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Research Outputs and Approaches  to Enhance Food Security and Improve Livelihoods in Dry Areas International Center for Ag...
Outline <ul><li>Constraints leading to food insecurity and poverty in Dry Areas. </li></ul><ul><li>What can make a differe...
The  Changing  World
Agriculture and the Food Security Challenge <ul><li>Expectation by  2030: </li></ul><ul><li>- 8.3 billion people to feed <...
<ul><li>Constraints leading to  Food Insecurity  and poverty in dry areas </li></ul>
Horizontal Expansion is no longer an Option for future production Growth:   Expansion of Arable Land in Arab Countries Far...
Dry areas cover 41% of the earth’s surface, and are home to over 1.7 billion people – and the majority of the world’s poor...
The Dry Areas Of NENA Region:  Fragile Eco-systems <ul><li>Physical water scarcity   </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid natural resou...
Desertification/Land Degradation
Climate Change Severest Impact:  Near East, North & Sub-Saharan Africa Hot spots  of vulnerability to  climate change  in ...
Urban population will outpace rural Urbanization and Out-Migration  Source: FAO.2002. World Agriculture: towards 2015/2030...
Urbanization in Countries of Dry Areas Source: FAO Statistical Yearbook, Vol.1, 2004. Urbanization % 0 20 40 60 80 100 Eth...
Further Challenges  towards Food Security   <ul><li>Inadequate agricultural policies for sustainable agricultural developm...
World Development Report 2008
Unemployment rate in the world and world regions High Level of Unemployment Source:  World Employment Report 2004-05: Empl...
Lack of employment opportunities Socio-political upheavals Increase  in Food Prices Climate Change (Global CO 2 emissions)...
Arab Countries’ Cereal Productivity Lags Behind World Averages <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source :  Authors. Adapted from FAO...
Cereal Demand Far Outpaces Domestic Production in Arab Countries   Source : Authors. Adapted from IFPRI, 2008.  Note : Inc...
Widening Food Gap in Arab Countries
Arab Countries Are the Largest Net Importers of Cereal in the World   (million metric tons, 2007)   <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
1970-2030 -10 40 90 140 190 240 1970 1980 1990 2000 2015 2030 million tones East Asia South Asia Near East/North Africa La...
Crop Prospects and Food Situation, April 2008 FAO.   Impact of Food Price Increases on Trade Balances,  2007-2008
Crop Prospects and Food Situation, April 2008 FAO Wheat Importers & Exporters 2007 (mt)
Implications of the Food Crisis:  Countries moving from self-reliance to self sufficiency
Pathways Out of  Food Insecurity & Poverty Better employment opportunities Peace and social stability Pro-poor policy and ...
<ul><li>What can make a difference? </li></ul>
Food Security: What Can Make the Difference? <ul><li>Enabling policy and political will </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in S & ...
<ul><li>ICARDA Strategic Plan 2007-2016:  Agricultural Research for Development in Dry Areas. </li></ul>
IWMI Colombo, Sri Lanka CIFOR Bogor, Indonesia ICLARM Penang, Malaysa IRRI Los Banos, Philippines ICRISAT Patancheru, Indi...
CGIAR Strategic Objectives <ul><li>FOOD FOR PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Create and accelerate sustainable increases in the pr...
To overcome  these challenges   and enhance   food security in a changing world …
Besides Conservation of Biodiversity and Crop Genetic Improvement, ICARDA is emphasizing: <ul><li>Risk management, drought...
ICARDA’s Geographic Mandate
CWANA   Dry areas (outside CWANA) Temperate Temperate Sub-Tropical Sub-Tropical Tropical Latin America Nile Valley and Sub...
ICARDA Vision Improved livelihoods of the resource-poor in dry areas
ICARDA’s Mission “ To contribute to the improvement of livelihoods of the resource poor in dry areas by enhancing food sec...
Technical Mandate:  Cereal Improvement Barley Global Mandate Bread Wheat Durum Wheat Regional Mandate
Technical Mandate  (cont’d) :   Food Legume Improvement Global Mandate Lentil Kabuli Chickpea Grass pea Faba bean
The Balanced Diet Cereals + Food Legumes <ul><li>Food Legumes: </li></ul><ul><li>High in protein and lysine but low in sul...
Technical Mandate  (cont’d):   Natural Resource Management in Non-Tropical Dry Areas Range improvement Forage Legumes Wate...
ICARDA’s Major Research Programs Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Integrated Water and Land Management Diversif...
Pillars of Sustainable Agricultural Development to Enhance Food Security Integration in the field  Institutions, Policy, a...
Helping farmers to cope  with climate change Intensification and diversification  of livelihoods <ul><li>Enhance crop adap...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>1.  Improved Varieties  </li></ul>
ICARDA Gene Bank:  germplasm collected (Apr 2009) Number of Accessions Crop 2007- 2009 1977-2009 Barley  489  24,823 Wheat...
Geographic coverage of the conserved plant genetic resources at ICARDA
Conventional Plant Breeding
<ul><li>Genomics </li></ul><ul><li>Marker Assisted Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Double Haploids </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo Re...
Crop Improvement:  Varieties Released using ICARDA Germplasm Worldwide, 1977 to 2008 1977 - 2008 Last 2 years Crop Develop...
Varieties Released <ul><li>High yield potential </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance to abiotic stresses: </li></ul><ul><li>- Droug...
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Area Needed Actual Area Linear (Area Trend) Actual Production Linear (Production Trend) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ...
