Knowledge management

5,429 views
5,269 views

Published on

The presentation discusses the concept of Knowledge and it's types, and the need for knowledge management, and how it's done in the Digital Firms

Published in: Education
1 Comment
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,429
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
551
Comments
1
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Knowledge management

  1. 1. A.A. .T.M.T. S - IS Masters – MIS, 2010 Management Knowledge Management for the Digital Firm KMS Prepared & Presented by: Abdullah Rady Lamis Labib Mohamed Ismail Mohamed Zawra Khalid Zawra
  2. 2. Management AgendaOverviewConcept of KnowledgeDefining Knowledge ManagementKBDSSKnowledge Creation & ArchitectureKM System Life CycleKnowledge CapturingKnowledge TestingCase StudyDemo IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  3. 3. Management IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  4. 4. KM IN Boeing How is Boeing using knowledge management systems to execute its business model and business strategy? Management IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  5. 5. Management IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  6. 6. ManagementThe Need to access & Share Knowledge IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  7. 7. Sharing Knowledge IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  8. 8. Management KNOWLEDGE IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  9. 9. Management Skills TalentsExperience Heuristics IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  10. 10. Basic K. Related Definitions Experience: knowledge acquired over time of actual practice, leading to superior understanding or mastery. Heuristics: experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery. Common Sense: what people in common would agree on. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  11. 11. Basic K. Related Definitions Intelligence: capacity to acquire and apply knowledge. Ability Learning Memory IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  12. 12. Key Attributes of Intelligence Ability to understand & use language. Memory: to store and retrieve relevant experience at will. Learning: is knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  13. 13. Basic K. Related Definitions Learning: knowledge acquired by:- – Instruction, – Study, – Experience, – Discovery. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  14. 14. Types of Learning Learning by Example: incorporates specially constructed examples rather than a broad range of experience. Learning by Experience: a function of time and talent. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  15. 15. Types of Learning Learning by Discovery: undirected approach in which humans explore a problem area with no advance knowledge of what their objective is. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  16. 16. “Knowledge is of two kinds, We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it.” Samuel JohnsonIS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  17. 17. From Data to Knowledge Data Information Knowledge + Processing Experience + Interpretation[Raw facts] [Understanding Relations] [Understanding Patterns] IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  18. 18. From Data to Knowledge [Non-Algorithmic] [Non-Programmable] Wisdom Knowledge Information[Algorithmic] [Programmable] Data IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  19. 19. Evolution of KM Technologies Most significant KM challenges 1.Defining the purpose and focus of a KM strategy for our unique needs 2.Getting leadership to support and commit to knowledge management plan 3.Getting staff to support and use knowledge management approach 4. Developing effective human resource policy to support knowledge workers IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  20. 20. Knowledge is the confident understanding of a subject, potentially with the ability to use it for a specific purpose. It is “know-how” or a familiarity with how to do something and perform a specialized task. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  21. 21. Shallow and Deep Knowledge Shallow indicates minimal understanding of problem area. Deep indicates knowledge built through years of experience. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  22. 22. Common Sense as Knowledge Its a collection of personal experience and facts acquired over time.* type of knowledge that humans tend to take for granted IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  23. 23. Knowledge as Know-How Know-how: accumulated lessons of practical experience. Know-how knowledge is represented in terms of heuristics rules based on experience Know-how distinguishes an expert from a novice IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  24. 24. KnowledgeFacts Rules procedural heuristics IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  25. 25. Knowledge (Cont.) Fact: statement of some elements of truth about a subject or domain. Procedural rule: describes a sequence of relations relative to a domain. Heuristic rule: based on years of experience. *generally operates in form of IF/THEN statements. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  26. 26. ReasoningReasoning Case-basedby analogy Formal Reasoning Reasoning Deductive Inductive methods methods IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  27. 27. Reasoning1. Reasoning by analogy: relating one concept to another.2. Formal reasoning: using deductive or inductive methods.3. Cased-based reasoning: reasoning from relevant past cases. