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Environmental, Social and Economic 
Sustainability of Family Farms in the Dry Areas 
International Consultation on Family ...
Outline 
 Dry areas and family farming: the 
challenges ahead; 
 Environmental, social and economic 
sustainability of f...
Dry Areas and Family Farming: 
The Challenges Ahead
The Dry Areas 
Dry areas cover 41% of the earth’s surface, and are home to over 
2.5 billion people – and the majority of ...
The People of the Drylands 
• 800 million poor and vulnerable people depend on 
agricultural systems for food security and...
Much of the Agriculture in the Dry Lands 
Depends on Smallholder Family Farms 
 This involves the hard work of the rural ...
This is why it is essential to ensure the 
environmental, social and economic 
sustainability of family farming 
& 
The ti...
Abiotic Constraints 
Facing Family Farming in Dry Areas 
 Physical and economic 
water scarcity 
 Rapid natural resource...
Challenges associated with climate change facing 
family farming 
 Rising temperatures: higher 
temperatures will reduce ...
Biotic Constraints 
FungiS Dailsienaisteys Insect Pests 
Weeds/Parasitic Weeds
Inputs and Socio-Economic Constraints 
 Insufficient technology available and extension services 
 Seed availability/qua...
Further Challenges to the Drylands: Inadequate 
Policies and Insufficient Institutions 
 Inadequate agricultural 
policie...
Environmental, Social and Economic 
Sustainability of Family Farming 
are Very Much Interrelated
Environmental Sustainability 
of Family Farming 
– Environmental sustainability of family farming 
can be obtained by help...
Social Sustainability of Family Farming 
Social sustainability of family farming can be achieved 
through: 
– Generating m...
Economic Sustainability of Family Farming 
Economic sustainability of family farming can be 
achieved by generating more i...
Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability of Family 
Farming are inter-related: The Vicious Circle in Dry Areas
What Science Can Do & What ICARDA is Doing 
to Support Family Farming?
What Science and Technology Can Do 
to Help Family Farming? 
 Genetic improvement for higher yields, 
resistance to disea...
What is ICARDA Doing to Support Family 
Farming in the Drylands? 
 ICARDA is focusing on science and technology to enhanc...
Map of Action Site of Dryland Systems 
CGIAR Research Program (CRP)
Dryland Systems CRP 
Bringing practical solutions to family farms in the dry 
areas for improved livelihoods and food secu...
Examples of Research Achievements to 
Enhance Environmental, Social and Economic 
Sustainability of Family Farms in the Dr...
Examples of Research Achievements to Enhance Environmental, Social 
and Economic Sustainability of Family Farms in the Dry...
Crop Improvement for Higher Yield Potential 
& Abiotic and Biotic Stresses
Improved varieties released to farming community 
 High yield potential 
 Agronomic traits: e.g. earliness, canopy archi...
Wheat Crossed with Wild Relatives: Synthetic 
Wheat, tolerance to excessive drought 
Yield 
t/ha 
% recurrent 
parent 
Cha...
Yields (kg/ha) of promising durum wheat genotypes 
under rainfed (RF) and supplemental irrigation (SI) 
12000 
10000 
8000...
Yield potential of recently improved durum wheat 
Yield potential of newly developed durum genotypes 
at ICARDA durum bree...
Drought tolerant chickpea variety survived 2007 
drought in Turkey 
‘Gokce’ chickpea 
variety is used on about 
80% of the...
Food Legumes Family Farming In Ethiopia 
improved livelihoods of the resource-poor
Research Impact: Food Legumes in Ethiopia 
Field visits involving policy makers 
Alemaya lentil variety widely adopted 
in...
Family Farming 
An Example in Pulse Cultivation in India 
Family members are involved in lentil harvest 
Grasspea harvest ...
Control of Insect Pests 
Resistance/Tolerance to Hessian Fly in Wheat 
Hessian Fly 
Resistant Variety 
in Morocco 
Hessian...
Resistance to Rust Diseases in Wheat 
Released varieties resistant to 
black stem and yellow rust in 
Ethiopia 
Resistance...
Examples on 
Environmental Sustainability of Family Farming: 
Improving Water Availability and Productivity & & 
Sustainab...
