Scientists Module 1

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Powerpoints for the first chapter of General Science.

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Scientists Module 1

  1. 1. A Brief History of Science 33 Key Scientists to Know
  2. 2. What is Science? The accumulation and classification of observable facts in order to formulate general laws about the natural world When true science is employed, great progress is made. When it is not, and the reasons why things happen are not considered important, progress stalls.
  3. 3. Imhotep • 2650 - 2600 B.C. • Egyptian engineer, architect, and physician • most Egyptian scientists accumulated knowledge by trial and error, not through real scientific discovery - they did not try to understand why things happened the way they did • Legend claims he invented papyrus
  4. 4. Thales of Miletus • circa 625-546 B.C. • one of the first real scientists, studying many fields • studied astronomy and predicted a solar eclipse • believed everything originated from water
  5. 5. Anaximander of Miletus • circa 610-546 B.C. • here depicted in Raphael’s School of Athens, next to his student, Pythagoras • student of Thales • studied astronomy, biology, geometry, etc. • claimed that nature is ruled by laws • believed to have conducted the first experiment
  6. 6. Anaximenes of Miletus • circa 585-525 B.C. • student of Anaximander • believed that everything was essentially made of air • like his teachers, attempted to explain the natural world
  7. 7. Leucippus (most likely of Miletus) • circa 500 - 450 B.C. • built on the ideas of Anaximenes that all matter was composed of the same substance • Father of atomic theory • “Nothing happens at random, but everything from reason and by necessity” - Leucippus’ only surviving quote
  8. 8. Democritus • 460 - 370 B.C. • more famous student of Leucippus • most influential pre-socratic philosopher, studying many fields • later scientists found evidence to support his hypotheses about the atom • Said that atoms were in constant motion
  9. 9. Aristotle • 384-322 B.C. • son of a doctor, student of Plato, studied biology extensively • developed the first classification system • very important and respected in many fields • considered the greatest scientist of his time • reminds us of the importance of evidence over reputation
  10. 10. Archimedes • 287-212 B.C • most likely studied in Alexandria under Euclid (founder of geometry as we know it) • inventor, mathematician, physicist, father of calculus • linked math and science, using mathematical formulas to explain things in nature
  11. 11. Ptolemy • 90 - 168 A.D. • Prominent, respected scientist in many fields • Ptolemaic, or geocentric system • Reminds us of the importance of evidence over preconceived notions
  12. 12. Dark Ages • Limited progress was made in science and the arts during this time • Crumbling trade routes in Rome prevented the free exchange of ideas • Rome encouraged practical discoveries and inventions, but unlike Greece, was uninterested in the reasons behind them
  13. 13. Robert Grosseteste • 1170-1253 A.D. • Served as Bishop in England and professor at Oxford; demanded that all of his clergy be literate and receive some training in theology • Developed the scientific method to explain why things happened the way they did • Considered the first modern scientist
  14. 14. Dietrich von Freiberg • circa 1250-1310 A.D. • German priest • Wrote on nearly every branch of theology, philosophy and natural science • Best known for explaining why rainbows appear in the sky
  15. 15. Roger Bacon • 1220-1294 • Lecturer at Oxford and Franciscan friar • Student of Grosseteste, who is often mistakenly called the father of the scientific method • Advocated for science as a means to understand the world and God
  16. 16. Nicholas of Cusa • 1401-1464 • Served as a Cardinal; skilled in theology, mathematics, philosophy, science and art. • Described the learned man as one who is aware of his own ignorance • First to disagree with Ptolemy’s geocentric view after studying the planets extensively
  17. 17. Nicolaus Copernicus • 1473-1543, Poland • Proposed the heliocentric system, which says that the sun is at the center, and all of the planets rotate around it • Spoke 4 languages, and so was able to translate Ptolemy’s work, which was only available in Greek • The Church rejected his work, believing that since God created man, earth must be at the center of everything
  18. 18. Andreas Vesalius • 1514-1564, Belgian physician • Showed that the anatomical teachings of Galen, revered in medical schools, was based upon the dissections of animals even though they were meant as a guide to the human body. • Published most accurate text detailing the internal structure of the human body
  19. 19. Johannes Kepler • 1571-1630, Germany • Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion - mathematical equations showing the orbits of the planets • Gathered the detailed evidence to support Copernicus’ theory • Studied astronomy to bring glory to God