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  28. 28. Formal Reasoninga. Deductive methods: generating new knowledge from pre-defined knowledge. It deals with exact facts and conclusions. > > > A B C A C IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  29. 29. Formal Reasoningb. Inductive methods: reasoning from a set of facts or individual cases to general conclusion. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  30. 30. Nature of Knowledge1. Explicit (codified) knowledge digitized in books, documents, reports, memos..2. Tacit (implicit) knowledge embedded in human mind through experience and jobs. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  31. 31. The Nature of KnowledgeExplicit Easier to document and share [clear] Contributes to Easier to replicate efficiency 20% Leads to competency Tacit 80% [implied] Harder to articulate Harder to steal Higher competitive Harder to transfer advantage IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 31
  32. 32. From Tacit to Explicit - KM - KM My total What I can What I canKnowledge tell or show write or record - KM My Knowledge transferred to readers, watchers or listeners IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  33. 33. From Explicit to Tacit + KM + KMWhat I read or What I can Knowledge observe connect to, from practice, What I know coaching + KM Knowledge from reflection & dialogue with practitioners/ mentor IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  34. 34. EXPLICIT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE 50 – 95% Oral Communication “Tacit” KnowledgeInformation Request “Explicit” KnowledgeInformation Feedback 5% IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  35. 35. Knowledge Transformation Processes Socialization Externalization Combination Internalization IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  36. 36. Nonaka’s Model of KnowledgeCreation and Transformation TACIT TO TACIT TACIT TO EXPLICIT (SOCIALIZATION) (EXTERNALIZATION)e.g., Individual and/or Team e.g., Documenting a Team Discussions Meeting EXPLICIT TO TACIT EXPLICIT TO EXPLICIT (INTERNALIZATION) (COMBINATION)e.g., Learn from a report and e.g., Create a Website from Deduce new ideas some form of explicit knowledge; Email a Report IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  37. 37. Tacit to tacit communication (Socialization): Takes place between people in meetings or in team discussions.Tacit to explicit communication (Externalization): Articulation among people trough dialog (e.g., brainstorming).Explicit to explicit communication (Communication): This transformation phase can be best supported by technology. Explicit knowledge can be easily captured and then distributed/transmitted to worldwide audience.Explicit to tacit communication (Internalization): This implies taking explicit knowledge (e.g., a report) and deducing new ideas or taking constructive action. One significant goal of knowledge management is to create technology to help the users to derive tacit knowledge from explicit knowledge. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 4-37
  38. 38. From Procedural to Episodic Knowledge Shallow Knowledge1. Procedural Knowledge2. Declarative Knowledge3. Semantic Knowledge4. Episodic Knowledge Deep Knowledge IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  39. 39. Procedural Knowledge Is an understanding of how to do a task, or carry out a procedure. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  40. 40. Declarative Knowledge An awareness knowledge in which the expert is conscious. E.g. the electrical system of a car, if the headlights are dim then the battery is faulty. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  41. 41. Semantic Knowledge A deeper knowledge, highly organized, Include major concepts, facts and relationships. Back to the electrical system of a car example; Semantic knowledge about the system would consist of understanding about the battery, battery cables, lights, ignition system…etc. as well as the interrelationships among those things. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  42. 42. Episodic Knowledge Knowledge based on experiential information. The longer a human expert takes to verbalize his knowledge, the more episodic it is. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  43. 43. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  44. 44. WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT? Process of capturing and making use of an organization’s collective expertise anywhere in the business. Doing the right thing, NOT doing things right. Knowledge creation, dissemination, upgrade, and apply toward organizational survival. Part science, part art (intangible assets use), part luck IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  45. 45. Knowledge Management Systematic approaches to helpinformation and knowledge emerge and flow to the right people at the right time to create value. 45 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  46. 46. Knowledge Management in Action Use Adapt Create Share Identify Review CollectThe chain won’t work if any link is broken. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 46
