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Bullying thesis

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Bullying thesis

  1. 1. EFFECTS OF BULLYING _________________ Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty and Staff of the College of Criminology Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology Cabanatuan City ___________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Subject Psychology ___________________ By Marlon de Lara Cedric D Jale Arceo Arnie Angelo Andulan Melvin Marcelo Mark Joseph Arenas Maricris Estrada Jaypee Grospe Eddie Boy Tamares Rommel Grospe Jimver Reyes
  2. 2. Acknowledgements The researcher’s wishes to express their deepest gratitude to the special people who have extended their assistance for the success of this study; The Almighty God, who is the source of life and strength of knowledge and wisdom. Mrs. __________________ for her genuine apprehension, encouragement, patient and guidance and whose expertise and knowledge were generously shared; To the fellow classmates, for sharing their knowledge and idea in helping the researchers in the construction of the project; To the beloved parents and guardians for untiring love and support; The Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, this piece of work was heartily offered.
  3. 3. DEDICATION The researchers would like to dedicate this study to the Almighty God, to their beloved families and friends, to their Alma Mater- the Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology, to their classmates, instructors and to the professor of this subject Psychology __________________ The researchers would also like to dedicate this project to their fellow criminology students; they knew that they will serve this information to them.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DEDICATION TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction Statement of the Problem Assumption of the Study Importance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Definition of Terms 2 METHODOLOGY Research Method of Collecting Data Sampling Design Statistical Treatment of Data 3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Summary of Findings Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCES Questionnaire – Checklist Curriculum vitae
  5. 5. Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior manifested by the use of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when the behavior is habitual and involves an imbalance of power. It can include verbal harassment, physical assault or coercion and may be directed repeatedly towards particular victims, perhaps on grounds of race, religion, gender, sexuality, or ability. The "imbalance of power" may be social power and/or physical power. The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a "target". Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal, and physical. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as intimidation. Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, while some U.S. states have laws against it Bullying ranges from simple one-on-one bullying to more complex bullying in which the bully may have one or more 'lieutenants' who may seem to be willing to assist the primary
  6. 6. bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse. Robert W. Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism. Bullying can occur in any context in which human beings interact with each other. This includes school, church, family, the workplace, home, and neighborhoods. It is even a common push factor in migration. Bullying can exist between social groups, social classes, and even between countries (see jingoism). In fact, on an international scale, perceived or real imbalances of power between nations, in both economic systems and in treaty systems, are often cited as some of the primary causes of both World War I and World War II. Foreign Literature The word "bully" was first used in the 1530s meaning "sweetheart," applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel "lover, brother," probably diminutive of Middle High German buole "brother," of uncertain origin (compare with the German buhle "lover"). The meaning deteriorated through the 17th century through "fine fellow," "blusterer," to "harasser of the weak". This may have been as a connecting sense between "lover" and "ruffian" as in "protector of a prostitute," which was one sense
  7. 7. of "bully" (though not specifically attested until 1706). The verb "to bully" is first attested in 1710(Zwerdling, 1987 ) High-level forms of violence such as assault and murder usually receive most media attention, but lower-level forms of violence such as bullying have only in recent years started to be addressed by researchers, parents and guardians, and authority figures( Whitted, K.S. & Dupper, D.R. 2005). It is only in recent years that bullying has been recognised and recorded as a separate and distinct offence, but there have been well documented cases that have been recorded over the centuries. The Fifth Volume of the Newgate Calenda(Complete Newgate Calendar Tarlton Law Library) contains at least one example where Eton Scholars George Alexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith were charged, at Aylesbury Assizes, with killing and slaying the Hon. F. Ashley Cooper on February 28, 1825 in an incident which might today be described as "lethal hazing(George Alexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith,2003) The Newgate calendar contains several other examples that, while not as distinct, could be considered indicative of situations of bullying. Virginia Woolf considered fascism to be a form of bullying, and wrote of Hitler and the Nazis in 1934 as "these brutal bullies.( Zwerdling, 1987)
