Beans and Eco-efficiency in a Changing Environment

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Presentation by Steve Beebe for the CIAT KSW 2009

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  • Beans and Eco-efficiency in a Changing Environment

    1. 1. Beans and Eco-efficiency in a Changing Environment Any real change? Or old wine in new bottles?
    2. 2. What changing environment? BIOPHYSICAL SOCIAL • Climate change • More acute poverty? • Soil degradation • HIV / AIDS • Demand for green • Urbanization solutions – Advanced in LAC – Advancing in Africa • Rising costs … – Fertilizer
    3. 3. Our mission: INCOME GENERATION FOOD SECURITY
    4. 4. Now… Eco- efficiency INCOME GENERATION FOOD SECURITY
    5. 5. Or… INCOME GENERATION FOOD SECURITY ECO-EFFICIENCY
    6. 6. Bean Researchers • Breeding/Genetic • Seed systems resources – L. Sperling – S. Beebe – J.C. Rubyogo – P. Kimani • Human Nutrition – R. Chirwa – H. Pachon – D.G. Debouck – M. Nyagaya • Pathology • M&E – R. Buruchara – R. Muthoni – G. Mosquera • Economics • Biotechnology – E. Katungi – M. Blair – M. Ishitani • Markets – E. Birachi – J. Tohme – D. Wetaka • Physiology – I.M. Rao
    7. 7. Gene pools of Common Bean P. vulgaris P. W C W C Tertiary pool Mesoamerican Andean P. acutifolius Primary pool W C P. coccineus - P. dumosus W C P. costaricensis P. parvifolius W W Secondary pool P. lunatus W C W C = Wild and cultivated forms
    8. 8. Common Bean…often associated with higher human population
    9. 9. Outputs in the MTP • Output 1: Beans with improved micronutrient concentration that have a positive impact on human health • Output 2: Beans and technologies that improve productivity under low input agriculture of poor farmers • Output 3: Innovative approaches for Reaching End Users with eco-efficient technologies
    10. 10. Output 1: Nutrition • Biofortification – economically viable – Conventional breeding – Gene discovery • Goals for Beans – 90-100% more iron – 40% more zinc • Targets – Rwanda and DRC under HarvestPlus – Other PABRA countries – Central America, Caribbean, Brazil
    11. 11. Lines with 40-80% more iron Andean FEB 226-parent Meso-American (interspecific)
    12. 12. PABRA: Support to PLWHA • Nutrition! • Beans that are less labor intensive, and high yielding • Semi-climbers! (race Durango) – Rustic – Weed competition – High yield – Not commercial but food security item
    13. 13. Latin America – a laboratory for linking agriculture and nutrition? • All the problems in the • Institutional support world – Latin American – Poverty + undernutrition Nutritionist Society – Urbanization + – Ministers of Agriculture overnutrition • Post-harvest • Beans are traditional processing and industry involvement • Beans are healthy – EMBRAPA – Cardiovascular disease – CLAYUCA – Diabetes – Cancer
    14. 14. The challenge of Latin America: Maintaining bean consumption • To not lose a healthy habit • How ? More attention to consumer traits…? – Flavor? – Flatulence? – Canning? – Cooking time?
    15. 15. Energy use for Food - USA Home preparation (19%) Home refrigeration (12.7%) Agricultural Food retail (4.0%) production (20.8%) Restaurants (6.9%) Packaging (6.9%) Processing Transport (13.9%) (15.8%) Source: University of Michigan, Center for Sustainable Systems (http://www.umich.edu/~css)
    16. 16. Shorter Cooking time • Energy for Cooking: – Probably even greater proportion of energy in developing countries • A common request from rural producers / housewives
    17. 17. • Output 2: Beans and technologies that improve productivity under low input agriculture of poor farmers
    18. 18. Andy Jarvis’ ever-popular Stipple map (Drier) (Wetter) mm day-1
    19. 19. Climate change, pests and diseases Less rain, more insect pests White flies Stem maggot More rain, more root rots and foliar diseases …and changing distributions!
    20. 20. Rain-tolerant interspecific lines (1200 mm in 90 days) FEB 226-parent P. dumosus
    21. 21. Climate change and Drought (Drier) (Wetter) mm day-1
    22. 22. Good Grain Filling IMPROVED DROUGHT RESISTANCE (GCP / TL-1 / TL-2 / BMZ / RedSICTA) + = Deep roots
