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Research Highlights CIAT Asia
 

Research Highlights CIAT Asia

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    Research Highlights CIAT Asia Research Highlights CIAT Asia Presentation Transcript

    • Research Highlights CIAT Asia
      Annual Program Review 2011
      Nairobi, Kenya10 May2011
      Asia Team
    • Current Activities in Asia
      Activities / Projects
      • Cassava
      • Forages
      • Linking Farmers to Markets (LFM)
      • Land Use & Climate Change
      + GTZ/GIZSida
    • Cassava in Asia
      • Current production and prices as a driver
      • Activities in Asia
      • Projects
      • Outcomes
      • Focus
    • Cassava projects in the region
      • The Nippon Foundation (Cassava-based farming systems)Laos and Cambodia, plus Burma and VietnamVarieties and production systems
      • IFAD Asia Pacific Division (4FGF)Laos, Cambodia, and VietnamProduction systems, links to markets and processing, “waste” management and utilization
      • IFAD Technical Division (Biofuels: sweet sorghum, jatropha, and cassava)Breeding (Cali): conversion to ethanol (waxy, SGC, etc.)CLAYUCA: smallscale processing, utilization, & wastesVietnam & China: best varieties & agronomy for bioethanol
      • Pests and Diseases (more later)
    • Global Production of Cassava
      Asia = 31.5%
      Data source: FAOSTAT
    • Increased Production
      Influence of new varieties?
      • High and stable yields and high starch content
      • Major impact on the growth of cassava production in SE Asia
      • ↑ starch yield per ha
      Yield increase:
      • Mostly genetics
      • Only partly agronomy/ fertilizers
    • Demand and prices are driving increased production by farmers – and interest by governments and donors
      Prices in Thailand
      Source: TTDI
    • Cassava in Vietnam
      2000 to 2010
      • Area:237,600 to 560,400 ha
      • Yield:8.36 t/ha to 16.90 t/ ha
      • Production:1.99 to 9.45 million t
      • Currently:70% exported; 30% used domestically
      • Processing capacity: 2.4-3.8 mill. t roots/year
      • 6 ethanol refineries soon: 550 million L/year Will require: ≈34% production ≈ 50% exports
      2009 production in agroecologicalzones in Vietnam Each dot represents 1000 ha
    • Cassava Varieties in Vietnam
    • Production and Processing in China
    • Main Cassava Provinces in China
    • Production in China
      • Cassava area
      Limited room for expansion due to competition with other crops and bioclimatic suitability – interest in cold-tolerance
      • Intercropping to increase incomes
      Farmers intercrop with maize, peanut, watermelon, soybean or other short-term crops, and some longer-term crops.
      • Labour
      As the cost of labor increases, farmers move to small and big tractors. If the land is very steep they make terraces.
      • Fertilizer
      Recommend N:P:K ratios of 5:1:8 for poor soils and 3:1:5 for normal soils and at rates up to 900kg/ha of compound fertilizer
    • Production in Other Countries
      • Thailand
      • Production reduced in 2009 by 20-30% due to cassava mealybug
      • Desire to reduce area (at least not expand) but increase production
      • Cambodia
      • Extremely rapid expansion of area of production – and yield
      • Mealybug is a major threat
      • Good examples of returns on good agronomy
      • Expansion by smallholders and large concessions
      • Laos
      • Production still small, but expanding – along with processing
      • Others
      • Increased areas in Burma, Indonesia, and the Philippines
    • Production focus
      • Selection of most suitable varieties
      • Yield and starch content
      • Dual purpose (eating and processing)
      • Suitability to higher altitudes
      • Agronomy
      • Fertilizer rates (returns on investment x 6)
      • Intercropping for income and erosion control
      • Direct erosion control (contours, etc.)
      • Seasonality (time of planting & harvest) to ↑ feedstock
      • Processing and utilization
      • On farm feeding systems
      • Local pre-processing: chips, wet starch, etc.
      • “Waste” utilization (Liquid: biogas; Solid: feed, fertilizer, etc.)