  8. 8. Bullying behavior can have negative consequences for both the bully and the victim. Studies have shown that boys identified as bullies in middle school were four times as likely as their peers to have more than one criminal conviction by age twenty-four. Children who bully are more likely to engage in other criminal and anti-social behaviors, such as: ,Fighting,Vandalism, Truancy, Dropping out of school. Stealing Smokingand Alcohol/and or drug abuse Effects on the victimThe stress from being bullied can create problems for children at school. Students may be fearful of attending school, riding the bus, using the bathroom or being alone in the hallway.This fear and anxiety can make it difficult for the child to focus and engage in the classroom, making learning that much more difficult.Bullying can cause children to experience fear, depression, loneliness, anxiety, low self- esteem, physical illness, and in some cases, even suicidal thoughts.The Kids Manual to Overcoming Bullying and Gain Self Confidence E-Book-This e-book is among the best and easily applicable strategies that exists in the world today! Not only is it written for children, in their unique language,you as the
  9. 9. parent can learn along with them and guide them with the techniques to conquer bullies! There are many theories on what causes violent and/or anti- social behavior in children. Increased exposure to violence through mass media, video games, and the internet. Suffering as victims of abuse or neglect themselves, or a generally more permissive society with a corresponding lack of discipline. While certainly each of these theories has merit, there is no single cause of bullying behavior in children. There are however certain generalized characteristics displayed by children who engage in such behavior. Children who are impulsive, socially dominant, confrontational, or easily frustrated may tend towards bullying behaviors. Other characteristics of children who bully may include a lack of empathy, a propensity to question authority and push limits or break rules, idealization of violence, and the ability to talk their way out of difficult situations.
  10. 10. It is commonly believed that children who bully are “loners” or are socially isolated. Research, however, shows this is not the case. Children who bully generally do not have a difficult time making friends and generally maintain at least a small group of friends who support their bullying behavior.Some bullies may even be popular; although the popularity of a bully tends to decrease at higher-grade levels.Also, contrary to popular belief, research shows that children who bully do not lack self- esteem.While boys are more likely to be bullies than girls, both boys and girls may bully and both may become victims.Boy bullies are much more likely to engage in physical bullying. Bullying between girls is more likely to involve social exclusion, which is harder to discover, but no less painful for the victim. Bullying generally takes place between children in the same grade level, although many times older students may bully younger students.Environmental risk factors for bullying may come from the child’s home/family life, peers, or school. Family risk factors: Lack of involvement in child’s interests, activities, and daily life, Lack of supervision .Overly permissive, lack of limitsand Harsh, physical discipline
  11. 11. Peer risk factors:Engage in bullying behaviors Support bullying behaviors Idealize violence School risk factors:Unsupervised break timesUnsupervised student areas such as lunchrooms, bathrooms, hallways, locker rooms, playgrounds Apathy towards bullying on the part of teachers and administratorsInconsistent rule enforcement Social exclusion is the most common form of bullying between girls. This form of girl-on-girl bullying can be very difficult to detect.. Being difficult to detect means it is difficult for parents or school officials to intervene. Think of it as the “Mean Girls” syndrome. This behavior may begin as early as grade school, but probably peaks in junior high. It entails social isolation, vicious lies and rumors, and constant harassment. This type of bullying is focused on humiliating the victim and is generally carried out over long periods of time. It can be psychologically devastating for the victim. The bully in this situation is generally very popular, smart, charming, and attractive – generally viewed positively by adults. This girl usually has a clique of girls at her beck and call eager to join in on the harassment of the chosen victim. This form of bullying is slow, drawn-out, calculated, manipulative torture of the victim. The effects on the victim can be so severe as to result in depression, eating disorders,
  12. 12. transferring or dropping out of school, and/or suicidal thoughts or attempts. It is not as easy to recognize as the black eyes and playground brawls of more traditional, physical bullying, but it is certainly no less significant. Local Literature Bullying is the activity of repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person, physically or mentally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus defines bullying as when a person is "exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons." He defines negative action as "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways". Bullying behavior may include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities, exclusion from social situations, physical abuse, or coercion.[10][17] Bullies may behave