Enhancing Water Productivity, Management 
and Water Productivity 
 More efficient irrigation systems: enhancing water 
pr...
Afghanistan: 
• Water harvesting sites established; 
• Technology of sub-surface irrigation used in Afghanistan for the 
f...
Exchange experience about waste/greywater 
re-use (Gaza and West Bank) 
18 family farms (women and men) along with project...
Field-days and awareness sessions for the safe 
use of treated grey/wastewater in irrigation 
 15 field days were conduct...
Sustainable Intensification & Diversification 
of Production Systems 
& Added-Value Products
The three pillars for integrated approach for 
sustainable agricultural development 
Sustainable 
Natural resource 
manage...
Sustainable Intensification of Broad Wheat Production – 
Improves varieties, Water management and inputs Raised-Bed Planti...
FP: furrows irrigation FlP: flat bed irrigation RBP: raised bed irrigation
Raised-Bed Planting
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 
0 
Yield (t/ha) Water 
consumption(000m3/ha) 
Raised bed 
Flat surface 
WUE(kg/m3) 
Egypt: Shar...
Small-scale mechanized raised-beds 
systems for water savings 
Key Benefits 
 Saves water by 20% 
 Reduces seed rate by ...
Diversification of Production Systems 
Using High-Value Crops 
 
Promotion of improved 
technologies for producing value-...
Diversification of Production Systems with Medicinal Plants: 
processing, value addition and more income
High Value Crops & Protected Agriculture
Soilless 
Culture 
Increased 
yield per unit 
of water, 
space and 
energy 
Protected 
Agriculture
Protected Agriculture for Family Farming 
Diversifies production and diets; generates employment 
And more income, improve...
High-Value Crops More Income For Family 
Farming 
Labor-intensive fruit and vegetables for food & 
nutritional security an...
Afghanistan Minister of Agriculture inspecting 
mint production in a greenhouse
Added Value Products in Durum Wheat: 
WNADIN IFAD Project
Pasta: Traditional Processing 
1. Semolina is mixed with 
water and salt 
2. Mixture is kneaded to a 
pasta dough 
3. Past...
‘Burghul’: Traditional processing 
1. Boiled, 
2. Cooled, 
3. Dried, 
4. Moistened, 
5. Peeled (sometimes the peeling proc...
“Frike”: A Family Endeavor 
 Stable food in WANA: made from early harvested green grains 
of durum wheat 
 Important sou...
Integrated Livestock/Rangelands/Crops Production 
Systems & Added Value Dairy Products 
in Marginal Dry Areas
Development of Integrated 
Crop/Rangelands/Livestock Production Systems 
By-products - feed blocks 
On-farm feed productio...
Community Approach & Community Action Plans 
for sustainable use of natural resources 
Agro-Ecological Characterization 
C...
Successful Technologies in Farmers Fields 
 Feed blocks using crop 
residues and agro-industrial 
by-products 
 Improved...
Adding Value: 
Family Livestock Production
Value addition: 
Improved milking and processing 
Steps in research: 
 Assess local knowledge and identify 
problems with...
Enhancing Family Livelihoods: Goat Management & 
Feeding in Afghanistan & Pakistan 
 200+ women received goats through IF...
Value-Addition: Processing and Export of 
Cashmere, Wool and Mohair 
71 
 Increasing the income of sheep and goat produce...
Market analysis & Linking Family Farming to Market: 
Goat production in Afghanistan 
Findings: 
 Informal & unorganised g...
Conclusions and Looking Ahead 
 Supported by enabling policies and strong political commitment and 
through targeted publ...
Thank you
Environmental Sustainability of Family Farms
Environmental Sustainability of Family Farms
Environmental Sustainability of Family Farms
Environmental Sustainability of Family Farms
Environmental Sustainability of Family Farms
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Environmental Sustainability of Family Farms

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Environmental sustainability of family farming can be obtained by helping family farms to conserve and ensure the sustainable use of natural resources on their farms, namely water, land and biodiversity.