      • Life Cycle Analysis
    • Crop utilization, waste management and efficiency
    • Agronomy / Soil Fertility:
      Identify the soil nutrient constraintsImprove the efficiency of fertilizer applicationsImprove recommendations
      • Long-term NPK trials
      • Multi-location trials with different varieties
      K deficiency in Kampong Cham, Cambodia
      P deficiency in XiengKhouang, Laos
    • Effect of applications of various levels of N, P and K fertilizers on the root yields of two cassava varieties
      1) N0 = 0N P0 = 0P K0 = 0K
      N1 = 25 kg N/ha P1 = 50 kg P2O5/ha K1 = 50 kg K2O/ha
      N2 = 50 kg N/ha P2 = 100 kg P2O5/ha K2 = 100 kg K2O/ha
      N3 = 100 kg N/ha P3 = 200 kg P2O5/ha K3 = 200 kg K2O/ha
      all plots received 500 kg/ha of dolomitic lime in June 2005.
    • Intercropping Systems
    • Cassava / Soybean Intercropping at YAAS
      note:4 RMB/kg for soybean,380 RMB/ton for cassava
    • Pest and Disease Management in Asia
      • CIAT role in Mealybug response
      • Helped identify the cassava mealybug problem initially
      • Tony Bellotti confirmed the pest, identified the control, providedprotocols on mass-rearing, and links to IITA for wasp population
      • DOA, TTDI, & DOAE did the mass-rearing and release
      • Proposals for pest and disease R, D, & I
      • FAO-TCP only on mealybug in GMS - with “links” to CIAT, but limited capacity for roll out
      • EC/CGIAR/IFAD funds on cassava pests and diseases- need to modify due to FAO-TCP
      • Status
      • A. lopeziappears to control the mealybug in Thailand, but needs verification and no roll out in other countries (esp. Cambodia)
      • Mites and whitefly causing concern
      • CBB and CWB present, but not rampant
    • Cassava: Focus and Challenges
      • Pests and diseases: R, D, & I
      • Research on (relatively) unknown problems – mainly diseases
      • Development and Implementation of control measures
      • Propagation systems: petiole, micro-stake, tissue culture
      • Breeding
      • More integrated: CIAT & Region and within the Region: Vn, Ch, Th …
      • For starch quality – waxy, SGC … bioplastics (sago-like)
      • For pest and disease tolerance / resistance
      • Other: branchless, reduced PPD, cold tolerance … herbicide-tolerance
      • Agronomy
      • Fertilizer DSS (“AfSIS” approach in Vietnam??)
      • Intercropping and erosion control (possible DSS..)
      • Seasonality / bulking … crop growth model
      • 9th Triennial Regional Cassava Workshop, Nanning, China: 26/11- 3/12
    • Tropical Forages in Asia
      • Forages, livestock and livelihoods
      • High Value Opportunities
      • From keepers to producers of livestock
      • Environment services
      • Component of farming systems for the uplands
      • Focus countries: Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand
    • Forage Activities in the Region
      Projects
      • ACIAR
      • L4PP: Legumes and pigs in Lao uplands
      • F4B: Quality grasses for cattle in Cambodia
      • World Vision: Feed for cattle in rice-based NE Thailand
      • RSLP: Post-rice + upland forages in southern Lao
      • SPSP: Pig production and marketing, linked to animal andhuman health issues (CSIRO), in northern Lao
      • IFAD
      • FAP: Forages, production systems, and markets C. Vietnam
      • CLVDT: Improved production and marketing in Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam Development Triangle: South-South linkages
    • Forage Impacts and Entry Points
      (Reported in the Tropical Forages Program)
      Main factors/impacts
      • Small areas of high quality forages that
      • Save labour
      • Increase growth rate
      • Market linkages and income
      • Secure livelihoods
      • Enable better production and health management
      • Institutional change
      • Scaling out mechanisms (govt, NGOs, etc. in Learning Alliances)
      • Systems change
      • Both production and marketing systems
    • Cambodia, F4B
      • Improved grasses including:
      • Mulato 1+2 & Panicum maximum ‘Simuang’ for upland areas
      • Paspalum atratum and Brachiariahumidicola ‘Llanero’ for partly water logged lowlands
      • Successfully adopted by farmers in the project area
      • Allowed competition with the Thai cattle industry
      • Extension partly through farmer-to-farmer exchange
    • Cambodia, F4B
      • Forage fodder banks significantly reduced the amount of time needed to feed and manage cattle in all seasons
      • Greatest benefit in the early wet and flooding seasons
