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Research Highlights CIAT Asia

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  • 1. Research Highlights CIAT Asia
    Annual Program Review 2011
    Nairobi, Kenya10 May2011
    Asia Team
  • 2. Current Activities in Asia
    Activities / Projects
    • Cassava
    • 3. Forages
    • 4. Linking Farmers to Markets (LFM)
    • 5. Land Use & Climate Change
    + GTZ/GIZSida
  • 6. Cassava in Asia
    • Current production and prices as a driver
    • 7. Activities in Asia
    • 8. Projects
    • 9. Outcomes
    • 10. Focus
  • Cassava projects in the region
    • The Nippon Foundation (Cassava-based farming systems)Laos and Cambodia, plus Burma and VietnamVarieties and production systems
    • 11. IFAD Asia Pacific Division (4FGF)Laos, Cambodia, and VietnamProduction systems, links to markets and processing, “waste” management and utilization
    • 12. IFAD Technical Division (Biofuels: sweet sorghum, jatropha, and cassava)Breeding (Cali): conversion to ethanol (waxy, SGC, etc.)CLAYUCA: smallscale processing, utilization, & wastesVietnam & China: best varieties & agronomy for bioethanol
    • 13. Pests and Diseases (more later)
  • Global Production of Cassava
    Asia = 31.5%
    Data source: FAOSTAT
  • 14. Increased Production
    Influence of new varieties?
    • High and stable yields and high starch content
    • 15. Major impact on the growth of cassava production in SE Asia
    • 16. ↑ starch yield per ha
    Yield increase:
    • Mostly genetics
    • 17. Only partly agronomy/ fertilizers
  • Demand and prices are driving increased production by farmers – and interest by governments and donors
    Prices in Thailand
    Source: TTDI
  • 18. Cassava in Vietnam
    2000 to 2010
    • Area:237,600 to 560,400 ha
    • 19. Yield:8.36 t/ha to 16.90 t/ ha
    • 20. Production:1.99 to 9.45 million t
    • 21. Currently:70% exported; 30% used domestically
    • 22. Processing capacity: 2.4-3.8 mill. t roots/year
    • 23. 6 ethanol refineries soon: 550 million L/year Will require: ≈34% production ≈ 50% exports
    2009 production in agroecologicalzones in Vietnam Each dot represents 1000 ha
  • 24. Cassava Varieties in Vietnam
  • 25. Production and Processing in China
  • 26. Main Cassava Provinces in China
  • 27. Production in China
    • Cassava area
    Limited room for expansion due to competition with other crops and bioclimatic suitability – interest in cold-tolerance
    • Intercropping to increase incomes
    Farmers intercrop with maize, peanut, watermelon, soybean or other short-term crops, and some longer-term crops.
    • Labour
    As the cost of labor increases, farmers move to small and big tractors. If the land is very steep they make terraces.
    • Fertilizer
    Recommend N:P:K ratios of 5:1:8 for poor soils and 3:1:5 for normal soils and at rates up to 900kg/ha of compound fertilizer
  • 28. Production in Other Countries
    • Thailand
    • 29. Production reduced in 2009 by 20-30% due to cassava mealybug
    • 30. Desire to reduce area (at least not expand) but increase production
    • 31. Cambodia
    • 32. Extremely rapid expansion of area of production – and yield
    • 33. Mealybug is a major threat
    • 34. Good examples of returns on good agronomy
    • 35. Expansion by smallholders and large concessions
    • 36. Laos
    • 37. Production still small, but expanding – along with processing
    • 38. Others
    • 39. Increased areas in Burma, Indonesia, and the Philippines
  • Production focus
    • Selection of most suitable varieties
    • 40. Yield and starch content
    • 41. Dual purpose (eating and processing)
    • 42. Suitability to higher altitudes
    • 43. Agronomy
    • 44. Fertilizer rates (returns on investment x 6)
    • 45. Intercropping for income and erosion control
    • 46. Direct erosion control (contours, etc.)
    • 47. Seasonality (time of planting & harvest) to ↑ feedstock
    • 48. Processing and utilization
    • 49. On farm feeding systems
    • 50. Local pre-processing: chips, wet starch, etc.
    • 51. “Waste” utilization (Liquid: biogas; Solid: feed, fertilizer, etc.)