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Environmental Sustainability of Family Farms

  1. 1. Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability of Family Farms in the Dry Areas International Consultation on Family Farming M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), Chennai, INDIA 6 August, 2014 Mahmoud El Solh Director General International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
  2. 2. Outline  Dry areas and family farming: the challenges ahead;  Environmental, social and economic sustainability of family farming are very much interrelated;  What science can do & what ICARDA is doing to support family farming?  Examples of research achievements to enhance environmental, social and economic sustainability of family farms in the dry areas;  Looking ahead and conclusions.
  3. 3. Dry Areas and Family Farming: The Challenges Ahead
  4. 4. The Dry Areas Dry areas cover 41% of the earth’s surface, and are home to over 2.5 billion people – and the majority of the world’s poor. About 16% of the population lives in chronic poverty, particularly in marginal rainfed areas.
  5. 5. The People of the Drylands • 800 million poor and vulnerable people depend on agricultural systems for food security and livelihoods • Economically and politically marginalized • Population growth in drylands highest in the world • Population distribution skewed to the young • High rates of unemployment • High rates of urbanization • Dependency on off-farm or non-farm income • Women provide a significant portion of the work needed on family farms • 75-80% of food comes from small farmers out of which family farming constitute a large proportion
  6. 6. Much of the Agriculture in the Dry Lands Depends on Smallholder Family Farms  This involves the hard work of the rural men, women and children working in all areas of agriculture: croppers, pastoralists, forest dwellers, fishers and herders  They derive a significant portion of their income from farming, involve members of the family in managing the farm and rely predominantly on family labor (IFAD 2014)
  7. 7. This is why it is essential to ensure the environmental, social and economic sustainability of family farming & The timeliness of the International Year of Family Farming & The timeliness of International Consultation on Family Farming Organized by M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF)
  8. 8. Abiotic Constraints Facing Family Farming in Dry Areas  Physical and economic water scarcity  Rapid natural resource degradation and desertification/land degradation  Groundwater depletion  Drought & heat  Salinity  Climate change -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 m Decrease of the Souss aquifer level in Morocco 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006
  9. 9. Challenges associated with climate change facing family farming  Rising temperatures: higher temperatures will reduce crop productivity  Increased frequency of droughts  Excess rainfall/flooding  Milder winter  Increase in the areas affected by salinity  Changes in crop cycles (shorter growing season)  Newly emerging pests and diseases  Salt water intrusion in coastal areas
  10. 10. Biotic Constraints FungiS Dailsienaisteys Insect Pests Weeds/Parasitic Weeds
  11. 11. Inputs and Socio-Economic Constraints  Insufficient technology available and extension services  Seed availability/quality  Availability of fertilizer  Timely control and availability of pesticides for weed and pest control;  Mechanization affordability/access to suitable small machinery  Availability of credit to farmers  Price fluctuation  Access to markets: local, regional & international 11
  12. 12. Further Challenges to the Drylands: Inadequate Policies and Insufficient Institutions  Inadequate agricultural policies for sustainable agricultural development  Insufficient investment in agricultural research and development
  13. 13. Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability of Family Farming are Very Much Interrelated
  14. 14. Environmental Sustainability of Family Farming – Environmental sustainability of family farming can be obtained by helping family farms to conserve and ensure the sustainable use of natural resources on their farms, namely water, land and biodiversity. – Thus, research must focus on enhancing water availability, water productivity and water use efficiency; building soil productivity fertility and combating land degradation; and conserving biodiversity through sustainable use.
  15. 15. Social Sustainability of Family Farming Social sustainability of family farming can be achieved through: – Generating more employment opportunities for family farming members; – Empower women and strife for social equity; – Attract youth to agriculture by making agriculture an attractive profession: intellectually challenging and economically rewarding; – Improving infrastructure in rural areas and providing institutional services; – Improving livelihoods by improving quality of life, not just more income.
  16. 16. Economic Sustainability of Family Farming Economic sustainability of family farming can be achieved by generating more income through: – Having higher productivity; – Creating more job opportunities; – Producing high value crops; – Producing added value products; – Reducing production costs; – Improving post-harvest handling; – Linking farmers to markets; – Providing opportunities for micro-credit to small enterprises.
  17. 17. Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability of Family Farming are inter-related: The Vicious Circle in Dry Areas
  18. 18. What Science Can Do & What ICARDA is Doing to Support Family Farming?