  13. 13. this way to be perceived as popular or tough or to get attention. They may bully out of jealousy or be acting out because they themselves are bullied. U.S. National Center for Education Statistics suggests that bullying can be classified into two categories: 1. Direct bullying, and 2. indirect bullying (which is also known as social aggression).[1] Ross states that direct bullying involves a great deal of physical aggression, such as shoving and poking, throwing things, slapping, choking, punching and kicking, beating, stabbing, pulling hair, scratching, biting, scraping, and pinching.[19] He also suggests that social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by attempting to socially isolate the victim. This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of techniques, including spreading gossip, refusing to socialize with the victim, bullying other people who wish to socialize with the victim, and criticizing the victim's manner of dress and other socially-significant markers (including the victim's race, religion, disability, sex, or sexual preference, etc.). Ross[19] outlines an array of nonviolent behavior which can be considered
  14. 14. 'indirect bullying,' at least in some instances, such as name calling, the silent treatment, arguing others into submission, manipulation, gossip/false gossip, lies, rumors/false rumors, staring, giggling, laughing at the victim, saying certain words that trigger a reaction from a past event, and mocking. The UK based children's charity, Act Against Bullying, was set up in 2003 to help children who were victims of this type of bullying by researching and publishing coping skills. It has been noted that there tend to be differences in how bullying manifests itself between the sexes. Males tend to be more likely to be physically aggressive whereas females tend to favour exclusion and mockery, though it has been noticed that females are becoming more physical in their bullying.[15] There can be a tendency in both sexes to opt for exclusion and mockery rather than physical aggression when the victim is perceived to be too strong to attack without risk, or the use of violence would otherwise cause problems for the bullies, or the bullies see physical aggression as immature (particularly when bullying occurs among adults). Controversy Some researchers have suggested that some bullies are "psychologically strongest" and have "high social standing"
  15. 15. among their peers, while their victims are "emotionally distressed" and "socially marginalized".( Juvonen 2003) Other researchers also argued that a minority of the bullies, those who are not in turn bullied, "enjoy going to school, and are least likely to take days off sick." Some have argued that bullying can teach life lessons and instill strength. Helene de Castro a child development academic, sparked controversy when she argued that being a victim of bullying can teach a child "how to manage disputes and boost their ability to interact with others," and that teachers should not intervene, but leave children to respond to the bullying themselves:( Besag, 1989) "[I]f boys or girls are able to stand up for themselves, being attacked by enemies can help their development. Studies have shown that children become more popular among, and respected by, teachers and fellow pupils if they repay hostility in kind. They remember such experiences more vividly than friendly episodes, helping them to develop healthy social and emotional skills."( Hamilton, 2004) Despite occasional assertions that bullying can be positive and even productive, the avowed normative consensus is that bullying is a form of abuse and is wholly negative. Most victims report
  16. 16. bullying as something that scars them for a long time, and sometimes as a fundamental and negative factor in the development of their adult personality. In the 2000s and 2010s, a cultural movement against bullying gained popularity in the English-speaking world. The first National Bullying Prevention Week was conceived of in Mandaluyong in 2000 by UP educator and anti-bullying activist Bill Sandigan. The charity Act Against Bullying was formed in the UK in 2003. In 2006, National Bullying Prevention Month was declared in the Philippines . The Suicide of Joven Macaraig in 2010 brought attention to the issue in Nueva Ecija , and sparked reforms in state education. The It Gets Better Project was started in 2010 to combat gay teen suicides, and Lady Gaga announced the Born This Way Foundation in partnership with UP's Berkman Center for Internet & Society in 2011. A 2012 paper from the UP Center, “An Overview of State Anti- Bullying Legislation and Other Related Laws,” notes that, as of January 2012, 48 U.S. states had anti-bullying laws, though there is wide variation in their strength and focus. Sixteen states acknowledge that bullies often target their victims based on “creed or religion, disability, gender or sex, nationality or national origin, race, and sexual orientation.” Each of the 16 employs a wide array of additional parameters, the paper notes,
  17. 17. ranging from age and weight to socioeconomic status. Of the 38 states that have laws encompassing electronic or “cyberbullying” activity, 32 put such offenses under the broader category of bullying and six states define this type of offense separately, the authors report.(Sandigan, 2004) Related Studies Mona O’Cornelios of the Anti-Bullying Centre at PUP College in has written, "There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals, whether child or adult, who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide." Those who have been the targets of bullying can suffer from long term emotional and behavioral problems. Bullying can cause loneliness, depression, anxiety, lead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness.[26] In the long term it can lead to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and an inability to form relationships - even leading to celibacy. There is evidence that bullying increases the risk of suicide. It is estimated that between 15 and 25 children commit suicide every year in the UK alone, because they are being bullied.