  47. 47. OVERLAPPING FACTORS OF KM PEOPLE ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES TECHNOLOGYKnowledge IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  48. 48. OVERLAPPING FACTORS OF KM IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  49. 49. Knowledge Management Tree IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  50. 50. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  51. 51. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  52. 52. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  53. 53. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  54. 54. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  55. 55. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  56. 56. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  57. 57. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  58. 58. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  59. 59. Case Example” WebMD“ IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  60. 60. Integration across …. Across sub-systems IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  61. 61. Integration across …. Organism (7) OrganSystem(6 ) Across Organ (5) Temporal scales Tissue (4) Cell (3) Across Molecule (2)dimensional scales Atom (1) H H C C H H IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  62. 62. Integration across …. MedicineAcross Disciplines BioEngineering Biology IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  63. 63. KM SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  64. 64. KM SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE Culture Competition Collect Create Techno- Organize logy Intelligence Maintain Knowledge Organization Refine DisseminateKnowledge LeadershipManagementProcess KM Drivers IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 64
  65. 65. KM System Development Life Cycle • Evaluate existing infrastructure • Form the KM team • Knowledge capture • Design KM blueprint (master plan) • Test the KM system • Implement the KM system • Manage change and reward structure • Post-system evaluation IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 65
  66. 66. Comparison of the development life cycle of a conventional ISLC and KMLCRecognition of need Evaluate existing infrastructureSystems analysis Form the KM teamLogical design Knowledge CapturePhysical design (coding) Design KM BlueprintTesting (corrections to previous step) Verify and validate KM system (corrections to previous step)Implementation (install, user training) Implement the KM systemConversion, Operation & Maintenance Manage change & reward structure Post system evaluation ISLC KMLC IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 66
  67. 67. Evaluate Existing InfrastructureSystem justification Are experts available and willing to help in building a KM system?. Does the problem in question require years of experience and cognitive reasoning to solve? When undergoing knowledge capture, can the expert articulate how problem will be solved?. Are the tasks non algorithmic? Is there a champion in the house? How critical is the knowledge to be captured?Scoping and evaluating Boundaries of the KS Limits breadth and depth of the project within financial, human resource, sales n marketing and operational constraints.System feasibilityDoableaffordableappropriatepracticable IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 67
  68. 68. KM Team Formation Experts CHAMPION Progress Reports Prototypes Demos Support Feedback SolutionsInteractiveInterface KNOWLEDGE User DEVELOPER Acceptance Rules Knowledge Testing KNOWERS KNOWLEDGE BASE IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 68
  69. 69. Knowledge Capture and Transfer Through TeamsTeam performs Evaluate relationship Outcomea specialized task between action and Achieved outcome Feedback Knowledge Knowledge Developer transfer Knowledge method stored in a selected form usable by others in the organization IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 69
  70. 70. Design of the KM Blueprint Key layers of a KM systemUser Interface Via BrowserPart of the InternetAuthentication/ security layer(includes access identification, Firewalls and user recognition)Internal layer that the company IT controlsCollaborative Agents and filtering(intelligent S/W disseminate news and make intelligent searches)Agent technology is intelligence within a KM system.Application Layer(collaborative work tools, video conferencing, group decision support tools etc) Upper part of the Data communication network layer.Transport/Internet Layer(TCP/IP etc)Manage transmission of data between computers.Physical Layer(Cables, physical wires, modems .. for transmission)Transmission raw data in bit format to destination.RepositoriesH/D and storage devicesDocuments and files, Knowledge Base, DB, Legacy Applications IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 70
  71. 71. Technical Layers of the KM System .....1 User Interface (Web browser software installed on each user’s PC) Authorized access control2 (e.g., security, passwords, firewalls, authentication) Collaborative intelligence and filtering3 (intelligent agents, network mining, customization, personalization) Knowledge-enabling applications4 (customized applications, skills directories, videoconferencing, decision support systems, group decision support systems tools) Transport5 (e-mail, Internet/Web site, TCP/IP protocol to manage traffic flow) Middleware6 (specialized software for network management, security, etc.) The Physical Layer (repositories, cables)7 K bases Legacy applications Groupware Data warehousing (document exchange, (data cleansing, IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 collaboration) data mining) 71
  72. 72. Testing the KM System• Verification procedure:Ensures that the system is right that the programs do what they are designed to do..Technical performance from the functional perspective• Validation procedure:Ensures that the system is the right systemchecks reliability of the KM system. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 72