  19. 19. What Science and Technology Can Do to Help Family Farming?  Genetic improvement for higher yields, resistance to diseases and pests; higher nutrient content; drought tolerance and crops adapted to shorter growing seasons;  Enhancing sustainable use and management of natural resources: water, land and biodiversity;  Improving market access (inputs and outputs) and moving into value chains and added value products for increaseing income and improving livelihoods;  Strengthening policies and community/institutional frameworks.
  20. 20. What is ICARDA Doing to Support Family Farming in the Drylands?  ICARDA is focusing on science and technology to enhance livelihoods of resource-poor farmers and family farming in dry areas.  It is leading the CGIAR Research program on Dryland Agricultural Production Systems (CRP 1.1) to unleash the productive potential of small farmers and family farms in the drylands:  In low potential and marginal drylands: helping family farms to develop strategies and tools to minimize their risk and reduce their vulnerability  Higher-potential drylands regions: supporting farming families to sustainably intensify their agricultural production systems
  21. 21. Map of Action Site of Dryland Systems CGIAR Research Program (CRP)
  22. 22. Dryland Systems CRP Bringing practical solutions to family farms in the dry areas for improved livelihoods and food security through large scale action research  Involving partners & stakeholders across the research for development continuum;  Promoting relevant technologies, knowledge and policies;  Following an integrated systems approach to ensure synergy;  Focusing on women and youth empowerment;  Targeting five regions.
  23. 23. Examples of Research Achievements to Enhance Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability of Family Farms in the Dry Areas
  24. 24. Examples of Research Achievements to Enhance Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability of Family Farms in the Dry Areas  Crop Improvement for yield potential & for abiotic and biotic stresses;  Improving water availability and management & grey water use;  Intensification & diversification of cropping systems;  High value crops, protected agriculture and added value products ;  Integrated livestock/rangelands/crops production systems & added value dairy product in marginal dry areas.
  25. 25. Crop Improvement for Higher Yield Potential & Abiotic and Biotic Stresses
  26. 26. Improved varieties released to farming community  High yield potential  Agronomic traits: e.g. earliness, canopy architecture  Tolerance to abiotic stresses: • Drought • Heat • Cold • Salinity  Resistance/tolerance to biotic stresses • Diseases • Insect pests • Parasitic weeds
  27. 27. Wheat Crossed with Wild Relatives: Synthetic Wheat, tolerance to excessive drought Yield t/ha % recurrent parent Cham 6*2/SW2 1.6 147 Cham 6*2/SW2 1.5 138 Cham-6 1.10 100 Attila-7 1.3 Parent Variety Yield of “synthetic derivatives” compared to parents under drought stress. (Tel Hadya 2008 -- 211 mm)
  28. 28. Yields (kg/ha) of promising durum wheat genotypes under rainfed (RF) and supplemental irrigation (SI) 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Mean (kg/ha) Max(kg/ha) Rf (321 mm) Rf+SI (321+70 mm) Fvrbl+SI (524+70 mm) RF = Rainfed; SI = Supplemental Irrigation 11 t/ha 6/t/ha 3.7t/ha RF (321 mm) RF+SI (321+70 mm) RF+SI (524+70 mm)
  29. 29. Yield potential of recently improved durum wheat Yield potential of newly developed durum genotypes at ICARDA durum breeding program 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Miki1 Ouaserl Ouasloukos Ouaserl Aghrass2 Amedakul1 Haurani (Landrace) Korifla (Impr) Kg/ha
  30. 30. Drought tolerant chickpea variety survived 2007 drought in Turkey ‘Gokce’ chickpea variety is used on about 80% of the chickpea production areas (over 550,000 ha). With a yield advantage of 300 kg/ha over other varieties, and world prices over USD 1000/t, this represented an additional USD 165 million for Turkish family farms in 2007 alone. Kabuli chickpea, ‘Gokce’, developed by Turkish national scientists and ICARDA scientists, has withstood severe drought in Turkeyand produced when most other crops failed in 2007.
