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RHS Level 2 Year 1 Week 6 2011

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RHS Level 2 Year 1 Week 6 2011

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 6 – Flowers and Seeds
  2. 2. Learning objectives <ul><li>1. Parts of the flower </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Name the main types of inflorescence found on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe the structure of a typical dicotyledonous flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State the role of each component of the flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Define the terms: ‘monoecious’, ‘dioecious’ and ‘hermaphrodite’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how petals and sepals are modified to tepals in specific genera. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fruits and seeds </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Define the term: ‘seed’ and state the role of seeds in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Define the term ‘fruit’ and state the role of the fruit in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 State that fruits can be divided into dry types (dehiscent and indehiscent) and fleshy (succulent ) types (true and false); and that these can be distributed by wind, water, animals (externally), and animals (internally). </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Name one example of each type of fruit listed in 2.3, and one example for each distribution method. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Describe the internal and external structure of the seed of a monocotyledon (examples to include maize, Zea mays ) and a dicotyledon (examples to include French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris and broad bean, Vicia faba ). </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parts of the flower Female parts Carpel = Stigma + style + ovary + ovule Male Parts Stamen = Anther + filament External parts Petal; Sepal; Bract; Pedicel or peduncle
  4. 4. Role of each part of the flower <ul><li>Male parts – anthers produce pollen which contains ‘sperm’. Supported on the filament. </li></ul><ul><li>Female parts – stigma receives pollen, ovules contain ‘eggs’ awaiting fertilization. Stigma supported on stamen </li></ul><ul><li>Petals – brightly coloured, ultraviolet sensitive pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Sepal – leaf like structure that encloses and protects the flower bud </li></ul><ul><li>Bract – modified leaf below flower or inflorescence </li></ul><ul><li>Tepal – modified leaf that takes the place of petals in some species e.g. Tulipa sp. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pollination strategies <ul><li>Insect pollinated flowers – brightly coloured and large; produce nectar as a lure; pollen contains protein which bees and other insects feed on; scented to attract pollinators. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind pollinated – no need to attract pollinators, so no scent, nectar or protein in pollen. Very large amounts of very light pollen. </li></ul><ul><li>Many monocots and trees are wind pollinated, but not all. The size and structure of the flower reveals the strategy used. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Different types of flower <ul><li>Monoecious – separate male and female flowers on the same plant </li></ul><ul><li>Dioecious – male and female flowers on different plants </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodite – flowers containing male and female organs (which may or may not be self compatible) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Male flower? Female Flower?
  8. 8. Fruits and Seeds <ul><li>Seed – formed from the mature fertilized ovule and containing the embryo and stored food. </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit – A mature ovary. Functions – protection of seed, encourage ingestion, control germination, facilitate seed dispersal. </li></ul><ul><li>False fruit – a structure that resembles a fruit but which is not derived from an ovary. E.g. Yew Taxus baccatta, Apple Malus domestica. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of fruit <ul><li>Dry – e.g. Papaver somniferum </li></ul><ul><li>Fleshy- having juicy flesh formed from the ovary . E.g. a drupe such as Prunus x domestica ‘Victoria’ </li></ul><ul><li>Indehiscent – the pericarp does not split open to release the seeds. E.g. Quercus robur (English Oak). </li></ul><ul><li>Dehiscent – the pericarp splits to release the seeds e.g., Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet Pea) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Fruit <ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple </li></ul>
  11. 11. Structure of seeds <ul><li>Testa – coat </li></ul><ul><li>Cotyledon – seed leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Plumule – first shoot </li></ul><ul><li>Radicle – first root </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocotyl – first stem below the seed leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Micropyle – small hole where seed joined plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Dicots and monocot differences. Monocots have endosperm, dicots generally do not. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Seed dispersal –method and examples <ul><li>Dry fruit – dispersed by wind Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion) </li></ul><ul><li>Fleshy fruit – dispersed by birds (internally) Sorbus acuparia (Mountain Ash) </li></ul><ul><li>Indeheiscent fruit – dispersed by animals Quercus robur (English Oak) by squirrels. </li></ul><ul><li>Deheiscent fruit – dispersed by water Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1. Parts of the flower </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Name the main types of inflorescence found on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe the structure of a typical dicotyledonous flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State the role of each component of the flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Define the terms: ‘monoecious’, ‘dioecious’ and ‘hermaphrodite’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how petals and sepals are modified to tepals in specific genera. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fruits and seeds </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Define the term: ‘seed’ and state the role of seeds in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Define the term ‘fruit’ and state the role of the fruit in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 State that fruits can be divided into dry types (dehiscent and indehiscent) and fleshy (succulent ) types (true and false); and that these can be distributed by wind, water, animals (externally), and animals (internally). </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Name one example of each type of fruit listed in 2.3, and one example for each distribution method. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Describe the internal and external structure of the seed of a monocotyledon (examples to include maize, Zea mays ) and a dicotyledon (examples to include French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris and broad bean, Vicia faba ). </li></ul>

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