SELECTED STRATEGIES IN PUBLICADMINISTRATION by Ferdinand Parado, CE Rodel P. Hacla, ECE
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE Objectives: This study is an attempt to describe and analyze the Philippine experience in promoting participation in development, paying particular attention to factors that promote or deter popular participation. More specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What has been the country‟s experience in promoting popular participation in the government‟s development programs? 2. Given the country‟s experience, what factors may be identified as facilitating or obstructing popular participation in development?
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE 3. Given this assessment, what recommendations may be forwarded to stress those that facilitate and minimize those that impede popular participation? POLICIES AND MECHANISMS: This section describes the „barangay” as the lowest level of the local government, the establishment of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and the Regional Development Councils (RDCs) intended to decentralize and bring government closer to the people, the country‟s rural development program. These are illustrations of policies and mechanisms for popular participation.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE Initially conceived as a mechanism for citizen participation, the barangays were observed to have been transformed into “administrative channels of government as part of the delivery of services to the people”. Despite doubts as to its effectiveness as a mechanism for the political participation, the barangay is viewed as a possible Filipino alternative to the Western model because it is founded on Filipino collectivism. Taking its roots from the family‟s collectivist nature, the barangay is viewed as correspondingly collective.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE The Philippine Rural Development Program - is built on the principle that development is a government-people enterprise. Its activities aim at revitalizing community and local institutions through the development of awareness among all segments of the community and the promotion of self- reliance and active participation of the people.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE The major objectives of the rural development program were: 1. to promote and encourage citizen interest, understanding and active participation and increased capacity for initiation and resourcefulness for a meaningful and active role in local and national affairs; 2. to stimulate the understanding of community projects/activities to promote socioeconomic advancement; 3. to encourage the organization, revitalization and/or strengthening of institutions necessary to achieve the desired changes;
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE 4. To develop local leadership for them to acquire the confidence and ability to lead decisively in the improvement of their communities; 5. To promote integrated comprehensive planning in local levels to achieve maximum mobilization of efforts and resources for development; 6. To encourage and maximize coordination of technical agencies, local government, private and civic organizations engaged in rural development.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCEThe government policy underlying its ruraldevelopment program was essentially people-basedwith the government taking a secondary role. Themajor responsibilities of the two sectors intheir joint understanding can be described asfollows:Rural People 1. Determine their own needs or crystallize their most pressing problems and set priorities for their treatment; 2. Plan a course of action to satisfy their needs and solve their problems; 3. Marshal available local resources (money, materials, equipment, and labor) which may be utilized in program implementation; 4. DO the work themselves.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE The Government 1. Provide the initial stimulus for self-help development and set up a system for continuing training and education of the people; 2. Provide the technical know-how for development planning and assist the people in the preparation of development plans; 3. Given material assistance on a need basis, i.e., those materials that cannot be obtained in the locality; 4. Help the people in the program implementation and assist in evaluating the progress of development work.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE Looking at popular participation as a four stage process which builds up from one stage to the other, four component phases maybe identified: (1) the individual level, (2) the community, (3) the government/other sectors, (4) the greater society. The categorization proceeds from a simple to a more complex unit of analysis with each level interacting with each other. The characteristics of these four sectors are the important factors that promote popular participation.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL Promoting Conditions Impeding Conditions1. Realizes that what he thinks and 1. Feels that what he thinks is not feels is important and that he can important; can hardly articulate his think and talk intelligently. thoughts.2. Is confident that he has the 2. Feels incapable of acting on his own capability to mold himself and his or transforming the environment. environment. 3. Is not aware of the socio-political-3. Is conscious and aware of the economic conditions that influence societal factors that impinge on him his life. as an individual. 4. Has no notion of nor experience in4. Has actual experience in any collective involvement which participating in group problem entails discussion and analysis of analysis or problem solving issues with other individuals. situations.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE The enumeration factors at the individual level suggests that the popular participation may no longer be a concept in search of methodology. Rather, it implies that community or organization may be the methodology for popular participation. However, the community organization is observed that it appears the most important approach to popular participation. Community organization has its own set of procedures and organizing principles along conflict-confrontation lines but in actual practice, many modifications are accommodated mostly in the degree to which the conflict confrontation is pursued.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE GOVERNMENT LEVELBureaucratic processes in large organizationshave instilled in most government employees arespect for technocratic knowledge and expertisefor their clients‟ capabilities inconceptualizing, designing and implementingprograms. SOCIETAL LEVELBeyond the characteristics of the community andgovernment are broader societal factors operating ina developing country which implies rather thanpromote popular participation. These are:1. Colonial Experience – suppresses the people‟s desire or capacity to participate in social, political or economic decisions affecting them.