  31. 31. Food Legumes Family Farming In Ethiopia improved livelihoods of the resource-poor
  32. 32. Research Impact: Food Legumes in Ethiopia Field visits involving policy makers Alemaya lentil variety widely adopted in Ethiopia for high decortication quality Increase in production 2000/01 - 2009/10: • Lentils: 3 times • Faba Bean: 40% • Chickpea: 60% Increased production and decortication processing in lentil provides employment in rural areas
  33. 33. Family Farming An Example in Pulse Cultivation in India Family members are involved in lentil harvest Grasspea harvest by family members
  34. 34. Control of Insect Pests Resistance/Tolerance to Hessian Fly in Wheat Hessian Fly Resistant Variety in Morocco Hessian fly causes economic damage in North Africa and North Kazakhstan Resistant lines
  35. 35. Resistance to Rust Diseases in Wheat Released varieties resistant to black stem and yellow rust in Ethiopia Resistances to new races of yellow rust in West Asia
  36. 36. Examples on Environmental Sustainability of Family Farming: Improving Water Availability and Productivity & & Sustainable Use and Management of Water Resources
  37. 37. Enhancing Water Productivity, Management and Water Productivity  More efficient irrigation systems: enhancing water productivity through both modernization of irrigation systems and improving the efficiency of surface irrigation  Modifying cropping patterns towards high value crops  Supplemental irrigation  Water harvesting: macro- and micro-water catchments & contour planting  Deficit irrigation  Watershed management
  38. 38. Afghanistan: • Water harvesting sites established; • Technology of sub-surface irrigation used in Afghanistan for the first time. ACHIEVEMENTS (2009-2011) Water management in dryland farming
  39. 39. Exchange experience about waste/greywater re-use (Gaza and West Bank) 18 family farms (women and men) along with project team visited Jordan to exchange practical knowledge on waste/greywater use in irrigation
  40. 40. Field-days and awareness sessions for the safe use of treated grey/wastewater in irrigation  15 field days were conducted I  West Bank and Gaza attended by 165 farmers  Brochures on safety and productive use guidelines were distributed
  41. 41. Sustainable Intensification & Diversification of Production Systems & Added-Value Products
  42. 42. The three pillars for integrated approach for sustainable agricultural development Sustainable Natural resource management and inputs Crop & livestock genetic improvement Integration at field and farmers levels Socio-economic & policy, and institutional support
  43. 43. Sustainable Intensification of Broad Wheat Production – Improves varieties, Water management and inputs Raised-Bed Planting
  44. 44. FP: furrows irrigation FlP: flat bed irrigation RBP: raised bed irrigation
  45. 45. Raised-Bed Planting
  46. 46. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Yield (t/ha) Water consumption(000m3/ha) Raised bed Flat surface WUE(kg/m3) Egypt: Sharkia Province Advantage of raised bed planting Average of 2011 and 2012 30 % increase in grain yield 25 % saving in irrigation water 72 % increase in WUE
  47. 47. Small-scale mechanized raised-beds systems for water savings Key Benefits  Saves water by 20%  Reduces seed rate by 50%  Decreases production cost by 25%  Reduces planting time by 88%  Increases crops yields by 15-25%
  48. 48. Diversification of Production Systems Using High-Value Crops  Promotion of improved technologies for producing value-added products for higher income for family farms and rural communities in the intensified/diversified integrated crop/rangeland/livestock production systems  Indigenous dryland fruit trees are good examples: olives, figs, dates, palm, pomegranate, pistachio, almonds, etc.
  49. 49. Diversification of Production Systems with Medicinal Plants: processing, value addition and more income
  50. 50. High Value Crops & Protected Agriculture
  51. 51. Soilless Culture Increased yield per unit of water, space and energy Protected Agriculture
  52. 52. Protected Agriculture for Family Farming Diversifies production and diets; generates employment And more income, improves water use efficiency Afghanistan Yemen Jordan
  53. 53. High-Value Crops More Income For Family Farming Labor-intensive fruit and vegetables for food & nutritional security and more income • A low-risk bridge from subsistence to better livelihoods
  54. 54. Afghanistan Minister of Agriculture inspecting mint production in a greenhouse
  55. 55. Added Value Products in Durum Wheat: WNADIN IFAD Project
  56. 56. Pasta: Traditional Processing 1. Semolina is mixed with water and salt 2. Mixture is kneaded to a pasta dough 3. Pasta dough is rolled on large wood tables to make dough. 4. Dough flattened in thin form and cut in long threads. 5. Pasta threads are hung on line for sun drying. 6. After drying, the pasta threads are stored in jars
  57. 57. ‘Burghul’: Traditional processing 1. Boiled, 2. Cooled, 3. Dried, 4. Moistened, 5. Peeled (sometimes the peeling process is omitted), 6. Dried again, 7. Cleaned by winnowing, 8. Milled, and 9. Graded to different sizes.
