, estimate critically, and communicate knowledge that is relevant to the policies.” (Dunn)  A process through which one identifies and evaluates “alternative policies or programs that are intended to lessen or resolve social, economic or physical problems” (Patton & Sawicki)
  3. 3. “Policy analysis is client oriented advice relevant to public, or private, decisions and informed by social values” Weiner & Vining
  4. 4. A good analysis or even a good decision Does Not Guarantee that the optimal solution will be selected and / or implemented.
  5. 5. What Policy Analysis Can and Cannot Do……. Policy analysis can assist decision makers in choosing a preferred course of action from complex alternatives and under uncertain conditions. Policy analysis is not a panacea or a substitute for inadequate policymaking processes, defects of public decisions, bad judgment on the part of analysts or policymakers, an exact science or a tool for advocacy by the analyst for his/her own views.
  6. 6. One way to look at the Analysis The Problem & the Solution “a problem well formulated is a problem half solved” Defining the Policy Problem is easier said than done…..
  7. 7. Not all Public Problems are amenable to policy analysis, but when they.., the analysis can support decision making to: Determine whether a new policy is required to address the problem If a policy already exists, determine whether it needs to be modified or terminated Analyze one policy (retrospectively or prospectively) Compare two or more policies that address a similar problem Assess future implications of current or new policies Explore stages in the development of particular policies
  8. 8. We want to learn how to look at problems from multiple perspectives to achieve the best problem definition and possible / feasible solutions
  9. 9. Example: Increasing rates of lung cancer among certain population groups could be framed as: The failure of individuals to stop smoking, or Failure of the health care providers to provide adequate / timely information, or Failure of the Government to regulate smoking in public places, or Failure on the part of Government to take the opportunity to improve research, to raise taxes by increasing the price of cigarettes All of the above
  10. 10. Increasing obesity among youngsters and among certain population groups could be framed as: The failure of parents or individual will to change their eating behaviors, or The inability of health care providers to provide adequate and timely information, or Failure of the government to: Regulate health care dept. Eliminate harmful substances from the general diet Build more places for people to exercise All of the above
  11. 11. Problem Definition “There is a difference between a condition and a problem…conditions become defined as problems when we come to believe that we should do something about them…the problem doesn’t have to get any worse or better”. Kingdon, 1984
  12. 12. Problem Definition in Decision Making Problem definition depends on: How issues are framed, portrayed How obvious is the crisis that the problem evokes How it is measured Endless ways to look at a particular problem, yet limited time, money and energy. Hence, highly complex issues are simplified; focus on certain aspects happens at the expense of other aspects / elements
  13. 13. Challenges of Public Policy problems (Social problems) May show up in ways that are difficult to address “Inherently multidimensional”, overlap & contradict Are ill defined, so “wicked problems” The consensus over social goals may be illusory Decision-makers have different preferences and values, often conflicting The definition of a policy problem is not completely scientific or systematic: creativity, sagacity, socially constructed
  14. 14. Situation that can be perceived as important into a problem Indicators reveal its existence, magnitude, severity Events or crisis call attention on a problem The results of evaluations (or monitoring/surveillance) show
  15. 15. Methodology of Policy Analysis: integrates elements from Multiple disciplines Political Science Sociology Psychology Economics Philosophy
  16. 16. Three Approaches to Policy Analysis Type of Approach Primary Question Information Does it and will it exist? Descriptive and Empirical (facts) predictive Of what worth is it? Valuative Valuative (values) Normative What should be done? (value- Prescriptive (action) critical)
  17. 17. Five types of Policy relevant information: interrelated and interdependent S. Types Importance No. Policy Problems Conceptualizing problem from different 1 angles-viable solutions Policy Futures Identifying consequences of future course of 2 action Policy Actions Forecasting & evaluating consequences of 3 action based on different alternatives Policy Ensuring an observed consequences of policy 4 Outcomes actions Policy Finding the degree of value contributed by 5 Performance policy outcome (useful in forecasting policy future)
  18. 18. Five Info is obtained by the means of - Policy Analysis Process of Inquiry S. No. Procedure Information 1 Definition (Problem Conditions giving rise to a policy Structuring) problem Prediction Future consequences of acting on policy 2 (Forecasting) alternatives, including doing nothing Prescription 3 Future course of action (Recommendation) Present and Past causes and Description 4 consequences of acting on policy (Monitoring) alternatives Value or worth of consequences in 5 Evaluation solving the problem
  19. 19. Process of Policy Communication: 4 Stage Process Knowledge: Policy Problems 1 Policy Futures 2 Policy Policy Actions Materials Analysis Policy Performance Development Stakeholders: Documents: Agenda Setting Policy Memo Policy Formulation Policy Issue Policy Adoption Policy Papers Policy Implemen. Analyst Exe. Summary Policy Assessment Appendices News Release 4 Presentations: 3 Knowledge Conversations Interactive Utilization Conferences Communication Meetings Briefings Hearings
  20. 20. Three Elements of Policy System Policy Stakeholders Policy Public Policy Environment Crime Policy Analysts Law Enforcement Inflation Citizens’ Groups Economic Unemployment Labor Unions Welfare Discrimination Parties Personnel Urban Squalor Agencies Urban Source: Adapted from Thomas R. Dye, Understanding Public Policy 3rd ed.