Wheat Crossed with Wild Relatives:  Synthetic Wheat, tolerance to excessive drought Yield of “synthetic derivatives” compa...
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Low (280mm) High (480mm) Average  Maximum Yield of Synthetic Wheat Varieties derived from wild relatives...
Yields (kg/ha) of promising durum wheat genotypes under rainfed (RF) supplemental irrigation (SI) Key to Acronyms: RF = Ra...
Heat-Tolerant Wheat in Sudan
Resistance/Tolerance to Hessian Fly in Morocco Hessian Fly Resistant
Black Stem Rust (Ug99)Resistant Wheat Lines Released in Ethiopia On-going Seed multiplications of resistant varieties in E...
Barley for Excessive Drought in Syria Local Landrace “ Zahra” versus local landrace (139 mm rainfall)
<ul><li>Chickpea Winter Sowing </li></ul>
New Chickpea Variety Survived 2007 Drought in Turkey The Kabuli chickpea, ‘Gokce’, developed by ICARDA and Turkish  nation...
Ethiopia / ICARDA Collaboration Alemaya lentil variety widely adopted through EARI
Source of employment in rural areas - Ethiopia
<ul><ul><li>Affects >15 million ha of wheat in West, Central Asia and East Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could reduce ...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>2. Seed Production:  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Capacity Development  in the Seed Production Sector   Favorable areas Less favorable areas National  Seed  Sector Develop-...
Informal Seed Sector:  Village-Based Seed Enterprises (VBSE) VBSE:  Afghanistan (17), Egypt (2), Eritrea (1), Pakistan (4)
Farmer seed (75%) Certified Seed 25% National seed requirements <ul><li>Improved practices </li></ul><ul><li>Crop inspecti...
Farmer seed (75%) Certified Seed 25% National seed requirements Fields selected for grain for seed to cope with seed short...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>3. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) </l...
<ul><ul><li>Affects >15 million ha of wheat in West, Central Asia and East Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could reduce ...
<ul><ul><li>Sunn pest injects enzyme that decomposes grain gluten, vital for bread baking.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If ...
<ul><li>Hand collection of Sunn  </li></ul><ul><li>pest in overwintering sites  </li></ul><ul><li>Use of insect-killing </...
Wheat infested by Sunn pest  Predators of Sunn pest eggs Sunn pest killed by Fungi isolate  IPM of Sunn Pest in Wheat
<ul><li>National policies in West Asia changed: government-supported aerial sprays replaced with ground applications by fa...
<ul><li>Participatory approaches led by our NARS partners in collaboration with FAO </li></ul><ul><li>Publications includi...
0 50 100 150 200 250 2001 2002 2003 Years 127 193 231 300 277 2004 Sprayed areas (1000 ha) Evolution of Sprayed Areas agai...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>4. Water Management </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Benchmark Sites for  Integrated Water Management
Implementation in Three Agro-Ecologies Rainfed Areas Marginal Lands Irrigated Areas
Rainfed Agro-Ecosystems <ul><li>Supplemental Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Early sowing </li></ul><ul><li>Deficit irrigatio...
Irrigated Agro-Ecosystem <ul><li>Increasing water productivity/income </li></ul><ul><li>Management of saline water and soi...
Marginal Land (Badia) Agro-Ecosystem <ul><li>Water harvesting  technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-catchments  mechanized...
Potential of WUE:  Supplemental Irrigation (SI),  Rainfed and Fully Irrigated (FI) Areas WUE: Water Use Efficiency
Tradeoffs between Water & Land Productivity - Deficit Irrigation Water productivity can be Increased Substantially Water, ...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>5.  Diversification of Production Syste...
Risk Management with Climate Change:  Diversification of Production Systems  using High-Value Crops <ul><li>Promotion of i...
Fruit and vegetables for better livelihoods <ul><li>A low-risk bridge from subsistence to better livelihoods  </li></ul>
Soilless Culture Increased yield per unit of water, space and energy Protected  Agriculture
Diversifying production and diets; generating  more income and improving water use efficiency Protected Agriculture  for R...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>6. Geographic Information System (GIS) ...
GIS to Target for Crop Diversification
New researchable themes in GIS: identifying areas suitable for de-rocking Idleb Governorate: Areas with some potential for...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>7. Conservation Agriculture: </li></ul>...
Conservation Agriculture:  Approach to Cope with Climate Change <ul><li>Major Practice Worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>min...
Agronomic technology:  Zero-Tillage (ZT) practices for dry areas <ul><li>ZT technology introduced on large scale in 2006-0...
<ul><li>Syria: Long-term ZT vs CT Trials at ICARDA </li></ul>For straw and grain yield ZT  > CC Early > late planting For ...
Iraq: ZT evaluation by farmers in 2008/09 Azaz Tel Kief Ninevah:   6 farmers growing 437 ha of ZT crops using modified Ram...
Syria: ZT demonstrations with farmers in 2008/09 Afrin El Bab Syria:  41 farmers testing ZT on 2073 ha Musselmiya Maara ZT...
<ul><li>Local ZT seeders – first made in Syria in 2008 </li></ul>Kamishley - local El Bab - local Qabbasin - local Amazon ...
Fabrication of Seed Drills - Iraq & Syria ZT Seeder with press wheels, Mosul Co. for Mechanical Works  Rama (John Shearer)...
Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>8. Livestock-Based Production Systems: ...
Ecosystem Resilience:  Integrated Crop/Rangeland/Livestock Production Systems Barley  Production Cactus & Fodder Shrubs By...
<ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs of supplements in dry years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereals used as ...
