• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Research Highlights CIAT Asia

Research Highlights CIAT Asia






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 4

http://paper.li 4



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Research Highlights CIAT Asia Research Highlights CIAT Asia Presentation Transcript

    • Research Highlights CIAT Asia
      Annual Program Review 2011
      Nairobi, Kenya10 May2011
      Asia Team
    • Current Activities in Asia
      Activities / Projects
      • Cassava
      • Forages
      • Linking Farmers to Markets (LFM)
      • Land Use & Climate Change
      + GTZ/GIZSida
    • Cassava in Asia
      • Current production and prices as a driver
      • Activities in Asia
      • Projects
      • Outcomes
      • Focus
    • Cassava projects in the region
      • The Nippon Foundation (Cassava-based farming systems)Laos and Cambodia, plus Burma and VietnamVarieties and production systems
      • IFAD Asia Pacific Division (4FGF)Laos, Cambodia, and VietnamProduction systems, links to markets and processing, “waste” management and utilization
      • IFAD Technical Division (Biofuels: sweet sorghum, jatropha, and cassava)Breeding (Cali): conversion to ethanol (waxy, SGC, etc.)CLAYUCA: smallscale processing, utilization, & wastesVietnam & China: best varieties & agronomy for bioethanol
      • Pests and Diseases (more later)
    • Global Production of Cassava
      Asia = 31.5%
      Data source: FAOSTAT
    • Increased Production
      Influence of new varieties?
      • High and stable yields and high starch content
      • Major impact on the growth of cassava production in SE Asia
      • ↑ starch yield per ha
      Yield increase:
      • Mostly genetics
      • Only partly agronomy/ fertilizers
    • Demand and prices are driving increased production by farmers – and interest by governments and donors
      Prices in Thailand
      Source: TTDI
    • Cassava in Vietnam
      2000 to 2010
      • Area:237,600 to 560,400 ha
      • Yield:8.36 t/ha to 16.90 t/ ha
      • Production:1.99 to 9.45 million t
      • Currently:70% exported; 30% used domestically
      • Processing capacity: 2.4-3.8 mill. t roots/year
      • 6 ethanol refineries soon: 550 million L/year Will require: ≈34% production ≈ 50% exports
      2009 production in agroecologicalzones in Vietnam Each dot represents 1000 ha
    • Cassava Varieties in Vietnam
    • Production and Processing in China
    • Main Cassava Provinces in China
    • Production in China
      • Cassava area
      Limited room for expansion due to competition with other crops and bioclimatic suitability – interest in cold-tolerance
      • Intercropping to increase incomes
      Farmers intercrop with maize, peanut, watermelon, soybean or other short-term crops, and some longer-term crops.
      • Labour
      As the cost of labor increases, farmers move to small and big tractors. If the land is very steep they make terraces.
      • Fertilizer
      Recommend N:P:K ratios of 5:1:8 for poor soils and 3:1:5 for normal soils and at rates up to 900kg/ha of compound fertilizer
    • Production in Other Countries
      • Thailand
      • Production reduced in 2009 by 20-30% due to cassava mealybug
      • Desire to reduce area (at least not expand) but increase production
      • Cambodia
      • Extremely rapid expansion of area of production – and yield
      • Mealybug is a major threat
      • Good examples of returns on good agronomy
      • Expansion by smallholders and large concessions
      • Laos
      • Production still small, but expanding – along with processing
      • Others
      • Increased areas in Burma, Indonesia, and the Philippines
    • Production focus
      • Selection of most suitable varieties
      • Yield and starch content
      • Dual purpose (eating and processing)
      • Suitability to higher altitudes
      • Agronomy
      • Fertilizer rates (returns on investment x 6)
      • Intercropping for income and erosion control
      • Direct erosion control (contours, etc.)
      • Seasonality (time of planting & harvest) to ↑ feedstock
      • Processing and utilization
      • On farm feeding systems
      • Local pre-processing: chips, wet starch, etc.
      • “Waste” utilization (Liquid: biogas; Solid: feed, fertilizer, etc.)
      • Life Cycle Analysis
    • Crop utilization, waste management and efficiency
    • Agronomy / Soil Fertility:
      Identify the soil nutrient constraintsImprove the efficiency of fertilizer applicationsImprove recommendations
      • Long-term NPK trials
      • Multi-location trials with different varieties
      K deficiency in Kampong Cham, Cambodia
      P deficiency in XiengKhouang, Laos
    • Effect of applications of various levels of N, P and K fertilizers on the root yields of two cassava varieties
      1) N0 = 0N P0 = 0P K0 = 0K
      N1 = 25 kg N/ha P1 = 50 kg P2O5/ha K1 = 50 kg K2O/ha
      N2 = 50 kg N/ha P2 = 100 kg P2O5/ha K2 = 100 kg K2O/ha
      N3 = 100 kg N/ha P3 = 200 kg P2O5/ha K3 = 200 kg K2O/ha
      all plots received 500 kg/ha of dolomitic lime in June 2005.
    • Intercropping Systems
    • Cassava / Soybean Intercropping at YAAS
      note:4 RMB/kg for soybean,380 RMB/ton for cassava
    • Pest and Disease Management in Asia
      • CIAT role in Mealybug response
      • Helped identify the cassava mealybug problem initially
      • Tony Bellotti confirmed the pest, identified the control, providedprotocols on mass-rearing, and links to IITA for wasp population
      • DOA, TTDI, & DOAE did the mass-rearing and release
      • Proposals for pest and disease R, D, & I
      • FAO-TCP only on mealybug in GMS - with “links” to CIAT, but limited capacity for roll out
      • EC/CGIAR/IFAD funds on cassava pests and diseases- need to modify due to FAO-TCP
      • Status
      • A. lopeziappears to control the mealybug in Thailand, but needs verification and no roll out in other countries (esp. Cambodia)
      • Mites and whitefly causing concern
      • CBB and CWB present, but not rampant
    • Cassava: Focus and Challenges
      • Pests and diseases: R, D, & I
      • Research on (relatively) unknown problems – mainly diseases
      • Development and Implementation of control measures
      • Propagation systems: petiole, micro-stake, tissue culture
      • Breeding
      • More integrated: CIAT & Region and within the Region: Vn, Ch, Th …
      • For starch quality – waxy, SGC … bioplastics (sago-like)
      • For pest and disease tolerance / resistance
      • Other: branchless, reduced PPD, cold tolerance … herbicide-tolerance
      • Agronomy
      • Fertilizer DSS (“AfSIS” approach in Vietnam??)
      • Intercropping and erosion control (possible DSS..)
      • Seasonality / bulking … crop growth model
      • 9th Triennial Regional Cassava Workshop, Nanning, China: 26/11- 3/12
    • Tropical Forages in Asia
      • Forages, livestock and livelihoods
      • High Value Opportunities
      • From keepers to producers of livestock
      • Environment services
      • Component of farming systems for the uplands
      • Focus countries: Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand
    • Forage Activities in the Region
      • ACIAR
      • L4PP: Legumes and pigs in Lao uplands
      • F4B: Quality grasses for cattle in Cambodia
      • World Vision: Feed for cattle in rice-based NE Thailand
      • RSLP: Post-rice + upland forages in southern Lao
      • SPSP: Pig production and marketing, linked to animal andhuman health issues (CSIRO), in northern Lao
      • IFAD
      • FAP: Forages, production systems, and markets C. Vietnam
      • CLVDT: Improved production and marketing in Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam Development Triangle: South-South linkages
    • Forage Impacts and Entry Points
      (Reported in the Tropical Forages Program)
      Main factors/impacts
      • Small areas of high quality forages that
      • Save labour
      • Increase growth rate
      • Market linkages and income
      • Secure livelihoods
      • Enable better production and health management
      • Institutional change
      • Scaling out mechanisms (govt, NGOs, etc. in Learning Alliances)
      • Systems change
      • Both production and marketing systems
    • Cambodia, F4B
      • Improved grasses including:
      • Mulato 1+2 & Panicum maximum ‘Simuang’ for upland areas
      • Paspalum atratum and Brachiariahumidicola ‘Llanero’ for partly water logged lowlands
      • Successfully adopted by farmers in the project area
      • Allowed competition with the Thai cattle industry
      • Extension partly through farmer-to-farmer exchange
    • Cambodia, F4B
      • Forage fodder banks significantly reduced the amount of time needed to feed and manage cattle in all seasons
      • Greatest benefit in the early wet and flooding seasons
      • Main beneficiaries: children and men (who care for cattle)