  18. 18. Among the cases of media bullying suicides following: Ryan Halligen, Phoebe Prince, Dawn-Marie Wesley, Kelly Yeomans, Jessica Haffer, Hamed Nastoh, or April Himes. Research indicates that adults who bully have authoritarian personalities, combined with a strong need to control or dominate. It has also been suggested that a prejudicial view of subordinates can be a particularly strong risk factor. Some have argued that a bully reflects the environment of his home, repeating the model he learned from his parents. Further studies have shown that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. Research on the self-esteem of bullies has produced equivocal results. While some bullies are arrogant and narcissistic, others can use bullying as a tool to conceal shame or anxiety or to boost self esteem: by demeaning others, the abuser feels empowered. Researchers have identified other risk factors such as depressionand personality disorders,[41] as well as quickness to anger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving self image, and engaging in obsessive or rigid actions. A combination of these factors may also be causes of this behavior. In one recent study of youth, a combination of
  19. 19. antisocial traits and depression was found to be the best predictor of youth violence, whereas video game violence and television violence exposure were not predictive of these behaviors. It is often suggested that bullying behavior has its origin in childhood. As a child who is inclined to act as a bully ages, his or her related behavior patterns will often also become more sophisticated. Schoolyard pranks and 'rough-housing' may develop into more subtle, yet equally effective adult-level activities such as administrative end-runs, well-planned and orchestrated attempts at character assassination, or other less obvious, yet equally forceful forms of coercion. Often bullying takes place in the presence of a large group of relatively uninvolved bystanders. In many cases, it is the bully's ability to create the illusion that he or she has the support of the majority present that instills the fear of 'speaking out' in protestation of the bullying activities being observed by the group. Unless the 'bully mentality' is effectively challenged in any given group in its early stages, it often becomes an accepted, or supported, norm within the group.
  20. 20. In such groups where the 'bully mentality' has been allowed to become a dominant factor in the group environment, injustice and abuse often become regular and predictable parts of the group experience. Bystanders to bullying activities are often unable or unwilling to recognize the true costs that silence regarding the bullying can have, both to the victim or victims, and to the group. Bystanders often feel unwilling to empathize with the victim, regardless of their feelings towards the bully. The reversal of a culture of bullying within a group is usually an effort which requires much time, energy, careful planning, coordination with others, and usually requires some undertaking of 'risk' by group members. It is the general unwillingness of bystanders to expend these types of energies and to undertake this type of risk that bullies often rely upon in order to maintain their power. Unless action is taken, a 'culture of bullying' is often perpetuated within a group for months, years, or longer. Bystanders who have been able to establish their own 'friendship group' or 'support group' have been found to be far more likely to opt to speak out against bullying behavior than those who have not.