  21. 21. Six Elements of Policy Arguments: the main vehicle for conducting debates about PP Issues 1. Policy Relevant (Therefore) 2. Policy 6. Qualifier Claim Information Probably Govt. should invest in Nuclear power is two or three The construction of Times more efficient than Nuclear power plants Conventional Power Sources (Unless) (Since) 5. 3. Warrant Rebuttal Production of Nuclear energy is Solar Energy can be developed The only way to ensure continuing growth On a large scale Of the economy (Bcoz) (Bcoz) 4. Backing Backing Arab Countires can continue To embargo oil. Other sources This is the conclusion of panel of experts Are limited
  22. 22. Dunn’s Integrated Framework: Problem Centered Policy Analysis Policy Performance Evaluation Forecasting Problem Structuring Policy Structuring Policy Structuring Problem Problem Policy Futures Outcomes Problems Problem Structuring Monitoring Recommendation Policy Actions
  23. 23. The process of policy analysis is a series of intellectual activities carried out within a process comprised of activities that are essentially political
  24. 24. Reconstructed Logic Vs. Logic-in-Use Reconstructed Logic Logic-in-Use Process – problem Variation can occur due to personal centered policy analysis characteristics of analysts and the institutional setting Designed for Factors that Influence variation: methodological purposes •Cognitive Style: diff. Knowledge ie. For studying the •Analytical Roles: Entrep, Politicians and strengths and Technicians weaknesses of different •Institutional Incentive system: Different methods & techniques orientation – humanistic & scientific; quality of Policy Analysis control also differs •Institutional time constraints: expedite • Professional Socialization: varied orientation (traditional/basic & applied)
  25. 25. Forms of Policy Analysis Prospective Retrospective Policy Analysis Policy Analsis Integrated Policy Analysis
  26. 26. Three major forms of Policy Analysis: Prospective Policy Analysis: Involves the production and transformation of information before policy actions are initiated and implemented. Tends to Characterize the operating styles of economists, systems analysts, and operations researchers. Synthesizes information to draw policy alternatives and preferences.
  27. 27. Prospective Analysis often creates large gap Efforts of Preferred Govt. to Solutions to resolve the Problems problem Gaps
  28. 28. Retrospective Policy Analysis Confined to the production and transformation of information after policy actions have been taken. Operating styles of three major groups of analysts: 1.Discipline oriented analysts 2.Problem oriented analysts 3.Application oriented analysts
  29. 29. Discipline Oriented Problem Oriented Application Oriented Analysis Analysis Analysis Political Scientists & Political Scientists & Also persons from social Sociologists – seeks to Sociologists - seeks to work, public develop and test describe the causes and administration & discipline based theories. consequences of policies. evaluation research. Seeks to describe causes & consq Describe the causes and Less concerned with the Not concerned with dev. consequences of the development and testing of And testing of discipline policies. theories. Discipline based theories. Oriented Analysis What affected the policies Seldom attempts to Seldom provides info about They are concerned with identity specific goals and specific goals and the identification of goals objectives of policymakers objectives of policymakers. and objectives of policy (does not distinguish Coz the problem they makers and other “policy variables”). analyze are usually of stakeholders. Good info for general nature. evaluating policy outcome.