  58. 58. “Frike”: A Family Endeavor  Stable food in WANA: made from early harvested green grains of durum wheat  Important source of income for rural families in marginal areas  Highly nutritious: high protein, fiber, vitamins (thiamin and riboflavin) and minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn), low carbohydrate, rich in prebiotic properties, low glycemic index.  High value addition in established markets.  High labor requirements: grains are harvested, parched, roasted and dried---village industry. Involves the entire family.
  59. 59. Integrated Livestock/Rangelands/Crops Production Systems & Added Value Dairy Products in Marginal Dry Areas
  60. 60. Development of Integrated Crop/Rangelands/Livestock Production Systems By-products - feed blocks On-farm feed production Successful Technologies Flock management Barley production Cactus & fodder shrubs Natural pastures & rangeland management
  61. 61. Community Approach & Community Action Plans for sustainable use of natural resources Agro-Ecological Characterization CCoommmmuunniittyy Technologies Modeliing Modeling SScceennaarriiii Presentation to decision makers Private sector Other communities Policy & Property rights Community Action Plan & Scenarios Validation with community representatives Presentation to decision makers
  62. 62. Successful Technologies in Farmers Fields  Feed blocks using crop residues and agro-industrial by-products  Improved rams  Early weaning  Improved barley cultivars  Rotations of barley with forage legumes
  63. 63. Adding Value: Family Livestock Production
  64. 64. Value addition: Improved milking and processing Steps in research:  Assess local knowledge and identify problems with researchable solution  Identify available technologies or develop suitable technology  Integrate the proposed solution with the local knowledge Example: Yoghurt processing in Syria Problem: High acidity and weak texture Solution:  Yogurt with high viscosity that does not collapse during transport  Market price was 5 Syrian Lira more per kg than the yogurt produced by farmers
  65. 65. Enhancing Family Livelihoods: Goat Management & Feeding in Afghanistan & Pakistan  200+ women received goats through IFAD Project;  Dairy hygiene and processing improved skills and incomes of at least 600 women;  3x benefits with supplemental feeding of goats;  2x benefit by improved feeding during fattening;  3x increase in kid survival due to vaccinations;  Improved growth through crossbreeding of goats.
  66. 66. Value-Addition: Processing and Export of Cashmere, Wool and Mohair 71  Increasing the income of sheep and goat producers from fiber production through improving fiber quality and market access  Enhancing processing and organizational skills  Developing fair trade export markets for locally produced yarn, clothing and fiber handicrafts
  67. 67. Market analysis & Linking Family Farming to Market: Goat production in Afghanistan Findings:  Informal & unorganised goat markets with poor infrastructure and market intelligence system.  Goat producers can expect higher benefits when they plan sales considering live weight, market day, marketing place and sex.  Good market potential exists for cheese, qurut, yoghurt and cashmere.  Presentation of value added products for marketing is poor - need improvement in packing and grading.
  68. 68. Conclusions and Looking Ahead  Supported by enabling policies and strong political commitment and through targeted public and private investment in both research and development, family farms can be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable to enhance national economic national growth, food security and improve livelihoods of the resource-poor in rural areas.  Ensuring the environmental, social and economic sustainability of Family Farming can also be the key to rural transformation. It is useful to recall the example of Viet Nam, where strong pro-smallholder development activities (many of which were focused on family farms) transformed the rural landscape from a poor underdeveloped and food insecure country to a country that is now exporting food and classified as lower middle-income. • According to IFAD (2014): “the potential economic and social returns to investing in family farms are enormous.” So let us all work towards this goal.
  69. 69. Thank you

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