    • 52. Life Cycle Analysis
  • Crop utilization, waste management and efficiency
  • 53. Agronomy / Soil Fertility:
    Identify the soil nutrient constraintsImprove the efficiency of fertilizer applicationsImprove recommendations
    • Long-term NPK trials
    • 54. Multi-location trials with different varieties
    K deficiency in Kampong Cham, Cambodia
    P deficiency in XiengKhouang, Laos
  • 55. Effect of applications of various levels of N, P and K fertilizers on the root yields of two cassava varieties
    1) N0 = 0N P0 = 0P K0 = 0K
    N1 = 25 kg N/ha P1 = 50 kg P2O5/ha K1 = 50 kg K2O/ha
    N2 = 50 kg N/ha P2 = 100 kg P2O5/ha K2 = 100 kg K2O/ha
    N3 = 100 kg N/ha P3 = 200 kg P2O5/ha K3 = 200 kg K2O/ha
    all plots received 500 kg/ha of dolomitic lime in June 2005.
  • 56. Intercropping Systems
  • 57. Cassava / Soybean Intercropping at YAAS
    note:4 RMB/kg for soybean,380 RMB/ton for cassava
  • 58. Pest and Disease Management in Asia
    • CIAT role in Mealybug response
    • 59. Helped identify the cassava mealybug problem initially
    • 60. Tony Bellotti confirmed the pest, identified the control, providedprotocols on mass-rearing, and links to IITA for wasp population
    • 61. DOA, TTDI, & DOAE did the mass-rearing and release
    • 62. Proposals for pest and disease R, D, & I
    • 63. FAO-TCP only on mealybug in GMS - with “links” to CIAT, but limited capacity for roll out
    • 64. EC/CGIAR/IFAD funds on cassava pests and diseases- need to modify due to FAO-TCP
    • 65. Status
    • 66. A. lopeziappears to control the mealybug in Thailand, but needs verification and no roll out in other countries (esp. Cambodia)
    • 67. Mites and whitefly causing concern
    • 68. CBB and CWB present, but not rampant
  • Cassava: Focus and Challenges
    • Pests and diseases: R, D, & I
    • 69. Research on (relatively) unknown problems – mainly diseases
    • 70. Development and Implementation of control measures
    • 71. Propagation systems: petiole, micro-stake, tissue culture
    • 72. Breeding
    • 73. More integrated: CIAT & Region and within the Region: Vn, Ch, Th …
    • 74. For starch quality – waxy, SGC … bioplastics (sago-like)
    • 75. For pest and disease tolerance / resistance
    • 76. Other: branchless, reduced PPD, cold tolerance … herbicide-tolerance
    • 77. Agronomy
    • 78. Fertilizer DSS (“AfSIS” approach in Vietnam??)
    • 79. Intercropping and erosion control (possible DSS..)
    • 80. Seasonality / bulking … crop growth model
    • 81. 9th Triennial Regional Cassava Workshop, Nanning, China: 26/11- 3/12
  • Tropical Forages in Asia
    • Forages, livestock and livelihoods
    • 82. High Value Opportunities
    • 83. From keepers to producers of livestock
    • 84. Environment services
    • 85. Component of farming systems for the uplands
    • 86. Focus countries: Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand
  • Forage Activities in the Region
    Projects
    • ACIAR
    • 87. L4PP: Legumes and pigs in Lao uplands
    • 88. F4B: Quality grasses for cattle in Cambodia
    • 89. World Vision: Feed for cattle in rice-based NE Thailand
    • 90. RSLP: Post-rice + upland forages in southern Lao
    • 91. SPSP: Pig production and marketing, linked to animal andhuman health issues (CSIRO), in northern Lao
    • 92. IFAD
    • 93. FAP: Forages, production systems, and markets C. Vietnam
    • 94. CLVDT: Improved production and marketing in Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam Development Triangle: South-South linkages
  • Forage Impacts and Entry Points
    (Reported in the Tropical Forages Program)
    Main factors/impacts
    • Small areas of high quality forages that
    • 95. Save labour
    • 96. Increase growth rate
    • 97. Market linkages and income
    • 98. Secure livelihoods
    • 99. Enable better production and health management
    • 100. Institutional change
    • 101. Scaling out mechanisms (govt, NGOs, etc. in Learning Alliances)
    • 102. Systems change
    • 103. Both production and marketing systems
  • Cambodia, F4B
    • Improved grasses including:
    • 104. Mulato 1+2 & Panicum maximum ‘Simuang’ for upland areas
    • 105. Paspalum atratum and Brachiariahumidicola ‘Llanero’ for partly water logged lowlands
    • 106. Successfully adopted by farmers in the project area
    • 107. Allowed competition with the Thai cattle industry
    • 108. Extension partly through farmer-to-farmer exchange
  • Cambodia, F4B
    • Forage fodder banks significantly reduced the amount of time needed to feed and manage cattle in all seasons
    • 109. Greatest benefit in the early wet and flooding seasons
