Research Highlights CIAT Asia

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Research Highlights CIAT Asia

  1. 1. Research Highlights CIAT Asia<br />Annual Program Review 2011<br />Nairobi, Kenya10 May2011<br />Asia Team<br />
  2. 2. Current Activities in Asia<br />Activities / Projects<br /><ul><li>Cassava
  3. 3. Forages
  4. 4. Linking Farmers to Markets (LFM)
  5. 5. Land Use & Climate Change</li></ul>+ GTZ/GIZSida<br />
  6. 6. Cassava in Asia<br /><ul><li>Current production and prices as a driver
  7. 7. Activities in Asia
  8. 8. Projects
  9. 9. Outcomes
  10. 10. Focus</li></li></ul><li>Cassava projects in the region<br /><ul><li>The Nippon Foundation (Cassava-based farming systems)Laos and Cambodia, plus Burma and VietnamVarieties and production systems
  11. 11. IFAD Asia Pacific Division (4FGF)Laos, Cambodia, and VietnamProduction systems, links to markets and processing, “waste” management and utilization
  12. 12. IFAD Technical Division (Biofuels: sweet sorghum, jatropha, and cassava)Breeding (Cali): conversion to ethanol (waxy, SGC, etc.)CLAYUCA: smallscale processing, utilization, & wastesVietnam & China: best varieties & agronomy for bioethanol
  13. 13. Pests and Diseases (more later)</li></li></ul><li>Global Production of Cassava<br />Asia = 31.5%<br />Data source: FAOSTAT<br />
  14. 14. Increased Production<br />Influence of new varieties?<br /><ul><li>High and stable yields and high starch content
  15. 15. Major impact on the growth of cassava production in SE Asia
  16. 16. ↑ starch yield per ha</li></ul>Yield increase:<br /><ul><li>Mostly genetics
  17. 17. Only partly agronomy/ fertilizers</li></li></ul><li>Demand and prices are driving increased production by farmers – and interest by governments and donors<br />Prices in Thailand <br />Source: TTDI<br />
  18. 18. Cassava in Vietnam<br />2000 to 2010<br /><ul><li>Area:237,600 to 560,400 ha
  19. 19. Yield:8.36 t/ha to 16.90 t/ ha
  20. 20. Production:1.99 to 9.45 million t
  21. 21. Currently:70% exported; 30% used domestically
  22. 22. Processing capacity: 2.4-3.8 mill. t roots/year
  23. 23. 6 ethanol refineries soon: 550 million L/year Will require: ≈34% production ≈ 50% exports</li></ul>2009 production in agroecologicalzones in Vietnam Each dot represents 1000 ha<br />
  24. 24. Cassava Varieties in Vietnam<br />
  25. 25. Production and Processing in China<br />
  26. 26. Main Cassava Provinces in China<br />
  27. 27. Production in China<br /><ul><li>Cassava area</li></ul>Limited room for expansion due to competition with other crops and bioclimatic suitability – interest in cold-tolerance<br /><ul><li>Intercropping to increase incomes</li></ul> Farmers intercrop with maize, peanut, watermelon, soybean or other short-term crops, and some longer-term crops.<br /><ul><li>Labour</li></ul> As the cost of labor increases, farmers move to small and big tractors. If the land is very steep they make terraces.<br /><ul><li>Fertilizer</li></ul> Recommend N:P:K ratios of 5:1:8 for poor soils and 3:1:5 for normal soils and at rates up to 900kg/ha of compound fertilizer<br />
  28. 28. Production in Other Countries<br /><ul><li>Thailand
  29. 29. Production reduced in 2009 by 20-30% due to cassava mealybug
  30. 30. Desire to reduce area (at least not expand) but increase production
  31. 31. Cambodia
  32. 32. Extremely rapid expansion of area of production – and yield
  33. 33. Mealybug is a major threat
  34. 34. Good examples of returns on good agronomy
  35. 35. Expansion by smallholders and large concessions
  36. 36. Laos
  37. 37. Production still small, but expanding – along with processing
  38. 38. Others
  39. 39. Increased areas in Burma, Indonesia, and the Philippines</li></li></ul><li>Production focus<br /><ul><li>Selection of most suitable varieties
  40. 40. Yield and starch content
  41. 41. Dual purpose (eating and processing)
  42. 42. Suitability to higher altitudes
  43. 43. Agronomy
  44. 44. Fertilizer rates (returns on investment x 6)
  45. 45. Intercropping for income and erosion control
  46. 46. Direct erosion control (contours, etc.)
  47. 47. Seasonality (time of planting & harvest) to ↑ feedstock
  48. 48. Processing and utilization
  49. 49. On farm feeding systems
  50. 50. Local pre-processing: chips, wet starch, etc.
  51. 51. “Waste” utilization (Liquid: biogas; Solid: feed, fertilizer, etc.)