Effect of strategic feeding of urea-molasses feed blocks on performance of ewes & lambs (Average of two years, 7 flocks in...
<ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic supplementation resulted in a net gain of 18.7 $US per ewe compared to t...
Technology for improved milking <ul><li>Problems in traditional milking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health problems of women </l...
Technology for improved yogurt processing  Value Added <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak texture and bad transp...
Technology for improved cheese processing   Added Value <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye formation </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Key constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-yielding varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality seed availability ...
High-yielding forages identified  Grasspea & Vetch
Grain Straw 1 2-year average, 3 replicates High-yielding forages identified  Grasspea & Vetch
High-yielding forages identified:  Cowpea
Grain Fodder 1 2-year average, 3 replicates High-yielding forages identified:  Grasspea & Vetch
Enhanced knowledge & information:  field days
Participation in the Fodder Project: 600 participating households in 13 villages 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 BalaiAsia Labenar M...
More impact at farmers’ level
<ul><li>Researcher-Extension Agent-Farmer Traditional Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Research Sites as Platforms fo...
D D R  for ICARDA Research for Development vs  Research and  Development Research for Development
Diagnostic & Base Line Surveys Basic Research Applied Research Adaptive/Strategic Research Researcher/Extension Agent/Farm...
Site Integration <ul><li>Problem analysis </li></ul><ul><li>System analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul...
Transfer and Adaptation Up-scaling and Extrapolation Integrated Research Site Similar environment Different environment IC...
Using GIS for Finding of Similarity with Research Benchmark Sites for up scaling and diffusion of Technology
Community Approach & Community Action Plans   Community Community Technologies Technologies Policy &  Policy &  Property r...
M&M Phase1 Dropped Chosen technologies Local Institutions Adopted Rejected Offered technologies M&M Phase2 participatory a...
Livelihood Analysis & Income Mapping
Distribution of human poverty in Sudan (2006)   <ul><li>Composite index of life expectancy, deprivation of knowledge, lack...
Participatory in Crop Improvement Farmers score barley lines according to their selection criteria in a participatory barl...
Small holder farmers Large farmers Traders /intermediaries Local market/ retailers Exporters Processors Fresh: wholesale, ...
Impact of wheat research in Syria <ul><li>Annual benefits from research: estimated at USD 142 million </li></ul><ul><li>Sa...
Impact of Improved Technologies on Profitability  (Net Return $/ha) Technology Country Adopters Non-adopters Increase Whea...
<ul><li>Partnership & networking </li></ul>
Adoption and Impact of Technologies  At Farmers’ & Rural Community Levels
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Research Outputs and Approaches to Enhance Food Security and Improve Livelihoods in Dry Areas

Mahmoud Solh Ifad Workshop Pre Final Oct 2009

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Research Outputs and Approaches to Enhance Food Security and Improve Livelihoods in Dry Areas

  1. 1. Research Outputs and Approaches to Enhance Food Security and Improve Livelihoods in Dry Areas International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas Mahmoud Solh Director General IFAD/ICARDA Information Exchange Workshop
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Constraints leading to food insecurity and poverty in Dry Areas. </li></ul><ul><li>What can make a difference? </li></ul><ul><li>ICARDA Strategic Plan 2007-2016: Agricultural Research for Development in Dry Areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Approach for technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>IFAD Strategic Partnerships </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Changing World
  4. 4. Agriculture and the Food Security Challenge <ul><li>Expectation by 2030: </li></ul><ul><li>- 8.3 billion people to feed </li></ul><ul><li>- 83% in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>- 60% more food is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Before the food price increase 850 million people faced hunger and absolute poverty </li></ul><ul><li>After, 200 million people were added to the hungry and poor </li></ul>Prospects for Food and Agriculture: 2015 - 2030
  5. 5. <ul><li>Constraints leading to Food Insecurity and poverty in dry areas </li></ul>
  6. 6. Horizontal Expansion is no longer an Option for future production Growth: Expansion of Arable Land in Arab Countries Far Outpaced the World Until the 1990s, When Expansion Became Limited to Sudan <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source : Authors. Adapted from FAO, 2008b. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Dry areas cover 41% of the earth’s surface, and are home to over 1.7 billion people – and the majority of the world’s poor. About 16% of the population lives in chronic poverty, particularly in marginal rainfed areas. Predominance of Dry Areas
  8. 8. The Dry Areas Of NENA Region: Fragile Eco-systems <ul><li>Physical water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid natural resource degradation and desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change will make it drier </li></ul>-80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 m Decrease of the Souss aquifer level in Morocco
  9. 9. Desertification/Land Degradation
  10. 10. Climate Change Severest Impact: Near East, North & Sub-Saharan Africa Hot spots of vulnerability to climate change in Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) Region <ul><li>Temperature extremes – both heat and cold </li></ul><ul><li>Water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of agro-biodiversity through habitat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Increased vulnerability of pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller and more erratic harvests </li></ul>Major threats
  11. 11. Urban population will outpace rural Urbanization and Out-Migration Source: FAO.2002. World Agriculture: towards 2015/2030 Summary Report U rbanisation in developing countries will accelerate over the next 30 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 billion people Rural Urban projected projected
  12. 12. Urbanization in Countries of Dry Areas Source: FAO Statistical Yearbook, Vol.1, 2004. Urbanization % 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ethiopia Afghanistan Eritrea Tajikistan Yemen Somalia Pakistan Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Sudan Egypt Turkmenistan Syria Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Morocco Algeria Mauritania Armenia Tunisia Iran Turkey Cyprus Iraq Palestine Jordan UAE Libya Lebanon Saudi Arabia Kuwait Less than 30% 30-50% 51-70% More than 70%
  13. 13. Further Challenges towards Food Security <ul><li>Inadequate agricultural policies for sustainable agricultural development </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient investment in agricultural research and development </li></ul>
  14. 14. World Development Report 2008
  15. 15. Unemployment rate in the world and world regions High Level of Unemployment Source: World Employment Report 2004-05: Employment, productivity and poverty reduction. ILO, December 2004.