      • Main beneficiaries: children and men (who care for cattle)
      Units: (hrs/day)
    • Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP
      • Increased productivity through forages introduced by CIAT
      • Higher productivity lead to use of more demanding cattle breeds in Ea Kar District, DakLak Province, Vietnam
    • Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP
      • More than 1000 farmers adopted forage grasses
      • Success from combining technical inputs with linking farmers to markets
      • Innovative indirect credit systems permitted integration of extremely poor in market chain
      • Out-scaling through IFAD investment/loan project with FAP mentoring and training
      • Active integration of policy makers
    • Forages: Focus and Challenges
      • Germplasm
      • Improved suitability for specific agroecologies:- intermittent waterlogged and post-rice- low soil fertility
      • New forage legumes
      • Perennials
      • Seed production and multiplication
      • Market linkages and systems change
      • Step-wise systems change: feeding, health, management, herd management, sales planning …… land use planning
      • Critical driver for changing livestock keepers to livestock producers- driver for farming systems change => greater resilience
      • Scaling up
      • Developing new approaches for scaling-up and systems change (LA …)
      • Impact assessment
    • Linking Farmers to Markets in Asia
      SDC-funded SADU Project: Review just completed
      Agro-Enterprise Development Process:
      Area Based Approach
      Product selection
      Market chain studies
      Action plan / interventions
      Area based and Smallholder focus
      => Risk of being seen as supply driven
    • Supply Chains and Stakeholders
      • SADU works in very different supply chains (currently 14)
      • Roots, tubers, and cereals
      • Fruits & vegetables
      • Livestock
      • Non-timber forest products
      • All supply chains important for poor and ethnic minorities
      • SADU works with
      • Farming households
      • Collectors/traders
      • Local extension services
      • Processing firms
      • Policy-makers
      • Experts (universities and research institutes)
    • Types of interventions
      • Wide range & vary across supply chains
      • Stakeholder awareness
      • Collective action
      • Technology adoption
      • profitable & competitive farming enterprises
      • profitable & competitive processing enterprises
      • Enabling Business Development Services
      • Policy and regulations
      • Contract farming
      • Testing of supermarket chains
      • Product branding
    • Level of Focus / Intervention
      • Individual village level
      • No allowance for scaled impacts
      • Cluster of villages
      • More potential for impact
      • Commune (Vn) or Sub-District (La)
      • “Structure” helps the expansion / scaling out
      • Province
      • Capacity to facilitate or drive interventions
      • Multi-province or national
      • If policy or regulations are drivers
      • If volume is an issue (e.g. medium- and large-scale agribusiness)
    • Research Studies & Policy Briefs
      Studies (with and by partners)
      • The role of women in farmer groups: case study on corn production groups in Luang Nam Tha Province
      • Models for Contract Farming: case study on corn production in Pak Xeng district, LuangPrabang Province
      • Case study on contract Farming Model for Pig Production in Vientiane capital, Savannakhet and Champasack Provinces
      • The linkage between farmers organizations and agricultural markets in Vientiane and Oudomxay Provinces
      Draft Policy Briefs
      • Contract Farming
      • Producer Groups
      • Open versus Regulated Trade
    • Land Use and Climate Change
      “Study on Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Land Use in the Lao PDR”
      • Implemented by DAPA and CIAT Asia for GTZ
      • Included
      • Climate: 1900-2000 & 2050 (A1B)
      • Crop suitability: Now & 2050
      • Land Use Change: 2000-2009
      • Resilience / adaptation of local farming systems
      • Small study, but generated a lot of interest
      “Managing water in rainfed agriculture: the key to food security in the GMS”
      • Implemented by IWMI, with CIAT and National Partners
      • Commissioned by Sida
      • Develop into land, water, and farming system management project for the GMS
    • Current Activities match New Strategy