  52. 52. Life Cycle Analysis</li></li></ul><li>Crop utilization, waste management and efficiency<br />
  53. 53. Agronomy / Soil Fertility:<br />Identify the soil nutrient constraintsImprove the efficiency of fertilizer applicationsImprove recommendations<br /><ul><li>Long-term NPK trials
  54. 54. Multi-location trials with different varieties</li></ul>K deficiency in Kampong Cham, Cambodia<br />P deficiency in XiengKhouang, Laos<br />
  55. 55. Effect of applications of various levels of N, P and K fertilizers on the root yields of two cassava varieties<br />1) N0 = 0N P0 = 0P K0 = 0K<br /> N1 = 25 kg N/ha P1 = 50 kg P2O5/ha K1 = 50 kg K2O/ha <br /> N2 = 50 kg N/ha P2 = 100 kg P2O5/ha K2 = 100 kg K2O/ha <br /> N3 = 100 kg N/ha P3 = 200 kg P2O5/ha K3 = 200 kg K2O/ha <br />all plots received 500 kg/ha of dolomitic lime in June 2005. <br />
  56. 56. Intercropping Systems<br />
  57. 57. Cassava / Soybean Intercropping at YAAS<br />note:4 RMB/kg for soybean,380 RMB/ton for cassava<br />
  58. 58. Pest and Disease Management in Asia<br /><ul><li>CIAT role in Mealybug response
  59. 59. Helped identify the cassava mealybug problem initially
  60. 60. Tony Bellotti confirmed the pest, identified the control, providedprotocols on mass-rearing, and links to IITA for wasp population
  61. 61. DOA, TTDI, & DOAE did the mass-rearing and release
  62. 62. Proposals for pest and disease R, D, & I
  63. 63. FAO-TCP only on mealybug in GMS - with “links” to CIAT, but limited capacity for roll out
  64. 64. EC/CGIAR/IFAD funds on cassava pests and diseases- need to modify due to FAO-TCP
  65. 65. Status
  66. 66. A. lopeziappears to control the mealybug in Thailand, but needs verification and no roll out in other countries (esp. Cambodia)
  67. 67. Mites and whitefly causing concern
  68. 68. CBB and CWB present, but not rampant</li></li></ul><li>Cassava: Focus and Challenges<br /><ul><li>Pests and diseases: R, D, & I
  69. 69. Research on (relatively) unknown problems – mainly diseases
  70. 70. Development and Implementation of control measures
  71. 71. Propagation systems: petiole, micro-stake, tissue culture
  72. 72. Breeding
  73. 73. More integrated: CIAT & Region and within the Region: Vn, Ch, Th …
  74. 74. For starch quality – waxy, SGC … bioplastics (sago-like)
  75. 75. For pest and disease tolerance / resistance
  76. 76. Other: branchless, reduced PPD, cold tolerance … herbicide-tolerance
  77. 77. Agronomy
  78. 78. Fertilizer DSS (“AfSIS” approach in Vietnam??)
  79. 79. Intercropping and erosion control (possible DSS..)
  80. 80. Seasonality / bulking … crop growth model
  81. 81. 9th Triennial Regional Cassava Workshop, Nanning, China: 26/11- 3/12</li></li></ul><li>Tropical Forages in Asia<br /><ul><li>Forages, livestock and livelihoods
  82. 82. High Value Opportunities
  83. 83. From keepers to producers of livestock
  84. 84. Environment services
  85. 85. Component of farming systems for the uplands
  86. 86. Focus countries: Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand</li></li></ul><li>Forage Activities in the Region<br />Projects<br /><ul><li>ACIAR
  87. 87. L4PP: Legumes and pigs in Lao uplands
  88. 88. F4B: Quality grasses for cattle in Cambodia
  89. 89. World Vision: Feed for cattle in rice-based NE Thailand
  90. 90. RSLP: Post-rice + upland forages in southern Lao
  91. 91. SPSP: Pig production and marketing, linked to animal andhuman health issues (CSIRO), in northern Lao
  92. 92. IFAD
  93. 93. FAP: Forages, production systems, and markets C. Vietnam
  94. 94. CLVDT: Improved production and marketing in Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam Development Triangle: South-South linkages</li></li></ul><li>Forage Impacts and Entry Points<br />(Reported in the Tropical Forages Program)<br />Main factors/impacts<br /><ul><li>Small areas of high quality forages that
  95. 95. Save labour
  96. 96. Increase growth rate
  97. 97. Market linkages and income
  98. 98. Secure livelihoods
  99. 99. Enable better production and health management
  100. 100. Institutional change
  101. 101. Scaling out mechanisms (govt, NGOs, etc. in Learning Alliances)
  102. 102. Systems change
  103. 103. Both production and marketing systems</li></li></ul><li>Cambodia, F4B<br /><ul><li>Improved grasses including:
  104. 104. Mulato 1+2 & Panicum maximum ‘Simuang’ for upland areas
  105. 105. Paspalum atratum and Brachiariahumidicola ‘Llanero’ for partly water logged lowlands
  106. 106. Successfully adopted by farmers in the project area
  107. 107. Allowed competition with the Thai cattle industry
  108. 108. Extension partly through farmer-to-farmer exchange</li></li></ul><li>Cambodia, F4B<br /><ul><li>Forage fodder banks significantly reduced the amount of time needed to feed and manage cattle in all seasons
  109. 109. Greatest benefit in the early wet and flooding seasons
  110. 110. Main beneficiaries: children and men (who care for cattle)</li></ul>Units: (hrs/day)<br />