  16. 16. Lack of employment opportunities Socio-political upheavals Increase in Food Prices Climate Change (Global CO 2 emissions) Over-exploitation of natural resources Migration Population growth Aboitic Stresses drought, heat, salinity Food Insecurity, poverty, hunger and malnutrition Land degradation, water scarcity, loss of biodiversity Interrelationships between key challenges in dry areas Food Insecurity & Poverty Trap
  17. 17. Arab Countries’ Cereal Productivity Lags Behind World Averages <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source : Authors. Adapted from FAO, 2008b. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Cereal Demand Far Outpaces Domestic Production in Arab Countries Source : Authors. Adapted from IFPRI, 2008. Note : Includes Sudan; MT is metric tons
  19. 19. Widening Food Gap in Arab Countries
  20. 20. Arab Countries Are the Largest Net Importers of Cereal in the World (million metric tons, 2007) <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources: Authors. Adapted from (FAO, 2008e). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 1970-2030 -10 40 90 140 190 240 1970 1980 1990 2000 2015 2030 million tones East Asia South Asia Near East/North Africa Latin America S.S.Africa Historical Development Projections Cereals imports of developing regions Food Insecurity Source: FAO, 2002 World Agriculture: towards 2015/30, http://www.fao.org/es/ESD/gstudies.htm
  22. 22. Crop Prospects and Food Situation, April 2008 FAO. Impact of Food Price Increases on Trade Balances, 2007-2008
  23. 23. Crop Prospects and Food Situation, April 2008 FAO Wheat Importers & Exporters 2007 (mt)
  24. 24. Implications of the Food Crisis: Countries moving from self-reliance to self sufficiency
  25. 25. Pathways Out of Food Insecurity & Poverty Better employment opportunities Peace and social stability Pro-poor policy and institutional options Adaptation/mitigation to climate change Diversification and access to markets Human resource development Improved food security Food Security & Better Livelihoods Resilient production systems Sustainable use of natural resources
  26. 26. <ul><li>What can make a difference? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Food Security: What Can Make the Difference? <ul><li>Enabling policy and political will </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in S & T </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated approaches and better NRM for economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable intensification of production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Public awareness of the long term benefits of conservation technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity development & institutional support </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>ICARDA Strategic Plan 2007-2016: Agricultural Research for Development in Dry Areas. </li></ul>
  29. 29. IWMI Colombo, Sri Lanka CIFOR Bogor, Indonesia ICLARM Penang, Malaysa IRRI Los Banos, Philippines ICRISAT Patancheru, India ICRAF Nairobi, Kenya ILRI Nairobi, Kenya IITA IBADAN, Nigeria WARDA Bouake, Cote d’Iviore Bioversity Rome, Italy CIP Lima, Peru CIAT Cali, Colombia CIMMYT Mexico City, Mexico IFPRI Washinton D.C., United States ICARDA Aleppo, Syria The CGIAR Centers
  30. 30. CGIAR Strategic Objectives <ul><li>FOOD FOR PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Create and accelerate sustainable increases in the productivity and production of healthy food by and for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT FOR PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve, enhance and sustainably use natural resources and biodiversity to improve the livelihoods of the poor in response to climate change and other factors </li></ul><ul><li>POLICIES FOR PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>Promote policy and institutional change that will stimulate agricultural growth and equity to benefit the poor, especially rural women and other disadvantaged groups. </li></ul>
  31. 31. To overcome these challenges and enhance food security in a changing world …
  32. 32. Besides Conservation of Biodiversity and Crop Genetic Improvement, ICARDA is emphasizing: <ul><li>Risk management, drought mitigation, and adaptive capacity of agriculture to climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated water and land management </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic research to strengthen community and institutional frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification and marketing research for income generation and improving nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting to market-oriented production </li></ul><ul><li>Increased global coverage (Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, China, and Latin America) </li></ul>Strategy Emphasis
  33. 33. ICARDA’s Geographic Mandate
  34. 34. CWANA Dry areas (outside CWANA) Temperate Temperate Sub-Tropical Sub-Tropical Tropical Latin America Nile Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa North Africa West Asia Arabian Peninsula South Asia and China Highlands Central Asia and the Caucasus ICARDA’s Outreach Programs: Center without Walls
  35. 35. ICARDA Vision Improved livelihoods of the resource-poor in dry areas
  36. 36. ICARDA’s Mission “ To contribute to the improvement of livelihoods of the resource poor in dry areas by enhancing food security and alleviating poverty through research and partnerships to achieve sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and income, while ensuring the efficient and more equitable use and conservation of natural resources.”