  21. 21. Despite the large number of individuals who do not approve of bullying, there are very few who will intervene on behalf of a victim. Most people remain bystanders and tend to accept the bullying or to support the bully. In 85% of bullying incidents, bystanders are involved in teasing the victim or egging on the bully. In most bullying incidents, bystanders do not intervene to restrain the bullying. When the bully encounters no negative response from observers, it provides social approval for the bullying and encourages continuation of the behavior. There are many reasons why individuals choose not to intervene. They may be relieved that the victim of a normal and generally-present danger is someone else, they may take vicarious satisfaction in the bullying, or they may worry that they risk becoming the next victim through intervention. An intuitive understanding that others will be similarly unwilling to assist them if they do become the next victim likely strengthens the motivation to remain passive. Researchers have been considered the just-world belief theory to explore a posited decline in anti-bullying attitudes. "This is the idea that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get." The study determined that children do seek to understand, justify, and rectify the different injustices they
  22. 22. come across in everyday life. However, further research is needed to link the two together. While on the surface, chronic bullying may appear to be simply the actions of an 'aggressor' (or aggressors) perpetrated upon an unwilling 'targeted individual' (or individuals), on a certain deeper level, for it to succeed, the bullying-cycle must also be viewed as necessarily including a certain chronic inadequate response on the part of the target (or targets). That is, a response that is seen by both the bully and the target as insufficient to prevent the chronic bullying-cycle from repeating itself between the given individuals. A suitable response to any given attempt at bullying varies with the occasion, and can range from ignoring a bully to turning a prank around so that it makes a 'pranksteree' out of the would be prankster, to even summoning legal intervention. In any case, the targeted individual must necessarily somehow demonstrate to the would-be bully that one will not allow one's self to be daunted, intimidated, or otherwise "cowed" by the bully. Those individuals or groups who are capable of reacting to initial bullying attempts in ways that tend to sufficiently discourage potential bullies from repeated attempts are less likely to be drawn into this destructive cycle. Those individuals or groups who most readily react to stressful situations by perceiving
  23. 23. themselves as 'victims' tend to make the most suitable candidates for becoming the 'targets' of chronic bullying. Under some circumstances, targets may be chosen in what may be a completely random or arbitrary process, especially in groups in which the 'bully mentality' may have already succeeded in achieving domination within the group. In such groups, the defense mechanisms of the entire group may have already been 'broken down', and therefore the targeting of individuals no longer requires the seeking out of 'certain personality types' to become the 'next target'. The reversal of such chronic and well entrenched bullying behavior in such groups sometimes requires a much more carefully planned, coordinated, determined, and multi-individual response from a would-be target than in a group in which either the 'bully mentality' may not (yet) prevail, or ideally in a group that may have already taken a pro-active preventative approach towards bullying. The bullying-cycle must include both an act of aggression on the part of a potential bully, and a response by a potential target that is perceived by both as a certain sign of submission. The cycle is only set in motion when both of these two essential elements are present. Once both of these two elements manifest themselves, the bullying cycle often proceeds to feed on itself over time, and may last for months, years, or
  24. 24. even decades. The cycle is most easily broken at its initial onset; however, it can also be broken at any later point in its progression by simply removing either one of its two essential ingredients. While group involvement may seem to complicate bullying activities, the act is most often an implied agreement in principle between a chief bully or instigator and the target that the one has 'submitted' to the other. In the act of bullying, the bully attempts to make a public statement to the effect of: 'See me and fear me, I am so powerful that I have the ability to inflict pain upon the intended target at the time and manner of my choice without having to pay any consequences.' Should an intended target exhibit a 'defeated attitude' in response to chronic bullying, then the bullying is likely to continue. In circumstances where a 'bullying pattern' has not yet fully established itself, should the intended target respond with a clear attitude of self-confidence that somehow demonstrates that the bully's attempt to dominate is futile, then the bullying attempt will often quickly diminish or end all-together. Established patterns of bullying may require greater and more persistent effort to reverse. Institutions and organs of society often reinforce bullying, often by implying to or telling targets of bullies that they are responsible for defending themselves, and then punishing victims if they fight back.
  25. 25. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study discussed the Effects of Bullying Among Youth from Barangay Isla, Cabanatuan City: it’s implication to Behavior Specifically, the following questions will be answered:: 1. What are the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Sex b. Age 2. What are the factors or causes of Bullying? 3. What are the effects of bullying ? ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY 1. That the there are some risk factors affecting bullying. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY The study confined itself to the identification of the Effects of Bullying Among Youth from Barangay Isla, Cabanatuan Citya: it’s implication to Behavior The researchers also determine the causes of bullying , the roles of parents to guide their
  26. 26. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The findings which this study will reveal, may benefit certain groups and the benefits they may be able to gain are as follows: students – this group may use this study as an example to bear in their mind they are more luckier than those who are bullied even life is very struggling because of economic problems, they are still send in the school to learn by their parents, thus will challenge to them and enabling them to perform well in class, study harder to upgrade their knowledge and intelligence so that the difficulties experienced by their parents in sending them to school to attain their goals will not be in vain. Future Researchers / the Researchers themselves – the finding of this study will be serving as a good source of accurate and useful information for them. The cost of educating a child is tremendous, it matters not so much, how much our government spends for every child provided that the child finishes the school year successfully. What is deplorable to not is the enormous number of school leaves every year. When a child leaves school before attaining functional literacy, much of our effort, time and money go down the drain.