    23. 23. Yield potential (kg/ha) of drought resistant Mesoamerican lines Favorable environments Days to Drought PAL QUIL POP mature SER 102 888* 3352 3069* 2035 71** SER 109 1107* 3185 2286 2238* 71** SER 113 1025** 3710* 3195** 2253* 73** Check 347 3081 2505 1626 76 *, ** = significant at P=0.05, 0.01 Our hypothesis: Some drought resistance genes contribute to plant yield efficiency, and are useful across environments
    24. 24. Yield potential of drought-selected Andean beans (Daríén, 1400 masl) 3000 SAB lines 686 D A - Red mottled and other beans B - Red mottled beans C - Red beans D - Cream striped beans C 2700 677 679 E - White beans 670 Control Genotypes Calima - Red Mottled bean 687 680 AFR298 - Red bean 669 COS16 - Cream Striped bean 622 672 685 733 2400 ABA36 - White bean 671 668 623 673 682 631 675 684 626 678 620 625 683 665 630 627 624 701 661 629 A B 712 642 644 674 621 690 E 2100 655 650 732 691 Yield (Kg/Ha) 730 676 693 702 663 688 SAB560 658 689 728 643 656 667 666 619 662 731 692 617 CALIMA 694 704 720 660 696 703 654 647 706 640 653 628 710 729 645 649 695 718 1800 657 681 648 716 652 618 735 723 637 639 711 638 651 719 724 737 717 726 664 616 738 708 AFR298 736 727 AFR298 709 725 633 734 1500 646 COS16 714 CALIMA CALIMA 715 713 ABA36 722 AFR298 707 721 CALIMA COS16 632 659 COS16 AFR298 AFR298 700 1200 COS16 641 699 697 698 705 634 739 636 900 LSD*: 534 LSD*: 560 LSD*: 498 LSD*: 402 LSD*: 512 * Least Significant Difference Kg/Ha (p=0.05)
    25. 25. Dealing with poor soils: The Germplasm in Bernard’s ISFM Equation • A dynamic component!
    26. 26. Aluminum resistance: Improving common bean with P. coccineus* 25 SER 16 x (SER 16 x G35346) cm P. coccineus * Ph.D. thesis, Louis SER 16 Butare, ISAR, Rwanda
    27. 27. To exploit P. coccineus and P. dumosus that have excessive biomass... • Cross with parents of high harvest index like SER 16 Yield under • Biomass + translocation efficiency Intermittent drought Kg / ha Maturity Yield / d = Improved Yield Interspp. lines ALB 205 3199 68 47 ALB 167 3174 69 46 ALB 213 3029 67 45 Drought res. checks SER 16 2520 63 40 BAT 477 2165 68 32
    28. 28. Fertilizer Use Efficiency CIAT pioneered root studies for P uptake with Jonathan Lynch… …and large differences exist in the field SXB 412 …we need to exploit research findings systematically Tio Canela
    29. 29. An experienced team in root biology
    30. 30. Nitrogen fixation in Heat Tolerant climbing beans for Africa CLIMBERS • An early PABRA success • Continuing demand
    31. 31. Options for Nitrogen Fixation • Climbers – Sometimes limited by stakes, labor • Semi-climbers? (Type 3) – Source of high SNF (Puebla 152) – Rustic
    32. 32. Output 3: Innovative approaches for Reaching End Users • PABRA - Wider Impact – Estimated 8 M families in 4 years – Marshalling partnerships in new organizational models (e.g., public-private) – Research at the output-outcome interface • Novel seed marketing • Reaching the HARD to reach • Central America and Colombia – Surprising interest – Especially in biofortified crops
    33. 33. • Linking bean farmers to market niches – Ethiopia and Peru leading the pack, followed by Uganda, Nicaragua, Bolivia
    34. 34. The other side of the coin: Energy use and production close to consumption • 4 largest exporting countries move > 1.6 M tons annually, for >US$ 250M in transport – Does it make sense to ship beans from China to Africa? • Can we increase production closer to consumption? – Mexico City – Kinshasa – Nairobi • We won’t convince anyone not to export… • but we need to understand relative competitiveness of exporting / importing countries, and what we can contribute
    35. 35. Conclusion So is anything new?… • Efficient exploitation of interspecific crosses • Working energy considerations into research prioritization • Renewed focus on efficient plant nutrition (N and P) • More consumer traits • New approaches for reaching end users
    36. 36. Conclusion • But you don’t necessarily need to do something different to change… • As important as WHAT you do, is… – Where you target – In what social context – For whom
    37. 37. Bio- forti fied Bean s Muchas gracias

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