  73. 73. Implementing the KM System• Converting a new KM system into actual operation• Updating the existing H/W & network• Training• Quality assurance includes checking for: – Reasoning errors – Ambiguity – Incompleteness – False representation (false positive and false negative) IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 73
  74. 74. Manage change and reward structure Resisters of Change• Regular employees (users)• Troublemakers• Narrow-minded superstars. IT staff resist any change that they did not initiate or approve in advance.Resistance via projection, avoidance, or aggression IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 74
  75. 75. Post system Evaluation of Change”• How has the KM system changed the accuracy and timely of decision making?• Has the new KM system caused organizational changes – e.g. BPR? How constructive the changes been?• How has the new KM system affected the attitude of the end users?• How has the new KM system changed the cost of operating the business – low cost leadership strategy? How significant was it?• Do the solution and advice derived from the new KM system justify the cost of investment? IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 75
  76. 76. A.A. .T.M.T. S - IS Masters – MIS, 2010 CAPTURING TACIT KNOWLEDGE
  77. 77. What Is Knowledge Capture ?• A process by which the expert’s thoughts and experiences are captured• A knowledge developer collaborates with an expert to convert expertise into a coded program• In simple terms, we want to “know” how experts know what they know 4-77
  78. 78. Three important steps• Use an proper tool or technique to extract information from the expert• understand the information and understand the expert’s knowledge and reasoning process• Use the interpretation to build rules that represent expert’s solutions 4-78
  79. 79. Using a Single ExpertAdvantages:• Ideal when building a simple KM system• A problem in a restricted domain• Easier to coordinate meetings• Conflicts are easier to resolve• Shares more confidentiality than does multiple experts 4-79
  80. 80. Using a Single Expert (cont’d)Disadvantages:• Sometimes expert’s knowledge is not easy to capture• Single expert provides only a single line of reasoning• Expert knowledge is sometimes dispersed• Single expert more likely to change scheduled meetings than experts in a team 4-80
  81. 81. Using Multiple ExpertsAdvantages:• Complex problem domains benefit from expertise of more than one expert• Working with multiple experts stimulates interaction• Allow alternative ways of representing knowledge• Formal meetings often a better environment for generating thoughtful contributions 4-81
  82. 82. Using Multiple Experts (cont’d)Disadvantages:• Scheduling difficulties• Disagreements often occur among experts• Confidentiality issues• Requires more than one knowledge developer• Overlapping mental processes can lead to “process loss” 4-82
  83. 83. Approaching Multiple Experts•Individual – An extension of single expert approach•Primary and secondary – Start with the senior expert first, on down to others in the hierarchy•Small groups Each expert tested against expertise of others in the group 4-83
  84. 84. Developing a Relationship With Experts• Understanding the expert’s style• Prepare well for the session• Decide where to hold the session 4-84
  85. 85. Styles of expert’s expressions Procedure type – methodical approach to the solution Storyteller – focuses on the content of the domain at the expense of the solution Godfather – compulsion to take over the session Salesperson – spends most of the time explaining his or her solution is the best IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 4-85
  86. 86. Preparing for the session Should become familiar with the project terminology review existing materials Learn the expert’s language IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 4-86
  87. 87. Deciding where to hold the sessions Beneficial in recording the expert’s knowledge in the environment where he or she works An important guideline is to make sure the meeting place is quiet and free from interruptions IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 4-87
  88. 88. The Interview As a Tool• Commonly used in the early stages of tacit knowledge capture• The voluntary nature of the interview is important• Interviewing as a tool requires training and preparation• Convenient tool for evaluating the validity of information acquired 4-88
  89. 89. Types of Interviews Structured: Questions and responses are definitive. Used when specific information is sought Semi-structured: Predefined questions are asked but allow expert some freedom in expressing the answers Unstructured: Neither the questions nor their responses specified in advance. Used when exploring an issue IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 4-89
  90. 90. Variations of Structured Questions Multiple-choice questions offer specific choices, faster tabulation, and less bias by the way answers are ordered Dichotomous (yes/no) questions are a special type of multiple-choice question Ranking scale questions ask expert to arrange items in a list in order of their important or preference IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 4-90
  91. 91. Guide to a Successful Interview• Set the stage and establish relationship• Properly phrase the questions• Question construction is important• Listen closely and avoid arguments• Evaluate session outcomes 4-91