  27. 27. He do not acquire the needed skills for a productive and favorable life. Usually, majority of the out of school youth because of bullying effects becomes the sick of our society, they will become delinquent, they have a rebellious spirits, in this regards the researchers want to know through this study what are the behavioral development of our of school youth and its implication to education. To all the parent. So that the parents will be able to know that they should have a sense of dedication and devotion to duty as parents in implementation of some strategies for the development of their kids although they experienced being bullied or those who committed bullying to bring them in a state that they can be proud to be the parents even of those who overcome the effects of being bullied To all community organizations. It is imperative for them to know the characteristics of a children and youth in the community it enables them further to adopt precautionary measures or remedies to forestall their unfavorable behavior.
  28. 28. RESEARCH PARADIGM INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Educational, School grants Youth who are Spiritual Guidance self sufficient Development Parent’s Education Better graduate Moral Development Encourage to Productive Citizen Livelihood attend church Activities activities livelihood Provide School seminars / Materials workshops Comprehend Government Functional strong scholarship prayer parental guidance meeting (B.S.) close relationship livelihood of school program. partnership comprehend school partnership
  29. 29. The study aimed to assess the effects of bullying as perceived by their parents that will be based on the data gathered. The respondents of this study involved 30 parents who are bonafide residents of Barangay Isla, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija. DEFINITION OF TERMS: bully is defined as simply "forcing one's way aggressively or by intimidation," the term may generally apply to any life experience where one is motivated primarily by intimidation instead of by more positive goals such as mutually shared interests and benefits. YOUTH. An early stage of growth and existence, the period of life coming between childhood and maturity. Cyber-bullying is any bullying done through the use of technology. This form of bullying can easily go undetected because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Gay bullying and gay bashing are expressions used to designate verbal or physical actions that are direct or indirect in nature by a person or group against a person who is gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT)
  30. 30. Chapter 2 METH0D OF RESEARCH This chapter presents the research method, sources of data, data gathering instruments that used in the investigation. Research Design The researchers used the descriptive analytical method of research for this is the most appropriate means of evaluating the effects of bullying among children and its implication to Behavior According to Calderon(1993) descriptive analytical method of research as certain to prevailing conditions affecting a given group hence, this study calls for this method. It is a study components to serve as a direction in reaching a goal. He pointed out that the descriptive methods tells “what is”, that which leads to a scientific information about education, and other situation”. He further described it as a fact-finding with adequate interpretation usually beyond fact-finding. The descriptive method of research involves as a certain data gathering process on prevailing conditions and practice or descriptions of objects, process or persons as they exist for about a certain educational phenomenon, predicting for
  31. 31. identifying relationship among and between the available described.. The Respondents The respondents of this study are 30 selected parents of thiry children who were experienced being bullied and were chosen through simple random sampling. Sampling is the method by which a researcher chooses a group of respondents (the sample from a larger population and then formulating a universal assertion about the whole matter. The researchers used is purposive sampling, According to Tan (2006) Simple random sampling is the selection on random basis of elements from sampling frame, wherein each element has an equal chance or probability of being chose as subject of the study Locale of the Study This study was conducted at Brgy. Isla, Cabanatuan City. Data Gathering tools The materials and instruments to be used for gathering data are the questionnaire-checklist, the interview, and the documentary analysis techniques, scattered sources.