      Units: (hrs/day)
    • Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP
      • Increased productivity through forages introduced by CIAT
      • Higher productivity lead to use of more demanding cattle breeds in Ea Kar District, DakLak Province, Vietnam
    • Central Highlands Vietnam, FAP
      • More than 1000 farmers adopted forage grasses
      • Success from combining technical inputs with linking farmers to markets
      • Innovative indirect credit systems permitted integration of extremely poor in market chain
      • Out-scaling through IFAD investment/loan project with FAP mentoring and training
      • Active integration of policy makers
    • Forages: Focus and Challenges
      • Germplasm
      • Improved suitability for specific agroecologies:- intermittent waterlogged and post-rice- low soil fertility
      • New forage legumes
      • Perennials
      • Seed production and multiplication
      • Market linkages and systems change
      • Step-wise systems change: feeding, health, management, herd management, sales planning …… land use planning
      • Critical driver for changing livestock keepers to livestock producers- driver for farming systems change => greater resilience
      • Scaling up
      • Developing new approaches for scaling-up and systems change (LA …)
      • Impact assessment
    • Linking Farmers to Markets in Asia
      SDC-funded SADU Project: Review just completed
      Agro-Enterprise Development Process:
      Area Based Approach
      Product selection
      Market chain studies
      Action plan / interventions
      Area based and Smallholder focus
      => Risk of being seen as supply driven
    • Supply Chains and Stakeholders
      • SADU works in very different supply chains (currently 14)
      • Roots, tubers, and cereals
      • Fruits & vegetables
      • Livestock
      • Non-timber forest products
      • All supply chains important for poor and ethnic minorities
      • SADU works with
      • Farming households
      • Collectors/traders
      • Local extension services
      • Processing firms
      • Policy-makers
      • Experts (universities and research institutes)
    • Types of interventions
      • Wide range & vary across supply chains
      • Stakeholder awareness
      • Collective action
      • Technology adoption
      • profitable & competitive farming enterprises
      • profitable & competitive processing enterprises
      • Enabling Business Development Services
      • Policy and regulations
      • Contract farming
      • Testing of supermarket chains
      • Product branding
    • Level of Focus / Intervention
      • Individual village level
      • No allowance for scaled impacts
      • Cluster of villages
      • More potential for impact
      • Commune (Vn) or Sub-District (La)
      • “Structure” helps the expansion / scaling out
      • Province
      • Capacity to facilitate or drive interventions
      • Multi-province or national
      • If policy or regulations are drivers
      • If volume is an issue (e.g. medium- and large-scale agribusiness)
    • Research Studies & Policy Briefs
      Studies (with and by partners)
      • The role of women in farmer groups: case study on corn production groups in Luang Nam Tha Province
      • Models for Contract Farming: case study on corn production in Pak Xeng district, LuangPrabang Province
      • Case study on contract Farming Model for Pig Production in Vientiane capital, Savannakhet and Champasack Provinces
      • The linkage between farmers organizations and agricultural markets in Vientiane and Oudomxay Provinces
      Draft Policy Briefs
      • Contract Farming
      • Producer Groups
      • Open versus Regulated Trade
    • Land Use and Climate Change
      “Study on Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Land Use in the Lao PDR”
      • Implemented by DAPA and CIAT Asia for GTZ
      • Included
      • Climate: 1900-2000 & 2050 (A1B)
      • Crop suitability: Now & 2050
      • Land Use Change: 2000-2009
      • Resilience / adaptation of local farming systems
      • Small study, but generated a lot of interest
      “Managing water in rainfed agriculture: the key to food security in the GMS”
      • Implemented by IWMI, with CIAT and National Partners
      • Commissioned by Sida
      • Develop into land, water, and farming system management project for the GMS
    • Current Activities match New Strategy