  92. 92. Ending the Interview  Ending the interview requires sensitivity to the expert’s preferences, use of verbal and non verbal cues. Nonverbal cues for ending an interview; -Look at watch and uncross legs. -Put cap on pen, close folder gently and uncross legs. -If taping session, stop taping and rewind tape. -Stop taking notes and place writing materials in briefcase.92 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  93. 93. Ending the Interview Verbal cues for ending an interview; -This is summary of the session. Do you have any suggestions? -I think I asked all the questions I had in mind. I appreciate your time. -My allowed time is up. I know you have another meeting soon. -This looks to be an informative meeting. How about scheduling another one. -This covers pretty much what I had in mind. Did I miss anything! .93 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  94. 94. Things to Avoid• Taping a session without advance permission from the expert• Converting the interview into an interrogation• Interrupting the expert• Asking questions that put the domain expert on the defensive• Losing control of the session• Pretending to understand an explanation when you actually don’t• Promising something that cannot be delivered• Bring items not on the agenda 4-94
  95. 95. Errors Made by the Knowledge Developer• Age effect• Race effect• Gender effect 4-95
  96. 96. Problems Encountered During• Response bias the Interview Questions like; Isn’t it true.. , Don’t you think.. May get a biased answer “Yes”.• Inconsistency occur when the knowledge developer interviews two domain experts and is inconsistent when asking the questions. The questions and their order should be standardized. The questions must mean the same thing to all the experts being interviewed.• Communication difficulties• Hostile attitude bad chemistry between expert and knowledge developer, an expert is forced in participation, or time wasted on repeated dead ends, etc• Standardized questions• Lengthy questions• Long interview Duration of the interview should last no more than one hour. Expert attention begins to breakdown and quality of thoughts decrease within long interviews.
  97. 97. Validate Information  Various validation and cross-checks should be applied before captured knowledge can be represented.  For example, one way to cross validate an expert opinions is to ask another expert and check for similarities between the two opinions.  Another way to validate an opinion is to ask the question again at the next session in a different way to see if the expert gives the same answer.97 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  98. 98. On-Site Observation Process of observing, interpreting, and recording problem-solving behavior while it takes place by experts. In addition, the knowledge developer asks the expert questions about the problem solving process. The protocol of observation is more listening than talking. Dose not argue with the expert while performing a task. Avoid giving advices to expert while observing. . The problem here is that some experts don’t like to be observed. Experts fear of ‘giving away’ their experience in a quick look. Observation process can be distracting to others in the setting. 98 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  99. 99. Brainstorming  Unstructured approach to generating ideas about a problem;  invites two or more experts into a session in which discussion are carried out.  The primary goal of brain storming is to think up creative solutions to problems.  All possible solutions are considered equally.  Anything related to the topic can be brought up, and99 everything is valued. – Knowledge Management, 2010 IS Masters – MIS
  100. 100. Brainstorming  Questions can be raised for clarification, but no evaluation is made at the moment.  Idea generation, followed by idea evaluation.  In the evaluation phase, the knowledge developer explains each idea and treats any comments or criticism accordingly.100 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  101. 101. Brainstorming Procedure Introduce brainstorming session; explain what is to be accomplished, the role of each participant and the expected outcomes. Give experts a problem to consider; The problem must be in the experts’ domain of expertise. The knowledge developer must give experts time to think within a reasonable time limits. Prompt the experts to generate ideas; The experts can do this either by calling out their ideas or by order in which each expert is given a turn to speak.. The knowledge developer must keep pace with the expert. Watch for signs of convergence; Ideas often trigger counter opinions that should eventually reach a final solution. If the experts can not agree on the final solution, the knowledge developer must Call for a vote or a consensus to reach agreement101 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  102. 102. Electronic Brainstorming Computer-aided approach to dealing with multiple experts. U-shaped desks hold PCs networked through a S/W tool that promotes instant exchange of ideas between experts. Projector, whiteboards, and printers are also a part of the infrastructure environment for electronic brainstorming. Begins with a pre-session plan that identifies objectives and structures agenda, which is presented to experts for approval.102 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  103. 103. Electronic Brainstorming Allows two or more experts to provide opinions through PCs without having to wait their turn. The S/W displays the comments or suggestions on a huge screen without identifying the source. Protects shy experts and prevents tagging comments to individuals. The overall benefits include improved communication, effective discussion of sensitive issues, and consider recommendations for action.103 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  104. 