SITE ANALYSIS BY NORHAYATI BT YUSUFPOLITEKNIK SULTAN HAJI AHMAD SHAH
WHAT IS SITE ANALYSIS• Inventory of site elements• Information about the properties of the site, from topography to climate to wind pattern and vegetation• Analyze the features and incorporate them into the design
LOCATION• Where is the site located?• How is the site approached?• What is the name of the street, the road etc on which the site is located?• How far away is the major junction?• How far is the nearest city or other points of interests
Orientation• Sun orientation• Wind Direction• The placement of the building on the site and arrangement of spaces and openings – should consider sun path and wind direction• Large openings should not facing directly the East and West as to avoid direct sunlight and concentration of heat. The lesser surface area / or building facade exposed to the sun, lesser will be the conductive heating• Placing openings parallel to the wind orientation creates cool interior
Wind Orietation• To design a climatologically responsive building, it is important to consider the direction of the wind so that it can be channelized through the interiors• Consider the placement & size of openings for optimum ventilation• The wind direction may vary from place to place inside the site itself, thus check the direction from a few different places especially if it is a large site
Soil Type and Condition• Sandy soil, clayey soil etc, all have different properties, which affect the design of the building.• Soil type and conditions determine the building structure, types of column, sizes and types of foundation
Topography• Topography refers to the slope and level of the land – whether the land is flat and plain, or whether it is sloping?• The exact slope can be interpreted from a detailed Contour map.• The placement of of the building should consider contour locations and spacing of contours• Buildings designed or placed along with the contours reduce unnecessary cutting and filling of soil.• Also, during the site visit, it is important to check out the stability of the slopes – whether the slopes are solid enough to permit construction on it.
Vegetation and natural features• Good design integrates vegetation and natural features into the design• The vegetation - consist of trees, flora and fauna present on the site• Vegetation and natural features should me marked onto the site plan so that it will assist during the design stage: i. Location of trees ii. Type of trees iii. Size of the trees - diameter or spread of the branches iv. Heights of the trees• Natural features i. rock formations ii. swamps iii. River, pond etc
Precipitation & Hydrology• The amount of rainfall the time period during which the rainfall occurs• The average annual rainfall, often measured in mm, gives the idea about the precipitation throughout the year• Identify if the site is flooded during rainy season• identify ponds, lakes, rivers etc in or around the site. The location and size of these water elements should be studied so that they can be integrated into the design scheme.• The presence of water elements will reduce the overall temperatures
Hidrology• The water table refers to the level below the soil at which water is present.• The water table may be very shallow for areas close to water bodies (lake, pond, river).• A shallow water table will affect the stability of foundations and additional precautions will have to be taken.
Facilities• Important facilities to be considered while planning the zoning in the site: i. water supply ii. drainage connection iii. waste disposal lv. electricity supply
Site Context• the surrounding landuse• Existing buildings around the site• The incompatible land use - may lead to creation of issues in the design. For example, if there is a school right next to the site, the noise disturbance will have to be factored in while designing.• The height and setbacks of adjacent buildings are important in affecting the flow of air and also sunlight.
Prominent Vision lines / Visual linkages• Views: i. The views to the site ii. The views from the site• Views are important factors to be considered – important spaces such as living room, dining Should be facing nice views• If views are incompatible, creations of views should be considered – such as gardens, ponds etc
Locally available resources• Sustainable design – consider materials available in and around the site that can be used in the design• Reducing the transportation energy & costs.