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Cacao and Cadmium Research at Penn State

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El taller ‘Cacao libre de cadmio’, organizado por el CIAT, CIRAD, y la AFD, se lleva a cabo del 12 al 14 de marzo en la sede del CIAT en Palmira,y tiene como objetivo integrar un consorcio de actores y disciplinas claves de la región, así como elaborar un proyecto de investigación aplicada que dé respuesta a este problema que afecta a los cacaoteros de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. http://ow.ly/J43p30iU0UZ

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Cacao and Cadmium Research at Penn State

  1. 1. Cacao and Cadmium Research at Penn State Siela Maximova Countries: USA, Colombia and Peru Penn State team: Cacao and Chocolate Research Network (CCRN) • CCRN membership includes more than 30 graduate students, post-docs and faculty • Research topics: history, health benefits, production, plant genetics, propagation, soils, flavor and quality, sensory, manufacturing, agricultural extension, gender and technology transfer Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018
  2. 2. Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 Current Cacao/Cd Projects at Penn State 1. Soil amendments as a combined tool to facilitate maintaining low plant-root zone soil Cd 2. Development of a rapid-response site assessment protocol for ranking site sustainability for cacao farming 3. Cd source identification in soil and fertilizers in Peru 4. Biology of cadmium accumulation in Theobroma cacao 5. Cacao for Peace: Geographical Information System Mapping for Optimized Cacao Production in Colombia
  3. 3. Cd hyperaccumulators and soil amendments as a combined tool to facilitate maintaining low plant-root zone soil Cd. Research center: Penn State Soil Characterization Laboratory Country: USA & Colombia People and Institutions: Jhony Bolanos (M.S. student), Dr. Patrick Drohan (advisor), Dr. Siela Maximova, Dr. Mark Guiltinan, & Dr. John Spargo. Partners: Cacao for Peace, USDA-FAS Funding: Cacao for Peace (USAID, USDA-FAS) , USA Fulbright Student Program & The Pennsylvania State University Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 Project 1:
  4. 4. Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 • Assess the use of Cd hyperaccumulator plants species (non-edible) to act as “early warning sign” in high Cd soils. • Investigate the use of these species as a potential remediation mechanism for Cd cocoa farms. • Best phytoextractor species from Objective 1, will be treated with lime to assess a dual effect of hyperaccumulation and pH adjustment to decrease Cd uptake. Project 1: Research goals Cd hyperaccumulators and soil amendments as a combined tool to facilitate maintaining low plant- root zone soil Cd.
  5. 5. Development of a rapid-response site assessment protocol for ranking site sustainability for cacao farming • Evaluate heavy metal risk • Evaluate long-term sustainability of commodity production • Evaluate existing, and evolving, soil health Project 2: Research goals
  6. 6. Research center: Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria (UNI) & Penn State Soil Characterization Laboratory Country: Peru & USA People and Institutions: Otilia Acha de la Cruz, Dr. Patrick Drohan, Dr. Rosario Rojas, Dr. Siela Maximova, Dr. Mark Guiltinan, & Dr. John Spargo. Partners: Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria (UNI), Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), Centro de Innovación de cacao (CIC), Penn State University Funding: Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria (UNI), Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), Penn State University, CIC Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 Project 3: Evaluation of cadmium in cocoa beans, soils, and phosphate fertilizers in Piura - Peru
  7. 7. Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 • Evaluation of Cd level content in cacao beans and soils across selected farms in Piura. • Identify the source of the Cd (natural background versus agricultural amendments). • Phosphate fertilizers will be collected from cacao growers from Piura and the range of Cd levels will be determined. • A preliminary map of natural Cd in soils, in the vicinity of Piura, will be generated at a scale of 1:15,000 – 1: 24,000. • Graduate student/faculty exchange between UNI, CIC and Penn State. Project 3: Research goals Evaluation of cadmium in cocoa beans, soils, and phosphate fertilizers in Piura - Peru
  8. 8. Research center: Penn State Country: Peru & USA People and Institutions: Francisco Menéndez Burns, PhD candidate; Dr. Path Umaharan, Dr. Mark Guiltinan, Dr. Siela Maximova Partners: Penn State, Centro de Innovación de cacao (CIC), Cocoa Research Centre, The University of the West Indies Funding: Penn State and CIC Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 Project 4: Biology of cadmium accumulation in Theobroma cacao
  9. 9. Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 • To identify genes involved in Cd uptake, transport and accumulation in cacao. • To gain evidence for the function of the candidate genes in cacao Cd metabolism. • To explore the genetic diversity of the Cd metabolism genes. Project 4: Research goals Biology of cadmium accumulation in Theobroma cacao
  10. 10. Cacao libre de Cadmio Taller regional Colombia – Ecuador - Perú Cali, marzo 12-14, 2018 • Gene Discovery: Define a set of Cd candidate genes in cacao using phylogenetic analysis with model crops and known Cd metabolism genes • Genetic Variation: Sequence the candidate Cd genes from a wide diversity of cacao germplasm indigenous to different regions of Peru. • Novel Cd Detection Methods: Develop a method for high-throughput testing of Cd uptake, transport and accumulation in cacao, useful for functional genomics testing and screening of cacao genotypes. • Functional Genomics: • Transgenic complementation in Arabidopsis mutants. • Transient and stable transgenic overexpression in cacao tissues; • Candidate Cd genes expression in different tissues in response to treatment with Cd in different cacao genotypes. Project 4: Methodology Biology of cadmium accumulation in Theobroma cacao
  11. 11. More then 50 years of Research at Penn State on All Aspects of Cacao and Chocolate Thank you!

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