  37. 37. Technical Mandate: Cereal Improvement Barley Global Mandate Bread Wheat Durum Wheat Regional Mandate
  38. 38. Technical Mandate (cont’d) : Food Legume Improvement Global Mandate Lentil Kabuli Chickpea Grass pea Faba bean
  39. 39. The Balanced Diet Cereals + Food Legumes <ul><li>Food Legumes: </li></ul><ul><li>High in protein and lysine but low in sulfur-containing Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Protein percentage: </li></ul><ul><li>Faba bean 20 – 36 % </li></ul><ul><li>Lentil 22 – 35 % </li></ul><ul><li>Grass pea 25 – 31 % </li></ul><ul><li>Kabuli Chickpea 16 – 24 % </li></ul><ul><li>Cereals/Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Low in Protein & Lysine but high in sulfur-containing Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Combining food legumes & cereals provides a fully balanced diet: reducing malnutrition in poor communities </li></ul>
  40. 40. Technical Mandate (cont’d): Natural Resource Management in Non-Tropical Dry Areas Range improvement Forage Legumes Water use efficiency Land degradation Small ruminant nutrition
  41. 41. ICARDA’s Major Research Programs Biodiversity and Integrated Gene Management Integrated Water and Land Management Diversification and Sustainable Intensification of Production Systems Social, Economic and Policy Research
  42. 42. Pillars of Sustainable Agricultural Development to Enhance Food Security Integration in the field Institutions, Policy, and Community Approach Natural Resource Management& Inputs Crop & Livestock Genetic Improvement
  43. 43. Helping farmers to cope with climate change Intensification and diversification of livelihoods <ul><li>Enhance crop adaptation through tolerance to drought, extreme temperatures & salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Improve resilience of farming systems </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management & adaptive capacity of rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling policies </li></ul>Adaptation - Mitigation - Resilience
  44. 44. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>1. Improved Varieties </li></ul>
  45. 45. ICARDA Gene Bank: germplasm collected (Apr 2009) Number of Accessions Crop 2007- 2009 1977-2009 Barley 489 24,823 Wheat 658 33,639 Wild cereals 38 7,300 Forage legumes 0 28,330 Food legumes 292 32,456 Wild food legumes 0 851 Forage and range 0 5,666 Total 1,477 133,065
  46. 46. Geographic coverage of the conserved plant genetic resources at ICARDA
  47. 47. Conventional Plant Breeding
  48. 48. <ul><li>Genomics </li></ul><ul><li>Marker Assisted Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Double Haploids </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue Culture </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Fingerprinting </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Engineering </li></ul>Biotechnology Tools
  49. 49. Crop Improvement: Varieties Released using ICARDA Germplasm Worldwide, 1977 to 2008 1977 - 2008 Last 2 years Crop Developing Countries Industrialized Countries All Countries Barley 175 31 6 Durum Wheat 102 14 1 Bread Wheat 224 6 9 Chickpea 108 31 9 Faba Bean 51 6 1 Lentil 96 16 9 Forages 30 2 2 Peas 9 0  0 Sub-Total 761 120 24 Total 901 37 NET ESTIMATED BENEFIT = about US $850 m / year
  50. 50. Varieties Released <ul><li>High yield potential </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance to abiotic stresses: </li></ul><ul><li>- Drought </li></ul><ul><li>- Heat </li></ul><ul><li>- Cold </li></ul><ul><li>- Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance/tolerance to biotic stresses </li></ul><ul><li>- Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>- Insect pests </li></ul><ul><li>- Parasitic weeds </li></ul>
  51. 51. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Area Needed Actual Area Linear (Area Trend) Actual Production Linear (Production Trend) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Wheat in Syria Area Saved and Production Reached Wheat area (million ha) Production (million tons) 1 9 7 8 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 2 1 9 8 4 1 9 8 6 1 9 8 8 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 8 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 6 1 9 7 7 1 9 7 9 1 9 8 1 1 9 8 3 1 9 8 5 1 9 8 7 1 9 8 9 1 9 9 1 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 5 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 7
  52. 52. Wheat Crossed with Wild Relatives: Synthetic Wheat, tolerance to excessive drought Yield of “synthetic derivatives” compared to parents under drought stress. (Tel Hadya 2008 -- 211 mm) Parent Variety Yield t/ha % recurrent parent Cham 6*2/SW2 1.6 147 Cham 6*2/SW2 1.5 138 Cham-6 1.10 100 Attila-7 1.3 -
  53. 53. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Low (280mm) High (480mm) Average Maximum Yield of Synthetic Wheat Varieties derived from wild relatives under moisture extremes Yield (tons/ha) Moisture stress
  54. 54. Yields (kg/ha) of promising durum wheat genotypes under rainfed (RF) supplemental irrigation (SI) Key to Acronyms: RF = Rainfed; SI = Supplemental Irrigation RF ( 321 mm) RF+SI ( 321+70 mm) RF+SI ( 524+70 mm) 11 t/ha 6/t/ha 3.7t/ha
  55. 55. Heat-Tolerant Wheat in Sudan
  56. 56. Resistance/Tolerance to Hessian Fly in Morocco Hessian Fly Resistant
  57. 57. Black Stem Rust (Ug99)Resistant Wheat Lines Released in Ethiopia On-going Seed multiplications of resistant varieties in Egypt, Pakistan Afghanistan
  58. 58. Barley for Excessive Drought in Syria Local Landrace “ Zahra” versus local landrace (139 mm rainfall)
  59. 59. <ul><li>Chickpea Winter Sowing </li></ul>
  60. 60. New Chickpea Variety Survived 2007 Drought in Turkey The Kabuli chickpea, ‘Gokce’, developed by ICARDA and Turkish national scientists, has withstood severe drought in Turkey and produced when most other crops failed in 2007. Gokce is used on about 85% of the chickpea production areas (over 550,000 ha). With a yield advantage of 300 kg/ha over other varieties , and world prices over USD 1000/t, this represents an additional USD 165 million for Turkish farmers , in 2007 alone.