  30. 30. Integrated Policy Analysis Prospective Policy Integrated Policy Analysis Retrospective Policy Analysis Analysis Builds on the strengths of both Prospective & Retrospective Analysis – multidisciplinary in Suffers from inadequate & full sense of the world Suffers from its nature i.e. unreliable info. About changes in values , goals and objectives confined with passive reporting which occur after policies have Multidisciplinary framework, concerns of information about the been implemented. with the production & transformation consequences of implemented of information both before and after policies policy actions have been taken. Provides methodology for policy analysis (rules & procedures)
  31. 31. An Integrated Framework Policy Performance Evaluation Retrospective Prospective Forecasting P. S. Policy P.S. Policy P.S. Policy Outcomes Problems Futures What happened? P.S. What will happen? After action Before action Recommend Monitoring ation Policy Actions
  32. 32. Methodology of Policy Analysis: Distinction between theories Descriptive Decision Theory: set of logically consistent propositions that describe action. Primary aim is to understand a policy problem rather than to solve it. Normative Decision Theory: set of logically consistent propositions that provide a basis for improving the consequences of action. Appropriate for predicting and recommending different courses of action before they have occurred. Aim is to solve the problem - “Problem Solving” methodology.
  33. 33. Summary A combination and transformation of the substance and methods of several disciplines, intends to produce policy relevant information to resolve the problems Knowledge of what is (fact), what is right (values) and what to do (action) requires / demands the use of multiple methods of inquiry Policy analysis has 3 main forms: prospective, retrospective & integrated
  34. 34. Thank you

Description

Hi NIDA Batch 19 friends,

This is the slide for "Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction" By William Dunn.

Best.
B

Transcript

  1. 1. Public Policy Analysis: An Introduction William N. Dunn Associate Dean and Professor University of Pittsburg Dr. Dunn is a scholar, educator, and academic administrator. His most well-known publication is Public Policy Analysis, 4th ed.,which is one of the most widely cited books on the methodology of policy research and analysis in print.
  2. 2. What is Policy Analysis: Definitions  The use of reason and evidence to select the best policy among a number of alternatives to address a particular policy problem. (MacRae and Wilde).  “An applied social science that utilizes multiple research methods, in argumentation and debate contexts, to create, estimate critically, and communicate knowledge that is relevant to the policies.” (Dunn)  A process through which one identifies and evaluates “alternative policies or programs that are intended to lessen or resolve social, economic or physical problems” (Patton & Sawicki)
  3. 3. “Policy analysis is client oriented advice relevant to public, or private, decisions and informed by social values” Weiner & Vining
  4. 4. A good analysis or even a good decision Does Not Guarantee that the optimal solution will be selected and / or implemented.
  5. 5. What Policy Analysis Can and Cannot Do……. Policy analysis can assist decision makers in choosing a preferred course of action from complex alternatives and under uncertain conditions. Policy analysis is not a panacea or a substitute for inadequate policymaking processes, defects of public decisions, bad judgment on the part of analysts or policymakers, an exact science or a tool for advocacy by the analyst for his/her own views.
  6. 6. One way to look at the Analysis The Problem & the Solution “a problem well formulated is a problem half solved” Defining the Policy Problem is easier said than done…..
