Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Varietal and seed use of faba bean in Ethiopia: implication of the national seed system

482 views

Published on

Oral Presentation 18 by Dawit Alemu at the International Conference on Pulses in Marrakesh, Morocco, 18-20 April 2016

Published in: Science
  • Be the first to comment

Varietal and seed use of faba bean in Ethiopia: implication of the national seed system

  1. 1. Varietal and seed use of faba bean in Ethiopia: implication of the national seed system Dawit Alemu, PhD Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) Zewdie Bishaw, PhD International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) International Conference on Pulses for Health, Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture in Drylands Marakesh, Morocco, 17-21 April, 2016
  2. 2. Doc ID 1 Introduction • Important role of agriculture in the economic transformation agenda in the country • Use of improved agricultural technologies considered as an important intervention to transform agricultural sector, • Considerable public investment in agricultural research and development; as a result the sector has demonstrated 7% annual growth on average (MoFED, 2014) • Pulses play important role with 12.4% share from the total land cultivated and 9.88% from the total grain production (CSA, 2015); • Faba bean contributed 28.43% of the total pulse area and 31.40% of total pulse production in 2014 production season ; • Faba bean plays crucial role in highland production system as a rotation crop, for domestic consumption and in recent years as a cash crop for export
  3. 3. Doc ID 2 Introduction  • In 2014, about 3.8 million farmers were engaged in faba bean production covering 443 thousand ha with estimated average productivity level of 1.893 tons/ha (CSA, 2015), one of the lowest in the world. • This presentation is about understanding of the varietal and seed use of faba bean among smallholder farmers; • It covers the following issues: 1. an overview of the importance of faba beans and yield gaps, 2. how the seed system of faba bean operates, 3. what are the varietal adoption of improved faba bean varieties 4. What needs to be done to improve the seed system for enhanced adoption
  4. 4. Doc ID 3 Methods • Sampling and sample size ▫ The study was conducted in four major faba bean producing regions. ▫ Based on the importance of faba bean production, 6 zones namely West Shewa, North Shewa, Arsi, West Arsi, Bale, and South West Shewa from Oromia; four zones namely North Gondar, South Wolo, North Shewa, and East Gojjam from Amhara; two zones namely East and South Tigray from Tigray; and one zone namely Gurage zone from SNNPR were selectedAnalysis methods, ▫ Using the same approach (proportion to total production), a total of 370 faba beans producing farmers were randomly selected from 19 districts in 13 zones in the four regions • Data analysis ▫ The collected primary and secondary data were narrated using descriptive statistics and appropriate methods to estimate adoption rates
  5. 5. Doc ID 4 Methods – Sample distribution 
  6. 6. Doc ID 6 Importance of faba bean production • The production and productivity levels of faba bean at national level has demonstrated gradual increases, along with slight increase in area coverage and number of farmers; • The land allocated has increased from 0.38 million ha in 2004 to 0.54 million ha in 2014 • Yields also increased over the same period from national average of 1.118 tons/ha to 1.842 tons/ha; • The total number of farmers involved in faba bean production has increased from 2.9 million in 2004 to 4.37 million farmers in 2014; • As a result, total production has increased from 0.427 million tons in 2004 to 0.992 million tons in 2014
  7. 7. Doc ID 7 Importance of faba bean  y = 0.6498x + 9.7947 R² = 0.8196 - 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 No of farmers (million) Area in hectare (100,000) Production in quintal (Million) Yield (quintal / hectare) Linear (Yield (quintal / hectare)) Figure 2 Trends in faba bean production and productivity (2004 – 2014) Source: CSA (2004 – 2014)
  8. 8. Doc ID 8 Importance of faba bean  • In recent years, faba beans are also contributing to the economy through generation of foreign currency, • They are mainly exported to neighboring countries like Djibouti, Sudan, and Somalia and to Arab countries Yemen, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait; • The volume and value of faba bean export have increased from less than hundred thousand quintals with average value of less than seven million USD a decade ago to about 400 thousand quintals with a value of about close to 20 million USD in 2014
  9. 9. Doc ID 9 Importance of faba bean  (5.00) - 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 (100,000.00) - 100,000.00 200,000.00 300,000.00 400,000.00 500,000.00 600,000.00 Exportedvalue(MillionUSD) Exportedanoutinqtls Amount (qtls) FOB in Million USD Trends in export of faba bean (1997 – 2014)
  10. 10. Doc ID 10 Importance of faba beans at household level • farmers on average allocated 0.33 ha of land, which is on average 20.3% of the total land cultivated Indicator Average Standard Deviations Size of land allocated (ha) 0.33 0.25 Proportion of cultivated land (%) 20.30 14.26 No of observations 369
  11. 11. Doc ID 11 Faba bean varieties and seed source • In total, 31 varieties of faba bean are released for use in the country since the first release of CS-20-DK in 1977 by Holeta research center; • Among the 31 released varieties, basic seed produced in 2014 production season was only for 10 varieties; • Of the total 112.7 tons of basic seed produced for the 10 faba bean varieties, about 85% was for CS20DK by the Ethiopian Seed Enterprise; • This obviously indicates the limited availability of source seed for production of certified seed