  61. 61. Ethiopia / ICARDA Collaboration Alemaya lentil variety widely adopted through EARI
  62. 62. Source of employment in rural areas - Ethiopia
  63. 63. <ul><ul><li>Affects >15 million ha of wheat in West, Central Asia and East Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could reduce wheat yield by 50-90% in West Asia and Central Asia. </li></ul></ul>Damage of Sunn Pest in Wheat
  64. 64. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>2. Seed Production: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Seed Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Seed Sector: Village-based Seed System </li></ul><ul><li>“ Seed for Grain” System to cope with drought </li></ul>
  65. 65. Capacity Development in the Seed Production Sector Favorable areas Less favorable areas National Seed Sector Develop-ment Framework Policy and regulatory reforms and harmonization Liberalization/commercialization of seed sector Mobilizing farmers and/or communities Encouraging local seed production and marketing Formal Sector Public Private Informal Sector VBSEs NGOs F A R M R E R S I M P A C T S
  66. 66. Informal Seed Sector: Village-Based Seed Enterprises (VBSE) VBSE: Afghanistan (17), Egypt (2), Eritrea (1), Pakistan (4)
  67. 67. Farmer seed (75%) Certified Seed 25% National seed requirements <ul><li>Improved practices </li></ul><ul><li>Crop inspection and roguing </li></ul><ul><li>Seed testing </li></ul><ul><li>Known varietal identity, seed quality (purity, germination health) </li></ul>“ Grain-for-Seed” Concept to Cope with Climate Change Good season with no seed shortage “ Grain-for-Seed” task force: research, seed suppliers, extension, NGO’s and farmers unions, to adjust the bar position when needed
  68. 68. Farmer seed (75%) Certified Seed 25% National seed requirements Fields selected for grain for seed to cope with seed shortage Substandard grain fields “ Grain-for-Seed” & Coping with Climate Change: Very Dry Seasons with Severe Seed Shortage <ul><li>Improved practices </li></ul><ul><li>Crop inspection and roguing </li></ul><ul><li>Seed testing </li></ul><ul><li>Known varietal identity, seed quality (purity, germination health) </li></ul>“ Grain-for-Seed” task force: research, seed suppliers, extension, NGO’s and farmers unions, to adjust the bar position when needed
  69. 69. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>3. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><ul><li>Affects >15 million ha of wheat in West, Central Asia and East Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could reduce wheat yield by 50-90% in West Asia and Central Asia. </li></ul></ul>Damage of Sunn Pest in Wheat
  71. 71. <ul><ul><li>Sunn pest injects enzyme that decomposes grain gluten, vital for bread baking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If 2-3% of a grain lot is infested, entire wheat lot is ruined with respect to baking quality. </li></ul></ul>Damage of Sunn Pest to Wheat Quality
  72. 72. <ul><li>Hand collection of Sunn </li></ul><ul><li>pest in overwintering sites </li></ul><ul><li>Use of insect-killing </li></ul><ul><li>fungi in overwintering sites </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement and </li></ul><ul><li>conservation of egg </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitoids </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic resistance </li></ul><ul><li>at the vegetative stage </li></ul>Sunn pest IPM Technology options
  73. 73. Wheat infested by Sunn pest Predators of Sunn pest eggs Sunn pest killed by Fungi isolate IPM of Sunn Pest in Wheat
  74. 74. <ul><li>National policies in West Asia changed: government-supported aerial sprays replaced with ground applications by farmers, on over 3 million ha. </li></ul><ul><li>Revised ETs implemented, resulting in reduced pesticide use. </li></ul>Major Accomplishments
  75. 75. <ul><li>Participatory approaches led by our NARS partners in collaboration with FAO </li></ul><ul><li>Publications including manual in different languages </li></ul>Dissemination of IPM Sunn Pest Research Output
  76. 76. 0 50 100 150 200 250 2001 2002 2003 Years 127 193 231 300 277 2004 Sprayed areas (1000 ha) Evolution of Sprayed Areas against Sunn Pest in Syria 282 2005 232 2006 185 117 2007 2008 2009 87
  77. 77. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>4. Water Management </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental Irrigation (Systems and management) </li></ul><ul><li>Macro- and Micro-Water Catchments (Vallerani and other types) </li></ul><ul><li>Deficit Irrigation as a water management strategy for the water scarce areas </li></ul>
  78. 78. Benchmark Sites for Integrated Water Management
  79. 79. Implementation in Three Agro-Ecologies Rainfed Areas Marginal Lands Irrigated Areas
  80. 80. Rainfed Agro-Ecosystems <ul><li>Supplemental Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Early sowing </li></ul><ul><li>Deficit irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Optimization Supplemental irrigation </li></ul>
  81. 81. Irrigated Agro-Ecosystem <ul><li>Increasing water productivity/income </li></ul><ul><li>Management of saline water and soils </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Modifying cropping patterns </li></ul>
  82. 82. Marginal Land (Badia) Agro-Ecosystem <ul><li>Water harvesting technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-catchments mechanized contour laser planting </li></ul><ul><li>Effective water harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing management </li></ul><ul><li>40-50% increase in rainwater productivity </li></ul>
  83. 83. Potential of WUE: Supplemental Irrigation (SI), Rainfed and Fully Irrigated (FI) Areas WUE: Water Use Efficiency
  84. 84. Tradeoffs between Water & Land Productivity - Deficit Irrigation Water productivity can be Increased Substantially Water, not Land, is the Limiting Resource Max WP Max Yield
  85. 85. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>5. Diversification of Production Systems with High Value Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Dryland Fruit Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Herbal, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants </li></ul>
  86. 86. Risk Management with Climate Change: Diversification of Production Systems using High-Value Crops <ul><li>Promotion of improved technologies for producing value-added products, to achieve higher income for rural communities in the intensified/diversified integrated crop/rangeland/livestock production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous dryland fruit trees are good example like olives, figs , dates palm, pomegranate, pistachio, almonds, etc. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Fruit and vegetables for better livelihoods <ul><li>A low-risk bridge from subsistence to better livelihoods </li></ul>
  88. 88. Soilless Culture Increased yield per unit of water, space and energy Protected Agriculture