104. Protocol Analysis Think-aloud method. How each expert arrived at the solution through verbalization. Expert keeps talking, speaking out loud while solving a problem Effective source of information on cognitive processes Makes expert cognizant of the processes being described; it is a cognitive approach to problem solving. Provides rich information that is very useful to knowledge capture and representation. “there are other ways to reach the same solution”104 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  105. 105. Delphi Method “When two or more heads are more numerous than one” Another tool used for tacit knowledge capture. A survey of experts. Experts are polled concerning a given problem. A series of questionnaires used to pool experts’ responses in order to solve a difficult problem. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 105
  106. 106. Delphi Method  Responses are usually anonymous and are collected asynchronously, either my mail, e-mail, or online survey.  During each round the results of the previous questions is fedback to participants who are then asked to revise and consolidate their answers even more.  After several rounds the solicited experts may arrive as a consensus or the researchers may average final responses toward a conclusion.  This method is a powerful and efficient way of drawing on distributed expertise at low cost, time, and inconvenience106 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  107. 107. What is Knowledge Base- Systems ? system that uses artificial intelligence techniques in problem- solving processes to support human decision-making, learning, and action. Is a special kind of database for knowledge management, providing the means for the computerized collection, organization, and retrieval of knowledge. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  108. 108. Advantages & Disadvantages of KB • make up for shortage of experts, spread expert’ knowledge on available price.Advantage • increase expert’ ability and efficiency. • preserve know-how. • can be developed systems unrealizable with traditional technology . • are available permanently. • able to work even with partial, non-complete data. • able to give explanation. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  109. 109. Cont.(Advantage & Disadvantage) • Their knowledge is from a narrow field, don’t know the limits. • The answers are not always correct (advices have to be analyzed!).Disadvantage • Don’t have common sense (greatest restriction) → all of the self-evident checking have to be defined. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  110. 110. Knowledge-Based DSS Advanced DSS are equipped with a component called a knowledge-based management subsystem that can supply the required expertise for solving some aspects of the problem IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 110
  111. 111. Traditional DSS Components User User Interface KBS1 DBMS MBMS KBS2 KBS3 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010 111
  112. 112. INTEGRATING DSS AND KNOWLEDGE MANGEMENT 112
  113. 113. Framework for INTEGRATING DSS AND KNOWLEDGE MANGEMENT113 IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  114. 114. Traditional computing environment vs.Intelligent Agents computing environment Traditional computing Issue Commend Display Result Intelligent Agents computing Issue Command & delegate task (Monitor xx stock price) Agent Monitor Share Result Computing Stock (xx price dropped 1 point) Request advises (purchase stock??) IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  115. 115. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  116. 116. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  117. 117. Functions of KB-DSS KB-DSS can provide the following: – An interface to support man-machine cooperation during problem solving – Support access to relevant information during problem solving – Support problem recognition – Support problem structuring IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  118. 118. AUTOMOBILE DIAGNOSTICSYSTEM IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  119. 119. computer-based Expert Systems• This presentation shows you how a computer- based expert system emulates the behavior of a human advisor, introduces the activities that must be accomplished to build expert systems. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  120. 120. Automobile diagnostic system• To introduce terms like expert and expertise as they are relevant to expert systems, lets suppose you have been unable to start your car to go to work and you call your favorite mechanic. The dialog might continue something like this... IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  121. 121. Automobile diagnostic system Good morning this is Sambo Auto Repair Hey Sambo, this is Abass Mahmoud. My car wouldnt start this morning and I need some help... IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  122. 122. Automobile diagnostic system What happens when you Here is the the beginning of the turn the key in the diagnostic telephone "interview" with ignition to try to start the your mechanic... car? It turns over OK, but it just wont start. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  123. 123. Automobile diagnostic system Hmmm...are your sure Based on your input that the starter that you arent out of operates, your mechanic can abandon a gas? number of hypotheses related to electrical problems. Now the expert is evaluating another possible explanation... Well, now that you mention it - Im not certain the tank is empty, but it probably is. