RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 6

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RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 6

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 6 – Flowers and Seeds
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1. Parts of the flower </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Name the main types of inflorescence found on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe the structure of a typical dicotyledonous flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State the role of each component of the flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Define the terms: ‘monoecious’, ‘dioecious’ and ‘hermaphrodite’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how petals and sepals are modified to tepals in specific genera. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fruits and seeds </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Define the term: ‘seed’ and state the role of seeds in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Define the term ‘fruit’ and state the role of fruit in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 State that fruit can be divided into dry, hard, fleshy, succulent, dehiscent and indehiscent types. </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Name one example of each type of fruit listed in 2.3. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 State what is meant by the term false fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 Describe the structure of typical monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parts of the flower Female parts Carpel = Stigma + style + ovary + ovule Male Parts Stamen = Anther + filament External parts Petal Sepal Bract Pedicel or peduncle
  4. 4. Types of inflorescence <ul><li>Spike </li></ul><ul><li>Raceme </li></ul><ul><li>Panicle </li></ul><ul><li>Umbel </li></ul><ul><li>Corymb </li></ul><ul><li>Composite </li></ul>
  5. 5. Role of each part of the flower <ul><li>Male parts – anthers produce pollen which contains ‘sperm’. </li></ul><ul><li>Female parts – stigma receives pollen, ovules contain ‘eggs’ awaiting fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Petals – brightly coloured, ultraviolet sensitive pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Sepal – leaf like structure that encloses and protects the flower bud </li></ul><ul><li>Bract – modified leaf below flower or inflorescence </li></ul><ul><li>Tepal – modified leaf that takes the place of petals in some species e.g. Tulipa sp. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Different types of flower <ul><li>Monoecious – separate male and female flowers on the same plant </li></ul><ul><li>Dioecious – male and female flowers on different plants </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodite – flowers containing male and female organs (which may or may not be self compatible) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fruits and Seeds <ul><li>Seed – formed from the mature fertilized ovule and containing the embryo and stored food. </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit – A mature ovary. Functions – protection of seed, encourage ingestion, control germination, facilitate seed dispersal. </li></ul><ul><li>False fruit – a structure that resembles a fruit but which is not derived from an ovary. For example the Yew ( Taxus baccata) has a red fleshy aril which is a false fruit. Apples Malus domestica are pome fruits which are also false fruit as the edible fleshy part is derived from the stem not the ovary. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of fruit <ul><li>Dry – e.g. Papaver somniferum </li></ul><ul><li>Fleshy- having juicy flesh formed from the ovary . E.g. a drupe such as Prunus x domestica ‘Victoria’ </li></ul><ul><li>Indehiscent – the pericarp does not split open to release the seeds. E.g. Quercus robur (English Oak). </li></ul><ul><li>Dehiscent – the pericarp splits to release the seeds e.g., Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet Pea) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Fruit <ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple </li></ul>
  10. 10. Structure of seeds <ul><li>Parts of the seed. </li></ul><ul><li>Dicots and monocot differences. Monocots have endosperm, dicots generally do not. </li></ul><ul><li>Review diagram – monocots, role of coleptile. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1. Parts of the flower </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Name the main types of inflorescence found on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe the structure of a typical dicotyledonous flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State the role of each component of the flower. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Define the terms: ‘monoecious’, ‘dioecious’ and ‘hermaphrodite’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how petals and sepals are modified to tepals in specific genera. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fruits and seeds </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Define the term: ‘seed’ and state the role of seeds in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Define the term ‘fruit’ and state the role of fruit in plant reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 State that fruit can be divided into dry, hard, fleshy, succulent, dehiscent and indehiscent types. </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Name one example of each type of fruit listed in 2.3. </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 State what is meant by the term false fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 Describe the structure of typical monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. </li></ul>

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