    • 110. Main beneficiaries: children and men (who care for cattle)
    Units: (hrs/day)
  • 111. Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP
    • Increased productivity through forages introduced by CIAT
    • 112. Higher productivity lead to use of more demanding cattle breeds in Ea Kar District, DakLak Province, Vietnam
  • Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP
    • More than 1000 farmers adopted forage grasses
    • 113. Success from combining technical inputs with linking farmers to markets
    • 114. Innovative indirect credit systems permitted integration of extremely poor in market chain
    • 115. Out-scaling through IFAD investment/loan project with FAP mentoring and training
    • 116. Active integration of policy makers
  • Forages: Focus and Challenges
    • Germplasm
    • 117. Improved suitability for specific agroecologies:- intermittent waterlogged and post-rice- low soil fertility
    • 118. New forage legumes
    • 119. Perennials
    • 120. Seed production and multiplication
    • 121. Market linkages and systems change
    • 122. Step-wise systems change: feeding, health, management, herd management, sales planning …… land use planning
    • 123. Critical driver for changing livestock keepers to livestock producers- driver for farming systems change => greater resilience
    • 124. Scaling up
    • 125. Developing new approaches for scaling-up and systems change (LA …)
    • 126. Impact assessment
  • Linking Farmers to Markets in Asia
    SDC-funded SADU Project: Review just completed
    Agro-Enterprise Development Process:
    Area Based Approach
    Product selection
    Market chain studies
    Action plan / interventions
    Area based and Smallholder focus
    => Risk of being seen as supply driven
  • 127. Supply Chains and Stakeholders
    • SADU works in very different supply chains (currently 14)
    • 128. Roots, tubers, and cereals
    • 129. Fruits & vegetables
    • 130. Livestock
    • 131. Non-timber forest products
    • 132. All supply chains important for poor and ethnic minorities
    • 133. SADU works with
    • 134. Farming households
    • 135. Collectors/traders
    • 136. Local extension services
    • 137. Processing firms
    • 138. Policy-makers
    • 139. Experts (universities and research institutes)
  • Types of interventions
    • Wide range & vary across supply chains
    • 140. Stakeholder awareness
    • 141. Collective action
    • 142. Technology adoption
    • 143. profitable & competitive farming enterprises
    • 144. profitable & competitive processing enterprises
    • 145. Enabling Business Development Services
    • 146. Policy and regulations
    • 147. Contract farming
    • 148. Testing of supermarket chains
    • 149. Product branding
  • Level of Focus / Intervention
    • Individual village level
    • 150. No allowance for scaled impacts
    • 151. Cluster of villages
    • 152. More potential for impact
    • 153. Commune (Vn) or Sub-District (La)
    • 154. “Structure” helps the expansion / scaling out
    • 155. Province
    • 156. Capacity to facilitate or drive interventions
    • 157. Multi-province or national
    • 158. If policy or regulations are drivers
    • 159. If volume is an issue (e.g. medium- and large-scale agribusiness)
  • Research Studies & Policy Briefs
    Studies (with and by partners)
    • The role of women in farmer groups: case study on corn production groups in Luang Nam Tha Province
    • 160. Models for Contract Farming: case study on corn production in Pak Xeng district, LuangPrabang Province
    • 161. Case study on contract Farming Model for Pig Production in Vientiane capital, Savannakhet and Champasack Provinces
    • 162. The linkage between farmers organizations and agricultural markets in Vientiane and Oudomxay Provinces
    Draft Policy Briefs
    • Contract Farming
    • 163. Producer Groups
    • 164. Open versus Regulated Trade
  • Land Use and Climate Change
    “Study on Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Land Use in the Lao PDR”
    • Implemented by DAPA and CIAT Asia for GTZ
    • 165. Included
    • 166. Climate: 1900-2000 & 2050 (A1B)
    • 167. Crop suitability: Now & 2050
    • 168. Land Use Change: 2000-2009
    • 169. Resilience / adaptation of local farming systems
    • 170. Small study, but generated a lot of interest
    “Managing water in rainfed agriculture: the key to food security in the GMS”
    • Implemented by IWMI, with CIAT and National Partners
    • 171. Commissioned by Sida
    • 172. Develop into land, water, and farming system management project for the GMS
  • Current Activities match New Strategy

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