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The
Enlightenment
1550 - 1789
 The
Enlightenment
starts with the
Scientific
Revolution.
 People started to
question ideas
that had been
accepted as fa...
… a new way of thinking
 Based on
observation.
 A willingness
to question
accepted
beliefs.
 Started in
Renaissance
The old way of thinking
believed…
All knowledge comes from..
 The Catholic
Church and
the Bible were
the source of
what was true
and false in the
world.
Also…..

 Ancient Greek &
Roman
philosophers,
such as Aristotle,
said what was
true about the
natural world.
 As long as...
It is the mark of an
educated mind to be able to
entertain a thought without
accepting it. - Aristotle
Ancient World
 Most scholars
believed that the Earth
was the center of the
solar system.
 All planets moved in a
perfect...
Scientific Revolution
 Was a new way of
looking at the natural
world.
 Traditional ideas were
found to be wrong
through ...
Muslim World
 Muslim scholars had
made great advances
in science & math.
 The Age of
Exploration helped
Europeans learn
...
Nicolaus
Copernicus

 In the early 1500’s, he
studied planetary
movement for 25
years.
 Copernicus, a Polish
cleric & as...
Heliocentric
Theory

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

 This theory stat...
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Heliocentric
Theory

 Heliocentric theory states
that the sun is the center
of the solar system.
 Copernicus wrote a boo...
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
 Copernicus knew the
Catholic Church
could torture or
execute him for his
findings.
 The Church used
torture and murder ...
 In 1581, a 17 year old boy
proves that Aristotle's idea
that planets move in a
perfect circle was wrong.
 He watched a ...
 Aristotle said that
heavy objects fall
faster than lighter
objects.
 Galileo went to the
top of the Tower of
Pisa and d...
 Develop the
first practical
telescope.
 Discovered that
Jupiter has four
moons.
 These theories
contradicted
the Churc...
The Church

 Galileo was in
conflict with
Church teachings.
 He presented the
ideas of
Copernicus and his
own theories.
...
The Church
 He was found guilty of
heresy.
 Under the threat of
torture, he admitted
that his ideas were
wrong as were
C...
Scientific Method
 Logical procedure of
gathering information and
testing ideas.
 It starts with a problem
arising from ...
Descartes & Bacon
 Rene Descartes
developed analytical
geometry.
 Francis Bacon used
math to prove
theories of Galileo
a...
Isaac Newton
 An English scientist
develop a single
theory of motion.
 He supported Kepler,
Copernicus, Galileo &
Descar...
Gravity
 He disproved Aristotle's
idea that one set of laws
govern earth and another
governs the heavens.
 He published ...
Mr. Healy Enlightenment
Mr. Healy Enlightenment
Mr. Healy Enlightenment
Mr. Healy Enlightenment
Mr. Healy Enlightenment
Mr. Healy Enlightenment
Mr. Healy Enlightenment
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Mr. Healy Enlightenment

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Mr. Healy Enlightenment

  1. 1. The Enlightenment 1550 - 1789
  2. 2.  The Enlightenment starts with the Scientific Revolution.  People started to question ideas that had been accepted as fact for hundreds of years. Scientific Revolution
  3. 3. … a new way of thinking  Based on observation.  A willingness to question accepted beliefs.  Started in Renaissance
  4. 4. The old way of thinking believed…
  5. 5. All knowledge comes from..  The Catholic Church and the Bible were the source of what was true and false in the world.
  6. 6. Also…..  Ancient Greek & Roman philosophers, such as Aristotle, said what was true about the natural world.  As long as it didn’t contradict the Bible.
  7. 7. It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it. - Aristotle
  8. 8. Ancient World  Most scholars believed that the Earth was the center of the solar system.  All planets moved in a perfect circle around the Earth.  The Sun rotated around the Earth.
  9. 9. Scientific Revolution  Was a new way of looking at the natural world.  Traditional ideas were found to be wrong through observation, experimenting and theories.
  10. 10. Muslim World  Muslim scholars had made great advances in science & math.  The Age of Exploration helped Europeans learn these advances, as well as in astronomy & physics.
  11. 11. Nicolaus Copernicus  In the early 1500’s, he studied planetary movement for 25 years.  Copernicus, a Polish cleric & astronomer believed the geocentric theory was wrong.  He proposed the heliocentric theory
  12. 12. Heliocentric Theory QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.  This theory states that Mr. Healy is the center of the solar system.  Copernicus studied planetary motion and disproved the geocentric theory.  He believed the heliocentric theory was true.  It states that the sun is the center solar systems.
  13. 13. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  14. 14. Heliocentric Theory  Heliocentric theory states that the sun is the center of the solar system.  Copernicus wrote a book called On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies.  He did not publish the book until he was on his death bed.  He feared persecution from the Church
  15. 15. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  16. 16.  Copernicus knew the Catholic Church could torture or execute him for his findings.  The Church used torture and murder to maintain power.  His book was published in 1543 as he was dying.  Johannes Kepler proved his theories mathematically. Persecution
  17. 17.  In 1581, a 17 year old boy proves that Aristotle's idea that planets move in a perfect circle was wrong.  He watched a chandelier in a Cathedral swing and questioned it’s motion.  He timed it’s movements & developed the Law of the Pendulum.  Each swing of the pendulum, no matter how far, took the same time. Galileo Galilei
  18. 18.  Aristotle said that heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects.  Galileo went to the top of the Tower of Pisa and dropped stones of different sizes.  He proved that all objects fall at the same speed no matter what their weight. Galileo QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncom pressed) decom pressor are needed to see this picture.
  19. 19.  Develop the first practical telescope.  Discovered that Jupiter has four moons.  These theories contradicted the Church Galileo
  20. 20. The Church  Galileo was in conflict with Church teachings.  He presented the ideas of Copernicus and his own theories.  He was put on trial by the Inquisition.
  21. 21. The Church  He was found guilty of heresy.  Under the threat of torture, he admitted that his ideas were wrong as were Copernicus’s.  He remained under house arrest for the rest of his life.
  22. 22. Scientific Method  Logical procedure of gathering information and testing ideas.  It starts with a problem arising from observation.  Next, a hypothesis or theory is formed.  From a hypothesis you experiment and draw a conclusion.
  23. 23. Descartes & Bacon  Rene Descartes developed analytical geometry.  Francis Bacon used math to prove theories of Galileo and Copernicus.
  24. 24. Isaac Newton  An English scientist develop a single theory of motion.  He supported Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo & Descartes ideas of motion.
  25. 25. Gravity  He disproved Aristotle's idea that one set of laws govern earth and another governs the heavens.  He published a book called “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.”  The universe id like a giant clock, all its parts dependent.

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