Supporting communities to increase bean productivity through enhanced accessibility to seed of preferred bean varieties and other technologies in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania
Supporting communities to increase beanproductivity through enhanced accessibility to seed of preferred bean varieties andother technologies in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania R.M. Chirwa, J.C. Rubyogo, C. S. Madata, E.D. Mazuma, M. Amane and R. Magreta SAf-CoP5 Annual Meeting Held at Ruvuma Hotel, October 3-7, 2011 Maputo, Mozambique
Presentation Outline Importance of Beans Major Challenges to Production The project interventions Goal Specific objectives 2010-11 Progress
Importance of Bean Good source of plant protein/minerals/vitamins Leaves are valuable vegetables Reduces hunger periods/cash strap period – due to its early maturing – takes 3 months Sold for cash – leaves and grain Good for rotation and intercrop with cereals
Limiting Factors to Bean Production Limited varieties for specific agro-ecologies and market niches, Limited availability of seed of improved bean varieties (at all grades: Breeder’s seed, Basic & Certified Seed), Inefficiency in existing seed production and supply systems, Limited knowledge about the existence or availability of non-variety bean technologies (IPDM & ISFM), Poor linkages between producers and consumers/markets and service providers.
Project GoalSupport communities to increase bean productivity throughenhanced accessibility to seed of preferred bean varietiesand other technologies.
Project Objectives• To speed the testing of any new promising varieties so that superior ones can be recommended for release,• To mainstream the use of appropriate seed production and dissemination channels for wider uptake and utilization of released varieties,• To widely test and fast track use of best non-variety bean-based technologies to increase production, reduce post-harvest loss and enhance utilization/market of beans to increase farmers’ well being at farm level and along the supply chains,• To develop bean commodity functional platforms,• Enhance skills and knowledge of partners.
Project SitesSouthern Highlands of Tanzania: Mbeya, Iringa, Rukwa and Ruvuma Regions• Malawi: Northern, central and southern regions• Mozambique: Tete, Zambezia, Nampula and Niassa provinces
Roles of Each PartnerCategory Actors RolesResearch NARS (DARS, ARI Germplasm development, breeder seed production, Uyole and IIAM) and soil science, nutrition, plant pathology, entomology, CIAT/SABRN socio-economics, M&E, marketing, and research- extension liaison. Provision of information on new varieties Support other partners’ skills and knowledge enhancementSeed National seed Seed quality control and certificationRegulators authoritiesExtension Public and NGOs/FOs Community mobilization and farmer empowerment in bean production, nutrition and marketing Support decentralized testing of varieties and facilitate feed back to research Support the decentralized seed production and diffusion Skills in agri-business management Mobilize farmers to produce and supply toward specific bean market e.g. export market
Roles of Each PartnerCategory Actors RolesSeed producers Seed Companies Variety testing, seed production and marketingand traders Decentralised seed enterpreneurs Traders Farmers groupsNutrition MoH, Universities Nutrition extension and food basket developmentgroups NGOsGrain Traders, exporters Grain market opportunities and contracting smallmarketers Supermarket farmers for grain market Testing variety marketability
Output 1: New acceptable client oriented bean varietiesidentified across the different agro-ecologies and userssystems Research questions: What is the trade-off in accepting the drought tolerant or disease resistant small seeded bean varieties by different actors in the supply chain considering the clients’: gender, wealth and agro-ecological characteristics? Hypothesis: Non-traditional types of varieties are equally acceptable by the actors in the supply chain if they have attributes like drought or disease resistance
Characterization of PVS Sites- PVS sites characterized in terms of: Agro-ecology Rainfall Altitude Pests and diseases User systems Land holding Cropping systems Level of technology
PVS sites and characterizations Number of Participating farmers Major genotypesCountry agro- Sites (No) per sites ecologies (range) Female MaleMalawi x 20Mozambique 3 29 20Tanzania 20 6-10
Output 1: New acceptable client oriented bean varietiesidentified across the different agro-ecologies and userssystems Characteristics Users systems Trade-offs VarietiesCountry (market, agro- Clients preferred ecology and stress) Negative Positive traits traits High yielding High stress Highly palatability environment (highMozambique Drought tolerant rainfall/acid soils Women and SmallTanzania, Carioca Multi disease and pest and root rot schools seededMalawi (nematodes) diseases or lower Stable yield rain House hold food security High yielding Small seed Pest and diseasesMozambique Niche market Urban Black (A222) Black Drought tolerant High micro-dense High yield High and medium Women and Fast cookingTanzania Roba -1 altitude- poor soil men –school Highly palatable leaves Highly micro-dense
Output 1: New acceptable client oriented bean varietiesidentified across the different agro-ecologies and users systems Users systems Characteristics (market, agro- Varieties Trade-offsCountry Clients ecology and preferred stress) Negative Positive traits traits Multiple disease resistance Unusual High yielding Wider adaptation NRI cross 05Tanzania Women and men color ‘ Highly palatability range E27 pink’ Stable yield House hold food security High yielding Small seedMozambique Pest and diseases Niche market Urban Black (A222) BlackTanzania Drought tolerant High micro-dense High yield High and medium Women and men – Fast cookingTanzania Roba -1 altitude- poor soil school Highly palatable leaves Highly micro-dense
Output 2: Appropriate (cost effective, healthy seed, socially acceptable)seed production and dissemination models/channels selected andmainstreamed for wider uptake of client-oriented released bean varieties Research questions: What is the quality of each seed grade (breeder, foundation, certified and non-certified)? Hypothesis: Quality of certified and non-certified seeds are the sameResearch questions How efficient is each of the models of seed production and supply channels operates? Hypothesis: The efficiency of seed production and supply channels are the same.