  12. 12. Doc ID 12 Faba bean varieties and seed source • The trend in demand and supply of seed of the different faba bean varieties indicates a huge gap in the supply Year Demand Supply Distributed % distributed of demand 2009 17,524 2,265 2,265 12.93 2010 24,192 3,669 3,028 12.52 2011 35,381 6,186 6,072 17.16 2012 49,854 29,936 28,330 56.83 2013 273,382 29,775 29,837 10.55 2014 57,517 26,381 20,429 35.52 Faba bean seed demand, supply and use in quintals (2009 - 2014)
  13. 13. Doc ID 13 Role of improved varieties of faba bean: productivity gaps • The national productivity of faba bean over the last 10 years ranged from 11.18 quintals/ha to 18.42 quintals/ha, • Released varieties under research field have the potential yield ranging from 23 to 50 quintals/ha, • from 20 to 44 quintals/ha under farmers’ field with research recommended practices and • from 18 to 20 quintals/ha under farmers’ field with farmers’ practices. • These clearly indicate the potential to increase faba beans production in the country through better use of improved varieties along with recommended agronomic practices
  14. 14. Doc ID 14 Productivity gaps Category Yield range (quintals/ha) Use of improved varieties and practices Source Research field 23 – 50 (36)  Improved variety  recommended practices, and  researcher managed MoA, 2014 Farmers’ field with research recommended practice 20 – 44 (32)  Improved variety  Recommended practices, and  Farmer managed MoA, 2014 Farmers’ field under farmers’ practice 18 – 20 (19)  Improved variety  Farmers’ practices  Farmer managed Kibebew Assefa et al., 2011 National yield level 11.18 -18.42 (15) National production system CSA (2004 – 2014)
  15. 15. Doc ID 16 Adoption of improved food barley varieties by season and source • The adoption rates of improved faba bean varieties are estimated considering plot level information based on number of plots and size of land allocated and also at household levels; • The adoption rate based on number of plots allocated with improved varieties estimated at 18.93%, based on the proportion of land allocated with improved variety is estimated at 22.38%; • This indicates that plots allocated with improved varieties are on average larger than with local varieties; • The data also confirms a statistically significant difference where the average size of plots allocated with improved varieties is 0.37 ha whereas plots with local varieties are 0.3 ha.
  16. 16. Doc ID 17 Adoption of improved food barley varieties by season and source Methods Category Estimates (%) Faba bean varieties Area Non - adopters 77.62 Local Adopters 22.38 CS - 20 – DK Degaga Gabelcho Moti Kassa Shallo Other Improved Plots Non - adopters 81.07 Local Adopters 18.93 CS - 20 - DK Degaga Gabelcho Moti Kassa Shallo Other Improved
  17. 17. Doc ID 18 Adoption rate of faba beans producing households and participation in seed sale • Information at household level is more important than plot level for policy and development efforts as farming households are the decision making units and point of interventions • The adoption rate at household level indicate that 25.9% of the farmers are full adopters, 1.6% partial adopters and the rest 72.4% were non- adopters; Adoption type Estimate adoption rate (%) Households involved in sale of seed (%) Non-adopters 72.40 10.30 Full adopters 25.90 5.70 Partial adopters 1.60 0.50
  18. 18. Doc ID 19 Source of seed by type of faba bean variety
  19. 19. Doc ID 20 Patterns in faba beans seed renewal by adoption category • Seed renewal pattern varies by adoption category. • From the 72.4% of non-adopters of improved variety of faba beans, ▫ 50% of them reported that they do not renew their seed stock and the ▫ the rest 22.4% reported renewing their seed stock through purchase of non-certified seed. • From the 25.9% full adopters, – 11.1% of them reported that they do not renew their seed stock, – 5.9% renew using both certified and non-certified seeds, – 5.4% renew through purchase of non-certified seed, and – the rest 3.5% reported renewal using certified seed. • The difference in the average seed renewal rate by adoption category was not statistically significant indicating the average year of renewal on average after every two years for all categories of adoption.
  20. 20. Doc ID 22 Conclusions • Faba bean is a very important pulse crop in the highlands of Ethiopia; • Its importance is growing given its role in highland production system as a rotation crop, for domestic consumption and in recent years as a cash crop for export given the increasing demand from neighboring countries; • At national level, yields and total production have demonstrated increasing trend in the last decade; • However, the yield gap between yields achieved at research station and farmers’ fields is very huge; • There are 31 varieties released that are reported to perform better in many attributes;
  21. 21. Doc ID 23 Conclusions  • There is huge gap between revealed demand and supply, which ranges from about 13% to about 57% of the demand in the last decade; • Adoption of improved faba bean varieties is very low, where 72.4% of the farmers were non-adopters, 1.6% partial adopters (one or more of the faba bean plots were covered with improved varieties), and 25.9% were full adopters; • Only 6.26% of the land allocated for faba beans was covered with certified seed; • From the 25.9% full adopters, 11.1% reported renewal of seed stock, 5.9% renew using both certified and non-certified seeds, 5.4% renew through purchase of non-certified seed, and the rest 3.5% reported renewal using certified seed ;
  22. 22. Doc ID 24 Conclusions  • These findings imply the need: • to narrow the yield gap through improved access to available improved varieties; • To enhance the engagement of public seed enterprises and farmers’ organizations (Coops) to close the gap between demand and supply for seed; • To strengthen the linkage between the formal and informal seed systems given the current important role of the informal seed system,

×