  89. 89. Diversifying production and diets; generating more income and improving water use efficiency Protected Agriculture for Resource-Poor Farmers Afghanistan Yemen
  90. 90. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>6. Geographic Information System (GIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Land use mapping to promote diversification of production systems </li></ul><ul><li>Maps for potential areas for water harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Maps for potential areas for de-rocking </li></ul>
  91. 91. GIS to Target for Crop Diversification
  92. 92. New researchable themes in GIS: identifying areas suitable for de-rocking Idleb Governorate: Areas with some potential for de-rocking in Jebel Wastani and Jebel Zawia, requiring further investigation
  93. 93. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>7. Conservation Agriculture: </li></ul><ul><li>- Zero-Tillage Technology </li></ul>
  94. 94. Conservation Agriculture: Approach to Cope with Climate Change <ul><li>Major Practice Worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minimum soil disturbance/Zero Tillage (ZT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stubble retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many rotations (legumes, oilseeds) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>savings in time, fuel, machinery wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better soil structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better soil moisture conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved traffic ability – timely sowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher yield potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less soil erosion </li></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Agronomic technology: Zero-Tillage (ZT) practices for dry areas <ul><li>ZT technology introduced on large scale in 2006-07 by the ACIAR-ICARDA Project in Syria and Iraq. </li></ul><ul><li>In the season 2008-09: </li></ul><ul><li>Area of project –linked ZT crops has increased to about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 ha by 18 farmers in Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 ha by 40 farmers in Syria (with another 160 ha linked to Syrian R&D projects) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good foundation and confidence for wider adoption and impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher yields and lower costs being experienced with the technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recent increase in awareness and R&D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keen involvement of farmers in testing/adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keen involvement of local manufacturers in ZT seeder fabrication </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. <ul><li>Syria: Long-term ZT vs CT Trials at ICARDA </li></ul>For straw and grain yield ZT > CC Early > late planting For grain yield : Farmer practice: CT, late sowing: 670 kg/ha Improved practice: ZT, early sowing: 1285 kg/ha Example: lentil on wheat stubble 2007-08
  97. 97. Iraq: ZT evaluation by farmers in 2008/09 Azaz Tel Kief Ninevah: 6 farmers growing 437 ha of ZT crops using modified Rama seeder Mr Sinan Jalili, Alnamroud Modified ZT Rama seeder
  98. 98. Syria: ZT demonstrations with farmers in 2008/09 Afrin El Bab Syria: 41 farmers testing ZT on 2073 ha Musselmiya Maara ZT CC
  99. 99. <ul><li>Local ZT seeders – first made in Syria in 2008 </li></ul>Kamishley - local El Bab - local Qabbasin - local Amazon – imported Indian - imported Local seeders - price ≈ $1400 - performance excellent All performed well at ICARDA research sites in 2008-09
  100. 100. Fabrication of Seed Drills - Iraq & Syria ZT Seeder with press wheels, Mosul Co. for Mechanical Works Rama (John Shearer) ZT seeder modified by local farmer ( Mr Ghazi Fathi ) Locally manufactured machinery for zero tillage (ZT) are now available (ACIAR Project)
  101. 101. Research Outputs & Technologies towards food security & better livelihoods <ul><li>8. Livestock-Based Production Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>- Strategic feeding of low cost balanced diets </li></ul><ul><li>- Technologies for fodder production </li></ul><ul><li>- Technology for improved milking </li></ul><ul><li>- Technology for improved yogurt processing </li></ul><ul><li>- Technology for improved cheese processing </li></ul>
  102. 102. Ecosystem Resilience: Integrated Crop/Rangeland/Livestock Production Systems Barley Production Cactus & Fodder Shrubs By-products Feed Blocks On-farm Feed Production Natural Pastures Enhancement & Rangeland Management Successful Technologies Flock management
  103. 103. <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs of supplements in dry years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereals used as feeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost balanced diets for intensive and semi-intensive systems using available by-products and crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed blocks can be used to ensure homogeneity of mixtures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-farm testing and implementation in community-based projects </li></ul></ul>Technology for improved feeding: Strategic feeding of low cost balanced diets
  104. 104. Effect of strategic feeding of urea-molasses feed blocks on performance of ewes & lambs (Average of two years, 7 flocks in 3 villages) Technology for improved feeding: Strategic Feeding of Low Cost Balanced Diets
  105. 105. <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic supplementation resulted in a net gain of 18.7 $US per ewe compared to traditional feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In an average flock of 50 ewes using this technology would generate ~935 US$ </li></ul></ul>Technology for improved feeding: Strategic feeding of low cost balanced diets
