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Revolution and Enlightenment

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  1. 1. Revolution & Enlightenment
  2. 2. 10.1A SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION <ul><li>“ Natural Philosophers” – medieval scientists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For knowledge relied on – ancient authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esp – Aristotle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ren Humanists – mastered Greek & Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to – Ptolemy’s work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Showed some – thinkers disagreed w/ Aristotle & other Med. auth. </li></ul></ul></ul>Ptolemaic System c. 150 AD
  3. 3. <ul><li>New Inventions – telescope & microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Printing Press – helped spread new ideas quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematicians believed – secrets of nature were found in math </li></ul><ul><li>Sci Rev aka – Age of Reason </li></ul>
  4. 4. Revolution in Astronomy <ul><li>Rev in Astronomy – overturned ideas about universe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ptolemy greatest – astronomer of antiquity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ptolemaic system, called – geocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b/c – it places Earth at center of the universe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universe is – series of concentric spheres one inside the other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earth – is fixed (motionless) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At – center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond spheres – was Heaven where God & saved souls resided </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Nicolas Copernicus felt – geocentric system was too complicated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed – heliocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun – not Earth was at the center of the universe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planets – revolved around the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon – revolved around the Earth </li></ul></ul>Problems?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Johannes Kepler – German mathematician </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrived at – his law of planetary motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed – that the Sun was at the center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits were – elliptical (egg-shaped) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sun – towards end of ellipse instead of at the center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as – Kepler’s First Law </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Galileo Galilei – Italian scientist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used – a telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered – mountains on the Moon, Jupiter’s 4 moons, & sunspots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeared planets – made of material substance like Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Church ordered – Galileo to abandon the Copernican idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copernican system – threatened the Church’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seemed to – contradict the Bible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1630s & 40s – most astronomers had come to accept heliocentric </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined – 3 laws of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal law of gravitation – explains why planets move in elliptical orbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>around the Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States every – object is attracted to other objects by gravity </li></ul></ul></ul>Fact or Fiction?
  9. 9. 10-1 B Medicine & Chemistry <ul><li>Medicine & Chemistry- information based on Galen’s work w/ animals anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andreas Vesalius – discussed findings from dissecting human bodies – On the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fabric of the Human Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented – careful & accurate of individual organs & body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wm Harvey showed – heart (not liver) was the beginning point for circulation of blood – On the Motion of the Heart and Blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also proved – same blood flows in both veins and arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed – blood makes a complete circuit through body </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Andreas Vesalius On the Fabric of the Human Body … he offered detailed instructions (including a list of tools) that a student could use to perform their own dissections and “arrive at an independent conclusion” from either himself or Galenic dogma. http://primatediaries.blogspot
  11. 11. <ul><li>Robert Boyle- Boyle’s Law - properties of gas </li></ul><ul><li>Antoine Lavoisier – invented a system of naming chemical elements </li></ul>
  12. 12. Women in Science <ul><li>Margaret Cavendish – female scientist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote – Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical of – belief that humans through science were the masters of nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Ger, women in sci – were astronomers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trained by – their fathers or husbands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maria Winkelmann – German female astronomer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered – a coment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applied for – postions as assistant astronomer at Berlin Academy but denied b/c female – were suppose to take care of the home </li></ul></ul></ul>Globular cluster M5
  13. 13. Rene Descartes <ul><li>French philosopher </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote about – doubt, uncertainty & confusion of 17th C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond doubt – his own existence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized – the importance of his own mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st principle – “I think, therefore I am” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of – mind & matter (mind & body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of – modern rationalism (reason is the chief source of knowledge) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Scientific Method – systematic procedure for collecting & analyzing evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial to – the evolution (change) of science in the modern world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dev by – English philosopher Francis Bacon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed should use – inductive reasoning to learn about nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proceed from – particular to the general </li></ul></ul></ul>