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Rev&Enl10_1AB

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Revolution and Enlightenment

Revolution and Enlightenment

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  • 1. Revolution & Enlightenment
  • 2. 10.1A SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
    • “ Natural Philosophers” – medieval scientists
      • For knowledge relied on – ancient authorities
        • Esp – Aristotle
      • Ren Humanists – mastered Greek & Latin
        • Access to – Ptolemy’s work
        • Showed some – thinkers disagreed w/ Aristotle & other Med. auth.
    Ptolemaic System c. 150 AD
  • 3.
    • New Inventions – telescope & microscope
    • Printing Press – helped spread new ideas quickly
    • Mathematicians believed – secrets of nature were found in math
    • Sci Rev aka – Age of Reason
  • 4. Revolution in Astronomy
    • Rev in Astronomy – overturned ideas about universe
      • Ptolemy greatest – astronomer of antiquity
      • Ptolemaic system, called – geocentric
        • b/c – it places Earth at center of the universe
        • Universe is – series of concentric spheres one inside the other
        • Earth – is fixed (motionless)
        • At – center
        • Beyond spheres – was Heaven where God & saved souls resided
  • 5.
    • Nicolas Copernicus felt – geocentric system was too complicated
      • Believed – heliocentric
      • Sun – not Earth was at the center of the universe
      • Planets – revolved around the Sun
      • Moon – revolved around the Earth
    Problems?
  • 6.
    • Johannes Kepler – German mathematician
      • Arrived at – his law of planetary motion
      • Confirmed – that the Sun was at the center
      • Orbits were – elliptical (egg-shaped)
        • Sun – towards end of ellipse instead of at the center
        • Known as – Kepler’s First Law
  • 7.
    • Galileo Galilei – Italian scientist
      • Used – a telescope
      • Discovered – mountains on the Moon, Jupiter’s 4 moons, & sunspots
      • Appeared planets – made of material substance like Earth
      • Church ordered – Galileo to abandon the Copernican idea
      • Copernican system – threatened the Church’s
        • Seemed to – contradict the Bible
      • By 1630s & 40s – most astronomers had come to accept heliocentric
  • 8.
    • Isaac Newton
      • Defined – 3 laws of motion
      • Universal law of gravitation – explains why planets move in elliptical orbits
      • around the Sun
        • States every – object is attracted to other objects by gravity
    Fact or Fiction?
  • 9. 10-1 B Medicine & Chemistry
    • Medicine & Chemistry- information based on Galen’s work w/ animals anatomy
      • Andreas Vesalius – discussed findings from dissecting human bodies – On the
    • Fabric of the Human Body
      • Presented – careful & accurate of individual organs & body
    • Wm Harvey showed – heart (not liver) was the beginning point for circulation of blood – On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
      • Also proved – same blood flows in both veins and arteries
      • Showed – blood makes a complete circuit through body
  • 10. Andreas Vesalius On the Fabric of the Human Body … he offered detailed instructions (including a list of tools) that a student could use to perform their own dissections and “arrive at an independent conclusion” from either himself or Galenic dogma. http://primatediaries.blogspot
  • 11.
    • Robert Boyle- Boyle’s Law - properties of gas
    • Antoine Lavoisier – invented a system of naming chemical elements
  • 12. Women in Science
    • Margaret Cavendish – female scientist
      • Wrote – Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy
      • Critical of – belief that humans through science were the masters of nature
      • In Ger, women in sci – were astronomers
        • Trained by – their fathers or husbands
      • Maria Winkelmann – German female astronomer
        • Discovered – a coment
        • Applied for – postions as assistant astronomer at Berlin Academy but denied b/c female – were suppose to take care of the home
    Globular cluster M5
  • 13. Rene Descartes
    • French philosopher
        • Wrote about – doubt, uncertainty & confusion of 17th C
      • Beyond doubt – his own existence
      • Emphasized – the importance of his own mind
      • 1st principle – “I think, therefore I am”
      • Separation of – mind & matter (mind & body)
      • Father of – modern rationalism (reason is the chief source of knowledge)
  • 14.
    • Scientific Method – systematic procedure for collecting & analyzing evidence
      • Crucial to – the evolution (change) of science in the modern world
      • Dev by – English philosopher Francis Bacon
        • Believed should use – inductive reasoning to learn about nature
        • Proceed from – particular to the general