Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 session 13 overview 2011

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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 session 13 overview 2011

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 14- vegetative reproduction by cuttings
  2. 2. Christmas Prize Quiz <ul><li>Test conditions </li></ul><ul><li>30 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Ho! Ho! Ho! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.1 State the role of physiological factors upon the speed and success of rooting of cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Name the types of stem cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of stem cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of leaf cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe the propagation of one plant using root cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 State the environmental requirements for successful rooting of each of the types of cutting in 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5. </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Describe the equipment required to propagate plants by cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by cuttings. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is vegetative reproduction? <ul><li>growing a new plant from some part of an existing plant e.g. strawberry </li></ul><ul><li>a plant that is produced in this way is genetically identical to the original plant – it is a clone </li></ul><ul><li>Note - all suitable subjects are perennials . </li></ul>
  5. 5. How does it work? <ul><li>Newly produced plant cells contain all the genetic information needed to make a new individual ( totipotent cells ) </li></ul><ul><li>New plant cells are made by plant meristems </li></ul><ul><li>They divide and under the influence of plant growth regulators become part of plant organs (e.g. roots) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What happens when a cutting is taken? <ul><li>The cutting is taken at a leaf node or across vascular bundles, there is a large area of meristem. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells divide quickly and form callus </li></ul><ul><li>These callus cells differentiate under the influence of auxin and cytokinin and become root cells </li></ul>
  7. 7. Physiological factors and rooting success <ul><li>Juvenility – ideal cutting material is juvenile as the PGRs produced in mature tissue, particularly flower buds, inhibit rooting. </li></ul><ul><li>Turgidity – the cutting materials cells must be full of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Growth Regulators – Auxin and cytokinin act together at the base of the cutting to produce roots. Using artificial auxin in powder form can assist this. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Physical factors and rooting success <ul><li>Material must be healthy and true to type. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut carefully from the stock plant– no snags. Secateurs are fine here. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a sharp cutting knife or scalpel to prepare the cutting – to avoid crushing the xylem and phloem in the cutting stem which will form the basis of the vascular system of the new plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that cuttings have polarity – it matters which way up they are planted. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Health and safety <ul><li>The scalpels are very sharp. Take care when cutting. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people are allergic to the sap of some plants – use the latex gloves if you are or may be affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not get the rooting powder on your skin. Use the wet wipes if you do. Do not inhale the hormone rooting powder – put the lid on when not in use. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Leaf Cuttings <ul><li>Plantlets form from callus that is created at the cut surfaces of leaf veins, provided these are touching the compost. </li></ul><ul><li>Various forms of cutting depending on species. </li></ul><ul><li>Two used often are leaf petiole cuttings and leaf section cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not leave a snag on the stock plant </li></ul><ul><li>Do not touch the cut surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>No need for rooting powder </li></ul>
  11. 11. Leaf petiole cuttings <ul><li>Remove entire leaf and petiole from parent plant </li></ul><ul><li>Trim petiole to 3cm and insert into compost so the leaf edge is just touching the compost </li></ul><ul><li>Water and keep warm and relatively humid. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for Saintpaulia ionantha, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Peperomia caperata </li></ul>
  12. 12. Leaf Section cuttings <ul><li>For long leaves, select fully expanded healthy leaf, remove from parent plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut into sections across the leaf, making shallow chevrons that point towards the base helps show polarity. </li></ul><ul><li>Discard tip and very bottom section. </li></ul><ul><li>Insert into compost by about 1/3 height of cutting. Must be the right way up. </li></ul>
  13. 13. After care of a cutting <ul><li>To grow a cutting needs the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture Warmth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of transpiration in leafy cuttings is key to success – humidity, moisture in the growing medium, shade and air temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuttings compost is low nutrient so once rooted the new plants need to be planted up into 9cm pots to grow on. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other types of cutting <ul><li>Semi-ripe cuttings – leafy; taken when the new growth has started to turn woody. Need less heat than softwood. Rooting powder used. Shrubs. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardwood cuttings – taken whilst stock plant is dormant. Rooted outdoors or in cold frame. Plant the right way up! Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Root cuttings – taken when stock plant is dormant. Plant the right way up! Herbaceous perennials </li></ul><ul><li>Soft wood or soft tip cuttings – taken from new growth in spring. Very sensitive to dehydration so need humidity control, gently bottom heat often helpful. Some but not all need rooting powder. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Plants for cutting types (1). <ul><li>Softwood cuttings – Lavatera ‘Rosaea’, Fuschia sp. Many deciduous trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants will root by this method. </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-ripe cuttings- Weigela florida; Ligustrum ovalifolium; Lavendula angustifolia ‘Hidcote’ </li></ul><ul><li>Hardwood cuttings – Salix magnifica; Populus nigra; Forsythia x intermedia. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Plants for cutting types (2) <ul><li>Root cuttings – Papaver orientalis; Phlox panniculata. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf petiole – Sainpaulia ionantha; Peperomia caperata. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf blade – Begonia rex (whole leaf); Streptocarpus rexii (remove central vein) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf section - Begonia rex; Streptocarpus rexii ; Sanseveria trifasciata ‘Laurentii’ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.4 Describe the sowing and aftercare of a range of seed types sown outdoors (to complete from last week) </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 State the role of physiological factors upon the speed and success of rooting of cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Name the types of stem cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of stem cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of leaf cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe the propagation of one plant using root cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 State the environmental requirements for successful rooting of each of the types of cutting in 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5. </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Describe the equipment required to propagate plants by cuttings. </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by cuttings. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Term Dates <ul><li>Classes start again on the 4 th January </li></ul><ul><li>Happy homework ! </li></ul><ul><li>HAPPY CHRISTMAS! </li></ul>

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