  111. 111. Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP<br /><ul><li>Increased productivity through forages introduced by CIAT
  112. 112. Higher productivity lead to use of more demanding cattle breeds in Ea Kar District, DakLak Province, Vietnam</li></li></ul><li>Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP<br /><ul><li>More than 1000 farmers adopted forage grasses
  113. 113. Success from combining technical inputs with linking farmers to markets
  114. 114. Innovative indirect credit systems permitted integration of extremely poor in market chain
  115. 115. Out-scaling through IFAD investment/loan project with FAP mentoring and training
  116. 116. Active integration of policy makers</li></li></ul><li>Forages: Focus and Challenges<br /><ul><li>Germplasm
  117. 117. Improved suitability for specific agroecologies:- intermittent waterlogged and post-rice- low soil fertility
  118. 118. New forage legumes
  119. 119. Perennials
  120. 120. Seed production and multiplication
  121. 121. Market linkages and systems change
  122. 122. Step-wise systems change: feeding, health, management, herd management, sales planning …… land use planning
  123. 123. Critical driver for changing livestock keepers to livestock producers- driver for farming systems change => greater resilience
  124. 124. Scaling up
  125. 125. Developing new approaches for scaling-up and systems change (LA …)
  126. 126. Impact assessment </li></li></ul><li>Linking Farmers to Markets in Asia<br />SDC-funded SADU Project: Review just completed<br />Agro-Enterprise Development Process:<br /> Area Based Approach<br />Product selection<br /> Market chain studies<br /> Action plan / interventions<br />Area based and Smallholder focus <br />=> Risk of being seen as supply driven<br />
  127. 127. Supply Chains and Stakeholders<br /><ul><li>SADU works in very different supply chains (currently 14)
  128. 128. Roots, tubers, and cereals
  129. 129. Fruits & vegetables
  130. 130. Livestock
  131. 131. Non-timber forest products
  132. 132. All supply chains important for poor and ethnic minorities
  133. 133. SADU works with
  134. 134. Farming households
  135. 135. Collectors/traders
  136. 136. Local extension services
  137. 137. Processing firms
  138. 138. Policy-makers
  139. 139. Experts (universities and research institutes) </li></li></ul><li>Types of interventions<br /><ul><li>Wide range & vary across supply chains
  140. 140. Stakeholder awareness
  141. 141. Collective action
  142. 142. Technology adoption
  143. 143. profitable & competitive farming enterprises
  144. 144. profitable & competitive processing enterprises
  145. 145. Enabling Business Development Services
  146. 146. Policy and regulations
  147. 147. Contract farming
  148. 148. Testing of supermarket chains
  149. 149. Product branding </li></li></ul><li>Level of Focus / Intervention<br /><ul><li>Individual village level
  150. 150. No allowance for scaled impacts
  151. 151. Cluster of villages
  152. 152. More potential for impact
  153. 153. Commune (Vn) or Sub-District (La)
  154. 154. “Structure” helps the expansion / scaling out
  155. 155. Province
  156. 156. Capacity to facilitate or drive interventions
  157. 157. Multi-province or national
  158. 158. If policy or regulations are drivers
  159. 159. If volume is an issue (e.g. medium- and large-scale agribusiness)</li></li></ul><li>Research Studies & Policy Briefs<br />Studies (with and by partners)<br /><ul><li>The role of women in farmer groups: case study on corn production groups in Luang Nam Tha Province
  160. 160. Models for Contract Farming: case study on corn production in Pak Xeng district, LuangPrabang Province
  161. 161. Case study on contract Farming Model for Pig Production in Vientiane capital, Savannakhet and Champasack Provinces
  162. 162. The linkage between farmers organizations and agricultural markets in Vientiane and Oudomxay Provinces</li></ul>Draft Policy Briefs<br /><ul><li>Contract Farming
  163. 163. Producer Groups
  164. 164. Open versus Regulated Trade</li></li></ul><li>Land Use and Climate Change<br />“Study on Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Land Use in the Lao PDR”<br /><ul><li>Implemented by DAPA and CIAT Asia for GTZ
  165. 165. Included
  166. 166. Climate: 1900-2000 & 2050 (A1B)
  167. 167. Crop suitability: Now & 2050
  168. 168. Land Use Change: 2000-2009
  169. 169. Resilience / adaptation of local farming systems
  170. 170. Small study, but generated a lot of interest</li></ul>“Managing water in rainfed agriculture: the key to food security in the GMS”<br /><ul><li>Implemented by IWMI, with CIAT and National Partners
  171. 171. Commissioned by Sida
  172. 172. Develop into land, water, and farming system management project for the GMS </li></li></ul><li>Current Activities match New Strategy<br />

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