Establishment of varied seed systems 2010-2011 seed grade Number of seed Variety Country Amount (ton) producers composition 0.620 Malawi Breeder 8 Basic Commercial 740 3 Farmers seeds Mozambique Breeder Basic Commercial Farmers’ seeds Tanzania Breeder 6.3 11 Basic 90.0 6 Farmers’ seeds (released varieties) 397.7 Farmers seed from PVS Varieties and 2.5 start up seeds
Information and demand creation targetingfarmers and other value chain actors Information toolsCountry Target Information accessMalawiMozambiqueMalawi
Output 3.1: Appropriate ISFM or IPDM bean production orprotection management options identified and fast trackedfor increased bean seed and food production. Research question: What ICM bean based technologies can effectively improve bean seed or grain productivity or storability, and at what costs? Hypothesis: Use of a combination of improved varieties and ICM is more productive that varieties alone.
Output 3.1: Appropriate ISFM or IPDM bean production or protection management options identified and fast tracked for increased bean seed and food productionPre – Number of Constraints Optionsharvest/field seed producers Suitable crop varieties + healthy seed Farm Yard Manure (> 5 tons/ha) with spot application Low soil fertility/acidISFM 30 N-20 P/ha soils 100 kg of DAP 100 kg TSP+ 80 kg of CAN Minjingu R.phosphate Chemical control and timely application (4-5IPDM – BSM (Bean seed Maggot) days after emergency) Seed dressing -endosulfan Pod borers Chemical and scouting Aphids (BCMV) Timely plantingPos harvest Integrated pest control (Cleaness/sanitation BruchidsInsects Chemical-seed dressing)
Next steps Test the best bet ICM technologies with seed producers in 2011-12
Output 3.1: Appropriate ISFM or IPDM bean productionor protection management options identified and fasttracked for increased bean seed and food production Expected Results Key Findings
Output 3.1: Appropriate ISFM or IPDM bean production orprotection management options identified and fast trackedfor increased bean seed and food production
Output 3.2: Appropriate bean-based food basketsidentified for improved nutrition Research questions: Will improved food security through increased bean for food and income result into improved nutrition security? Hypothesis: Increased food security through beans result into improved nutrition security
Stimulating demands Information on micronutrient rich bean varieties
Output 3.2: Appropriate bean-based food basketsidentified for improved nutrition Expected Results Released varieties with• vulnerable groups are micro-nutrient rich are nutrition secure with available increased bean Demand creation components in their food established baskets Seed multiplication by communities with partners in place
Seed multiplication for micro-nutrient richvarieties Amount of seeds Photos for released produced per varieties varieties in Tanzania (Roba 1 (pre-released): 0.9 tons sold to partners) and Malawi (NUAs varieties released in 2009-1 ton), Mozambique ( under multiplication) –
Output 4: Vibrant/functional bean value chain platformsestablished in each country, bringing together various actors tosupport bean commodity development. Research questions: What are the key factors which motivate the actors to come together to develop a vibrant bean supply chain? Hypothesis There are no known key factors that motivate bean actors to come together and develop a functional supply chain
Output 4: Vibrant/functional bean value chain platformsestablished in each country, bringing together various actorsto support bean commodity development. Expected Results Key Findings Deep understanding of factors contribution to Interest in bean for both vibrant bean platform market and food security Specific niche export market Nutrition e.g. micro- nutrient rich varieties
Output 4: Vibrant/functional bean value chain platformsestablished in each country, bringing together various actorsto support bean commodity development- established platform Country Value chain Specifications Platform members Operation areas Farmers’ World Farmers organizations/producers DARS Malawi Sugar beans Export market Countrywide NGOs Traders Extensions Demeter Seed SA trading Hub Farmers organizations World Vision Sugar beans Mozambique Export to SA Public extension Zambezia and Tete and cream Traders MSU project IIAM
Output 4: Vibrant/functional bean value chain platformsestablished in each country, bringing together various actorsto support bean commodity development- established platformCountry Value Specifications Platform members Operation chain areasMozambique Black Maputo IIAM Zambezia beans market Traders and supermarket Farmers organizations Public extension and NGOsTanzania Beans Production for ARI Uyole Iringa region households Tumaini University food security INCOMET (NGO and sales extension) SACOs District Extension Farmers organizations and farmers (seed and grain production) Traders
Output 5.1: Skills and knowledge (PVS, seed systems andbean management options) of NARS scientists and partnerorganizations including farmers enhanced Key Findings:• Training of trainers speeds up the knowledge dissemination and sustainaibility
Output 5.1: Skills and knowledge (PVS, seed systems and beanmanagement options) of NARS scientists and partner organizationsincluding farmers enhancedCountry Participants Training areas Target groups Female Male Seed production Seed producers,Malawi ? ? /quality control extension staff Extension staff 19Mozambique PVS 3 (ToTs)Mozambique PVS Farmers 2 14 Entrepreneurship Farmer seedTanzania linked to seed and and grain 618 419 grain business producers
Output 5.2: Project experiences in PVS, cropmanagement, nutrition and seed systems documented forwider use and replication. Project Inception MeetingInstitution TotalIIAM 3UYOLE 2MCKNIGHT 2FOUNDATIONDARS 4CIAT 5 Participants at the inception meeting
Acknowledgement The McKnight Foundation CCRP for funding. Governments of Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania for support and hosting the project PABRA-CIAT for technical support Partner organizations in 3 Countries: NGOs, CBOs, Traders (Private Sector) and Farmer Associations etc for collaboration