Ch 22


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Ch 22

  1. 1. CH. 22.1 Enlightenment and Revolution: The Scientific Revolution
  2. 2. How The Scientific Revolution Started
  3. 3. The Roots of Modern Science <ul><li>Renaissance inspired curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>This led to the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>The Reformation and the challenge to authority, helped start the Scientific Revolution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Science: The Medieval View <ul><li>Remember the Earth-at-the-center-of-the-Universe theory? </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle, the greatest scientist until the 1500’s, had supported this idea. </li></ul><ul><li>After all, it seemed logical. The Sun moves and we don’t. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A New Way of Thinking <ul><li>Scientific Revolution : Beginning in the mid 1500’s, new scientific ideas would be based upon careful observation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A willingness to question accepted beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newfound manuscripts launched new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>European exploration fueled scientific research. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used stars to guide ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed better instruments and geographic measurements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When they started looking around, they found their observations did not match the ancient beliefs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric <ul><li>Geo=Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Helio= Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Centric=Center </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolaus Copernicus first started the concept. </li></ul><ul><li>However, his theory could not perfectly explain why the planets behaved the way they did. </li></ul><ul><li>Johannes Kepler’s mathematic laws showed the planets moved in elliptical patterns, not circular, like proposed by Copernicus. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aristotle vs. Galileo <ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed a pendulum slowed down as it approached its resting place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed heavier objects fell faster than smaller ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth was center of universe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Galileo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed a pendulum does not slow down. Called the Law of the Pendulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed that all objects fall at the same speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a homemade telescope, monitored the movement of the stars to show the Sun was the center of the universe </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Conflict with the Church <ul><li>Galileo was urged by the church not to pursue his ideas about the universe </li></ul><ul><li>He did anyway, in a book called Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Was threatened by the Church and forced to deny is ideas he knew to be true </li></ul><ul><li>Sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, the Church issued an apology to Galileo, saying they were wrong to suppress his scientific findings. </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1992!!!!! </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Find a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis (prediction) about that problem </li></ul><ul><li>Observe the problem through experimentation or data collection </li></ul><ul><li>See if observation proves or disproves the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat process many times </li></ul>
  10. 10. Observation vs. Assumption <ul><li>What we see or believe isn’t always what is going on. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’d help someone who was in trouble” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Eyewitness accounts are reliable” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’d never hurt another human just because someone told me to” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Some Revolutionaries <ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English politician and writer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed science could improve people’s lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticized peoples acceptance of Aristotle’s ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rene Descartes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected old assumptions and teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept only things learned through observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knew only one thing for certain: “I think, therefore I am.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved on from there. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Brought together the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo under one unifying theory. </li></ul><ul><li>The Theory of Motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All things are affected by a force, gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That force ruled the planets, pendulum, and all matter on Earth and Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every object attracts every other object. The degree of attraction depends on the mass of that object and the distance between the objects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , described the universe as a giant clock. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All its parts worked together perfectly in ways that could be described by mathematics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed God was the creator of this orderly universe, the clockmaker who had set everything in motion </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Revolution Spreads <ul><li>Zacharias Jannsen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed bacteria under a microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proved tiny organisms did not just spontaneously appear, as previously thought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evangelista Torricelli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st mercury barometer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gabriel Fahrenheit and Anders Celsius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mercury thermometer, and their respective measurements </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Revolution Spreads <ul><li>Andreas Vesalius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissected cadavers to get a better understanding of the inner human body. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William Harvey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Heart and Blood Vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edward Jenner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine for smallpox using cowpox vs. smallpox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Boyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The founder of modern chemistry </li></ul></ul>