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  124. 124. Automobile diagnostic system At this point, your mechanic is attempting to As you crank the starter, confirm the new hypothesis... do you smell gas? No, I turned it over for a long time, but didnt smell anything. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  125. 125. Automobile diagnostic system Based on what youve Your mechanic now has enough evidence to told me, Im almost diagnose the problem. Once youve heard certain your car is out of the recommendation, you might want an gas. explanation of how the conclusion was obtained... Thanks for the advice. Mind telling me how you reached your conclusion? IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  126. 126. Automobile diagnostic system You solved your automotive problem byWhen a car wont start my initial consulting with an expert. Lets take a look suspicion is that the battery is at the definition of expertise relevant to dead, the starter has failed or expert systems and the attributes of an some other electrical problem effective consultant a computer will have toexists. Your input that the starter emulate to substitute for a human advisor... operates makes it more likely that no fuel is getting to the engine. Although you are not sure that the gas tank is empty,the fact that you dont smell gas when the engine turns oversupports my conclusion that you are out of gas. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  127. 127. Whats an expert?• An expert is one who possesses specialized skill, experience, and knowledge that most people do not have along with the ability to apply this knowledge using tricks, shortcuts, and rules-of-thumb to resolve a problem. An experts advice has to be good enough most of the time for the expert to keep his or her reputation, but is not expected to be perfect or even the globally best available to be considered useful IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  128. 128. What are the attributes ofeffective consultants and consulting? Consulting is goal oriented A good consultant is efficientConsultants are able to work with imperfect information Good consultants justify their recommendations by explaining their reasoning IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  129. 129. the attributes of effective consultants and consulting• Heres an illustration of each of these attributes from the auto diagnosis example... IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  130. 130. Consulting is goal oriented The objective in calling your mechanic is to What happens when you get a very specific answer to a very specificturn the key in the ignition question. You arent interested in learning to try to start the car? how a fuel injection system works or how to rebuild a starter -- even though your expert would be quite capable of providing this information. The objective of the consultation represents a goal in expert system terminology, and there can be one or many goals to be satisfied during a consultation with a human expert or a computer-based expert system It turns over OK, but it just wont start. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  131. 131. A good consultant is efficient Your answer to the mechanics first question eliminated a large number of possible Hmmm...are your sure problems from further consideration. A good that you arent out of gas? consultant will stop asking questions relevant to hypotheses that can be rejected based on evidence at hand. Because you said the starter operates (eliminating battery problems) it makes no sense to ask you if the headlights light or the horn blows. Well, now that you mention it - Im not certain the tank is empty, but it probably is. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  132. 132. A consultation is adaptive When the information needed to make a recommendation isnt available, the expertAs you crank the starter, will try other lines of questioning that will do you smell gas? help confirm the hypothesis. You werent sure the gas tank is empty, so the question about smelling gasoline was posed. No, I turned it over for a long time, but didnt smell anything. . IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  133. 133. Consultants are able to work with imperfect information Based on what youve told You arent sure the fuel tank is empty, but me, Im almost certain think it probably is. By combining your less your car is out of gas. than certain information with the evidence provided by the fact that you dont smell gasoline while the engine turns over, the expert can conclude that you are out of gas with a high degree of certainty. Thanks for the advice. Mind telling me how you reached your conclusion? IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010
  134. 134. Consultants justify theirrecommendations by explaining their reasoning The application of expertise is not a guessing When a car wont start my initial game. A real expert should be able to suspicion is that the battery is explain how evidence was used to evaluate dead, the starter has failed or rules-of-thumb to develop some other electrical problem recommendations. Given the nature of the exists. Your input that the starter consulting process just described, does itoperates makes it more likely that make sense to try to deliver advice without no fuel is getting to the engine. the physical presence of an expert?Although you are not sure that thegas tank is empty, the fact that you dont smell gas when the engineturns over supports my conclusion that you are out of gas. IS Masters – MIS – Knowledge Management, 2010

×