  7. 7. Not all Public Problems are amenable to policy analysis, but when they.., the analysis can support decision making to: Determine whether a new policy is required to address the problem If a policy already exists, determine whether it needs to be modified or terminated Analyze one policy (retrospectively or prospectively) Compare two or more policies that address a similar problem Assess future implications of current or new policies Explore stages in the development of particular policies
  8. 8. We want to learn how to look at problems from multiple perspectives to achieve the best problem definition and possible / feasible solutions
  9. 9. Example: Increasing rates of lung cancer among certain population groups could be framed as: The failure of individuals to stop smoking, or Failure of the health care providers to provide adequate / timely information, or Failure of the Government to regulate smoking in public places, or Failure on the part of Government to take the opportunity to improve research, to raise taxes by increasing the price of cigarettes All of the above
  10. 10. Increasing obesity among youngsters and among certain population groups could be framed as: The failure of parents or individual will to change their eating behaviors, or The inability of health care providers to provide adequate and timely information, or Failure of the government to: Regulate health care dept. Eliminate harmful substances from the general diet Build more places for people to exercise All of the above
  11. 11. Problem Definition “There is a difference between a condition and a problem…conditions become defined as problems when we come to believe that we should do something about them…the problem doesn’t have to get any worse or better”. Kingdon, 1984
  12. 12. Problem Definition in Decision Making Problem definition depends on: How issues are framed, portrayed How obvious is the crisis that the problem evokes How it is measured Endless ways to look at a particular problem, yet limited time, money and energy. Hence, highly complex issues are simplified; focus on certain aspects happens at the expense of other aspects / elements
  13. 13. Challenges of Public Policy problems (Social problems) May show up in ways that are difficult to address “Inherently multidimensional”, overlap & contradict Are ill defined, so “wicked problems” The consensus over social goals may be illusory Decision-makers have different preferences and values, often conflicting The definition of a policy problem is not completely scientific or systematic: creativity, sagacity, socially constructed
  14. 14. Situation that can be perceived as important into a problem Indicators reveal its existence, magnitude, severity Events or crisis call attention on a problem The results of evaluations (or monitoring/surveillance) show
  15. 15. Methodology of Policy Analysis: integrates elements from Multiple disciplines Political Science Sociology Psychology Economics Philosophy
  16. 16. Three Approaches to Policy Analysis Type of Approach Primary Question Information Does it and will it exist? Descriptive and Empirical (facts) predictive Of what worth is it? Valuative Valuative (values) Normative What should be done? (value- Prescriptive (action) critical)
  17. 17. Five types of Policy relevant information: interrelated and interdependent S. Types Importance No. Policy Problems Conceptualizing problem from different 1 angles-viable solutions Policy Futures Identifying consequences of future course of 2 action Policy Actions Forecasting & evaluating consequences of 3 action based on different alternatives Policy Ensuring an observed consequences of policy 4 Outcomes actions Policy Finding the degree of value contributed by 5 Performance policy outcome (useful in forecasting policy future)
  18. 18. Five Info is obtained by the means of - Policy Analysis Process of Inquiry S. No. Procedure Information 1 Definition (Problem Conditions giving rise to a policy Structuring) problem Prediction Future consequences of acting on policy 2 (Forecasting) alternatives, including doing nothing Prescription 3 Future course of action (Recommendation) Present and Past causes and Description 4 consequences of acting on policy (Monitoring) alternatives Value or worth of consequences in 5 Evaluation solving the problem
  19. 19. Process of Policy Communication: 4 Stage Process Knowledge: Policy Problems 1 Policy Futures 2 Policy Policy Actions Materials Analysis Policy Performance Development Stakeholders: Documents: Agenda Setting Policy Memo Policy Formulation Policy Issue Policy Adoption Policy Papers Policy Implemen. Analyst Exe. Summary Policy Assessment Appendices News Release 4 Presentations: 3 Knowledge Conversations Interactive Utilization Conferences Communication Meetings Briefings Hearings
  20. 20. Three Elements of Policy System Policy Stakeholders Policy Public Policy Environment Crime Policy Analysts Law Enforcement Inflation Citizens’ Groups Economic Unemployment Labor Unions Welfare Discrimination Parties Personnel Urban Squalor Agencies Urban Source: Adapted from Thomas R. Dye, Understanding Public Policy 3rd ed.