FACTORSTHAT PROMOTE OR DETER POPULAR PARTICIPATION IN DEVELOPMENT: THE PHILIPPINE EXPERIENCE2. Poverty – concerned more with survival, poor people who have to eke out a living do not understand why they must participate before they get the long needed and much delayed services which may spell life or death for them.3. Ineffectiveness of participation as a means of getting service. The people‟s experience that participation does not materially affect the delivery of services to any group of society serves to negate any effort directed at strengthening popular participation.
POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINESAs early as 1988, the Philippine governmenthad promulgated a Philippine Strategy forSustainable Development (PSSD) through theDepartment of Environment and NaturalResources (DENR), to address the adverseimpact on growth and development caused bythe pollution of environment and the misuseand depletion of the natural resources. TheDENR adopted ten strategies which could havebeen the basic guidelines for theenvironmental and natural resourcespreservation in the Philippines. These arethe following:
POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES1. The environmental factors must be integrated in the formulation and decision making process of concerned government agencies and units in such that there should be provisions for the Natural Resources Accounting, Environmental Impact Assessment and Land Use Planning.2. There should be proper costing of the natural resources and the price should be built into the cost of damages done to the environment. The users of the environment have to pay the cost of whatever damages there will be.3. The property rights reform should be in place so that there should be regulations to the people‟s access to the natural resources.4. There should be an established integrated protected areas that should conserve the wild life and unique ecosystem that should conserve the wild life and unique ecosystems in order to preserve the genetic resources for scientific, educational, cultural and historical values.
POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES5. There should be rehabilitation of the degraded ecosystems which meant, the reforestation of the denuded watersheds, replantation of mangroves, clean-up and control of pollution, and revival of the biologically dead rivers, and also the transplantation of sea grasses.6. Industries must invest to strengthen their facilities for the management of their residual wastes and the pollution that they have caused by putting up more technological innovations as soon as they could. The pollution control law must therefore, be strengthened. Industries and firms must install pollution control facilities which could be done by collective action by users group of firms in creating their facilities for waste waters.
POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES7. The development plan must integrate the population and the social impact programs with the intention that the population factor should be highlighted as the real asset in building a strong industrial base in the production of livelihood projects and the preservation of the ecosystem and natural resources. The population management program should emphasize the benefits of spacing births and the population distribution must be directed to less densely populated and less environmentally sensitive areas.8. Economic growth must be induced in the rural areas where majority of people live. Employment must be developed in the rural areas to increase the people‟s income.
POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES9. Schools curricula for elementary and secondary levels must integrate environmental education and social values supportive of the environmental protection and commitment if the government.10. Citizens‟ participation and constituency building must be encouraged so that non- government organizations could assist in the environmental protection and managements efforts of the DENR.Other government units were expected to assist the DENR in implementing its ten strategies, namely, the agencies concerned with population, environment, natural resources, agriculture, industry, infrastructures, energy and agrarian reforms. All government agencies were also expected to integrate sustainable development and environmental objectives in their policies to provide the support services to the DENR strategies.
POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES The Philippine strategy for the protection of the environment and the natural resources for sustainable development have many points. The problem, however, is how sustainable indeed could the effort be in pursuing all the policies and strategies. Can the country maintain a carrying capacity of its natural resources for the maintenance of its population up to the end of the century.