  20. 20. Galileo Galilei • 1564-1642, Italy • Built a telescope with which he gathered more evidence for the heliocentric system, including the planets’ reflection of the sun’s light • Tried for heresy for his research on the heliocentric system, and recanted • Used logic, simple terms and math to solve scientific problems
  21. 21. Blaise Pascal • 1623-1662, France • Made advances in geometry at 13 • Discovered properties of fluids and atmospheric pressure • Invented the first accurate calculator • At 27, abandoned math and science to study religion; Pascal’s Wager
  22. 22. Sir Isaac Newton • 1642-1727, England • Considered the single greatest scientist of all time • He developed laws of gravity and motion, which changed man’s view of the universe, and invented calculus. • He failed as a farmer, and so went to Cambridge to study math and science
  23. 23. Robert Boyle • 1627-1691, England • Founder of modern chemistry • Boyle’s Laws - still used in chemistry today • “Remember to give glory to the One who authored nature.”
  24. 24. Antoni van Leeuwenhook • 1632-1723, Holland • Built the first single lens microscope • Discovered protozoa, and disproved spontaneous generation through his discovery of bacteria • Worked as a linen draper, not a scientist
  25. 25. The Enlightenment • Encouraged reason, freedom, democracy, using one’s intellect to discover truth rather than being led by others • Examined scientific works critically rather than relying on the reputation of past scientists (Aristotle, Ptolemy, etc.) • Began to question God and the authority of Scripture
  26. 26. Carrolus Linnaeus • 1707-1778, Sweden • Physician, botanist and professor • Developed a classification system for living things which we still use today; binomial nomenclature • His goal was to create a classification that would reveal the Divine Order of God’s Creation
  27. 27. Antoine Lavoisier • 1743-1794, France • Developed the Law of Mass Conservation - matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only change forms. • Father of modern chemistry, discovered oxygen • Executed during the French Revolution
  28. 28. John Dalton • 1766-1844, England • Founder of modern atomic theory - each atom differed from the next only by weight • Teacher (had his own school, with as many as 60 students), and private math tutor, though he had little formal schooling • Made his discoveries by conducting experiments and recording what he observed in nature
  29. 29. Charles Darwin • 1809-1882, England • He is well-known for his book, Origin of Species, which outlines his theories of evolution. This proposed that life originated without a Creator. • He showed that the idea of the immutability of species is not true, revolutionizing the study of living things. Species do change in response to their environment, or through cross-breeding, under God’s direction.
  30. 30. Louis Pasteur • 1822-1895, France • Developed a rabies vaccine, revolutionizing treatment of infectious diseases • Developed the process of pasteurization, preventing the growth of bacteria in beverages such as milk
  31. 31. Sir Charles Lyell • 1797-1875, Scotland • Studied geology and paleontology, advocated uniformitarianism - belief in an earth that is billions of years old, altered by slow, gradual processes
  32. 32. Gregor Mendel • 1822 - 1884 • Austrian monk • He studied the passing of traits from one generation to the next in pea plants • He is the father of Genetics, a popular field of study within biology.
  33. 33. Michael Faraday • 1791-1867, England • Experimented with electricity and believed that electricity and magnetism were part of the same process • The Faraday constant is named for him, and he is considered the best experimentalist in the history of science, despite having little formal education • He was well-known for his strong faith in God
  34. 34. James Clark Maxwell • 1831-1879, Scotland • Founder of modern physics • Worked closely with Faraday and later proved his ideas about electromagnetism through mathematical formulas • Showed that light, electricity, and magnetism are all part of the same phenomenon
  35. 35. James Joule • 1818-1889, England • Demonstrated the First Law of Thermodynamics - like matter, energy can not be created or destroyed, but changes forms (ex. kinetic to thermal) • Student of John Dalton • the unit of measurement of energy, the joule, is named for him
  36. 36. Max Planck • 1858-1947, Germany • Developed the idea of quanta, leading to quantum mechanics • Quanta are tiny packets of energy (just as atoms are tiny packets of matter) • Nobel Prize winner and gifted pianist
  37. 37. Albert Einstein • 1879-1955 • As a young man, he formed a weekly discussion group with friends about science and philosophy, jokingly called the Olympia Academy. • Albert Einstein is probably one of the most popular figures of all time. He created the Theory of Relativity, and so, challenged Newton’s laws that were the basis of everything known in physics until the beginning of the 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in Quantum Mechanics.
  38. 38. Niels Bohr • 1885-1962, from Copenhagen • Leader in theoretical physics • Awarded the Nobel Prize for his work concerning the atom. • His model of the atom is named after him.

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