  21. 21. Six Elements of Policy Arguments: the main vehicle for conducting debates about PP Issues 1. Policy Relevant (Therefore) 2. Policy 6. Qualifier Claim Information Probably Govt. should invest in Nuclear power is two or three The construction of Times more efficient than Nuclear power plants Conventional Power Sources (Unless) (Since) 5. 3. Warrant Rebuttal Production of Nuclear energy is Solar Energy can be developed The only way to ensure continuing growth On a large scale Of the economy (Bcoz) (Bcoz) 4. Backing Backing Arab Countires can continue To embargo oil. Other sources This is the conclusion of panel of experts Are limited
  22. 22. Dunn’s Integrated Framework: Problem Centered Policy Analysis Policy Performance Evaluation Forecasting Problem Structuring Policy Structuring Policy Structuring Problem Problem Policy Futures Outcomes Problems Problem Structuring Monitoring Recommendation Policy Actions
  23. 23. The process of policy analysis is a series of intellectual activities carried out within a process comprised of activities that are essentially political
  24. 24. Reconstructed Logic Vs. Logic-in-Use Reconstructed Logic Logic-in-Use Process – problem Variation can occur due to personal centered policy analysis characteristics of analysts and the institutional setting Designed for Factors that Influence variation: methodological purposes •Cognitive Style: diff. Knowledge ie. For studying the •Analytical Roles: Entrep, Politicians and strengths and Technicians weaknesses of different •Institutional Incentive system: Different methods & techniques orientation – humanistic & scientific; quality of Policy Analysis control also differs •Institutional time constraints: expedite • Professional Socialization: varied orientation (traditional/basic & applied)
  25. 25. Forms of Policy Analysis Prospective Retrospective Policy Analysis Policy Analsis Integrated Policy Analysis
  26. 26. Three major forms of Policy Analysis: Prospective Policy Analysis: Involves the production and transformation of information before policy actions are initiated and implemented. Tends to Characterize the operating styles of economists, systems analysts, and operations researchers. Synthesizes information to draw policy alternatives and preferences.
  27. 27. Prospective Analysis often creates large gap Efforts of Preferred Govt. to Solutions to resolve the Problems problem Gaps
  28. 28. Retrospective Policy Analysis Confined to the production and transformation of information after policy actions have been taken. Operating styles of three major groups of analysts: 1.Discipline oriented analysts 2.Problem oriented analysts 3.Application oriented analysts
  29. 29. Discipline Oriented Problem Oriented Application Oriented Analysis Analysis Analysis Political Scientists & Political Scientists & Also persons from social Sociologists – seeks to Sociologists - seeks to work, public develop and test describe the causes and administration & discipline based theories. consequences of policies. evaluation research. Seeks to describe causes & consq Describe the causes and Less concerned with the Not concerned with dev. consequences of the development and testing of And testing of discipline policies. theories. Discipline based theories. Oriented Analysis What affected the policies Seldom attempts to Seldom provides info about They are concerned with identity specific goals and specific goals and the identification of goals objectives of policymakers objectives of policymakers. and objectives of policy (does not distinguish Coz the problem they makers and other “policy variables”). analyze are usually of stakeholders. Good info for general nature. evaluating policy outcome.
  30. 30. Integrated Policy Analysis Prospective Policy Integrated Policy Analysis Retrospective Policy Analysis Analysis Builds on the strengths of both Prospective & Retrospective Analysis – multidisciplinary in Suffers from inadequate & full sense of the world Suffers from its nature i.e. unreliable info. About changes in values , goals and objectives confined with passive reporting which occur after policies have Multidisciplinary framework, concerns of information about the been implemented. with the production & transformation consequences of implemented of information both before and after policies policy actions have been taken. Provides methodology for policy analysis (rules & procedures)
  31. 31. An Integrated Framework Policy Performance Evaluation Retrospective Prospective Forecasting P. S. Policy P.S. Policy P.S. Policy Outcomes Problems Futures What happened? P.S. What will happen? After action Before action Recommend Monitoring ation Policy Actions
  32. 32. Methodology of Policy Analysis: Distinction between theories Descriptive Decision Theory: set of logically consistent propositions that describe action. Primary aim is to understand a policy problem rather than to solve it. Normative Decision Theory: set of logically consistent propositions that provide a basis for improving the consequences of action. Appropriate for predicting and recommending different courses of action before they have occurred. Aim is to solve the problem - “Problem Solving” methodology.
  33. 33. Summary A combination and transformation of the substance and methods of several disciplines, intends to produce policy relevant information to resolve the problems Knowledge of what is (fact), what is right (values) and what to do (action) requires / demands the use of multiple methods of inquiry Policy analysis has 3 main forms: prospective, retrospective & integrated
  34. 34. Thank you

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