  106. 106. Technology for improved milking <ul><li>Problems in traditional milking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health problems of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple milking ramp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning udder before milking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teat immersion after milking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable milking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaner milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastitis detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better udder control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher quality products reflecting in better income </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. Technology for improved yogurt processing Value Added <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak texture and bad transportability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sourness of yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yogurt culture with different firmness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a thermometer to avoid contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality yogurt and reduced milk spoilage due to contaminated starters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm texture, resisting transportation on bumpy roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More net income </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. Technology for improved cheese processing Added Value <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sourness and/or off flavor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of Brucellosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk pasteurization prior to cheese making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of thermometers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene & high quality product reducing risks to transmission of diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved marketability and increased net income </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>Key constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-yielding varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality seed availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate production methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-yielding forages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practices </li></ul></ul>Technologies for fodder production Example Afghanistan
  110. 110. High-yielding forages identified Grasspea & Vetch
  111. 111. Grain Straw 1 2-year average, 3 replicates High-yielding forages identified Grasspea & Vetch
  112. 112. High-yielding forages identified: Cowpea
  113. 113. Grain Fodder 1 2-year average, 3 replicates High-yielding forages identified: Grasspea & Vetch
  114. 114. Enhanced knowledge & information: field days
  115. 115. Participation in the Fodder Project: 600 participating households in 13 villages 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 BalaiAsia Labenar Mataki Saraki-4 Logari Shinwari Ghorbani Saraki Mamorin Saraki Atiq Atiq Khan Kotiha Sarak-3 Saraki Awal Sarak-2 Participating Households
  116. 116. More impact at farmers’ level
  117. 117. <ul><li>Researcher-Extension Agent-Farmer Traditional Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Research Sites as Platforms for Technology Transfer and development </li></ul><ul><li>Community Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Mapping & Livelihoods Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Value Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption and Impact Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Not mutually exclusive .. </li></ul>Approaches & Mechanisms for Technology Transfer: Research for Development Continuum
  118. 118. D D R for ICARDA Research for Development vs Research and Development Research for Development
  119. 119. Diagnostic & Base Line Surveys Basic Research Applied Research Adaptive/Strategic Research Researcher/Extension Agent/Farmer on-Farm Trials Farmer-Managed On-Farm Trials Pilot Production-Cum-Demonstration Plots by Farmers; Extension Commercial Production Project IMPACT STUDIES The Continuum from Basic Research to Technology Transfer ON-FARM FEEDBACK Adoption Studies
  120. 120. Site Integration <ul><li>Problem analysis </li></ul><ul><li>System analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Site selection </li></ul><ul><li>Solution development (options) </li></ul><ul><li>Extrapolation and adaptation </li></ul>ICARDA Integrated Research Site: INRM System
  121. 121. Transfer and Adaptation Up-scaling and Extrapolation Integrated Research Site Similar environment Different environment ICARDA Linking Research with Development GIS + Bio-economic Modeling GIS
  122. 122. Using GIS for Finding of Similarity with Research Benchmark Sites for up scaling and diffusion of Technology
  123. 123. Community Approach & Community Action Plans Community Community Technologies Technologies Policy & Policy & Property right Property right studies studies Agro Agro - - Ecological Ecological Characterization Characterization Scenarii Scenarii Modeling Modeling Validation with community representatives Validation with community representatives Presentation to decision makers Presentation to decision makers Private sector Other communities Public institutions Community Community Technologies Technologies Policy & Policy & Property right Property right studies studies Agro Agro - - Ecological Ecological Characterization Characterization Community Action Plan & Scenarios Modeling Modeling NGOs Validation with community representatives Validation with community representatives Presentation to decision makers Presentation to decision makers Private sector Other communities Public institutions
  124. 124. M&M Phase1 Dropped Chosen technologies Local Institutions Adopted Rejected Offered technologies M&M Phase2 participatory approach
  125. 125. Livelihood Analysis & Income Mapping
  126. 126. Distribution of human poverty in Sudan (2006) <ul><li>Composite index of life expectancy, deprivation of knowledge, lack of access to public and private services </li></ul><ul><li>Based on data from two national surveys; </li></ul><ul><li>The 2000 Multiple Indicators Clusters Survey (MICS) </li></ul><ul><li>including 2006 Health Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Human poverty is the highest in the South </li></ul>
  127. 127. Participatory in Crop Improvement Farmers score barley lines according to their selection criteria in a participatory barley breeding project of ICARDA in Eritrea
  128. 128. Small holder farmers Large farmers Traders /intermediaries Local market/ retailers Exporters Processors Fresh: wholesale, retailers, shops; hotels Supermarkets Domestic consumers International consumer Value chain: Conceptual framework Institutions, policies, government regulations, etc Canned food ACTIVITIES BY STAGE & ACTOR L INKAGES& POWER
  129. 129. Impact of wheat research in Syria <ul><li>Annual benefits from research: estimated at USD 142 million </li></ul><ul><li>Saved land: The same production without the technology would have required additional 1 million hectares </li></ul>
  130. 130. Impact of Improved Technologies on Profitability (Net Return $/ha) Technology Country Adopters Non-adopters Increase Wheat Egypt 1,191 830 43% Sudan 510 134 281% Yemen 677 318 113% Faba bean Egypt 962 820 17% Ethiopia 164 108 52% Sudan 369 293 26% Chickpea Ethiopia 551 201 174% Lentil Ethiopia 781 451 73%
  131. 131. <ul><li>Partnership & networking </li></ul>
  132. 132. Adoption and Impact of Technologies At Farmers’ & Rural Community Levels
  133. 133. THANK YOU

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