  32. 32. Questionnaire-Checklist. The questionnaire-checklist is the main instruments used in the gathering data. It was employed primarily to come up with the perception of respondents concerning the subject matter Good(2009), a questionnaire is a list of planned, written questions related to a particular topic, with space provided for indicating the response to each questions, intended for submission to a number of persons for reply; commonly used in normative survey studies and in the measurement of attitudes and opinions. Interview. The Interview technique will also be used to complement the gathering of data for the study. Interview provide information which may be confidential that may not ordinarily be given in writing. The interview according to Vockell (2000) is a technique in which the researcher stimulates the respondents to give the needed information for the study. Data Gathering Procedures The researchers prepared the instruments used through readings of the questionnaire-checklist of other studies just to obtain some ideas. Finally they if the researchers able to do and it was presented to their professor. After the adviser had corrected and approved the questionnaire the researchers will Xerox them into 30 copies
  33. 33. together with the letter asking permission from the respondents to be part of the study as well as the Teacher’s approval in conducting this study and in the distribution of the questionnaire to the respondents. Treatment of the Data The responses of the respondents to the questionnaire checklist were carefully tallied, tabulated and organized including those derive from interviews, observation and documentary analysis. The data presented, analyzed and interpreted with the used of weighted mean, frequency counts, percentage and ranking system. The presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data will be based on the weighted mean as shown by the scale ranges as follows(Calderon, 1993) 1. For percentage computation is: % = f/n x 100 Where: % = percentage f = number of respondents for every item N = total number of respondents 2. For weighted mean: TWF WM = --------- N Where:
  34. 34. WM = stands for weighted mean F = stands for frequencies W = stands for weighted TWF = stands for weighted frequency N = total number of respondents The table of equivalent which is the basis of the interpretation of the data will be :(Tan 2006) Weight Scale Verbal Interpretation 4.50 above 5 Strongly agree 3.50-4.49 4 agree 2.50-3.49 3 Moderately agree 1.50-2.49 2 Disagree below 1.50 1 Strongly Disagree
  35. 35. Chapter IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presented, analyzed and interpreted all the data interpreted all the data gathered in this study. Presentation was done through the used of tables. Analysis and interpretations of data done after tabular presentation. Table 1. shows the age profile of the respondents. Table 1 Gender Profile Sex Frequency Percentage Rank Male 12 40% 2 Female 18 60% 1 Total 30 100% The table one shows the sex profile of the respondents, the table shows that there were 18 or 60% of the respondents were females ranked 1, and 12 or 40% were males ranked 2. The above data shows that most of the respondents were female and not so many were males. This implied that there were more females are cooperated with the researchers during the study was conducted at Brgy. Isla Cabanatuan City
  36. 36. Table 2 show the age profile of the Respondents Table 2 Age Profile Age Frequency Percentage Rank 20 below 2 6.7% 5 21-25 4 13.3% 4 26-30 5 16.7% 3 31-36 7 23.3% 2 37 above 12 40% 1 Total 30 100% The table two shows that there were 12 or 40 percent of the respondents aged of 37 and above with as ranked are 7 or 23.3 percent were at aged ranged of as 31-36 ranked two, four or 16.7 percent belongs to aged ranged of 26-30 as ranked three; four or 13.3 percent at the age 21-25 as ranked 4; and the last ranked belong to aged 20 below is with two or 6.7 percent.
  37. 37. B. EFFECTS OF BULLYING B.1 causes of bullying Table 3 causes W F % WF WM VI R 1) Lack of involvement 5 15 50% 75 in child’s interests, 4 6 20% 24 activities, and daily 3 3 10% 9 life 2 3 10% 6 1 3 10% 3 Total 30 100% 117 3.9 Agree 1 2 Lack of supervision 5 4 13% 20 4 10 33% 40 3 6 20% 18 2 4 13% 8 1 6 20% 6 Total 30 100% 92 3.0 MA 8 3) Overly permissive, 5 10 33% 50 lack of limits 4 6 20% 24 3 5 16% 15 2 9 30% 18 1 0 0 0 Total 30 100% 107 3.5 A 3 4) Harsh, physical 5 4 13% 20 discipline 4 15 50% 60 3 4 13% 12 2 4 13% 8 1 3 10% 3 Total 30 100 103 3.4 MA 5.5 5) Unsupervised break 5 6 20% 30 times 4 5 16% 20 3 12 40% 36 2 3 10% 6 1 4 13% 4 Total 30 100% 96 3.2 MA 7 6 Unsupervised student 5 4 13% 20 areas such as 4 15 50% 60 lunchrooms, bathrooms, 3 4 13% 12 hallways, locker 2 4 13% 8 rooms, playgrounds 1 3 10% 3
  38. 38. 30 100 103 3.4 MA 5.5 7) Apathy towards 5 10 33% 50 bullying on the part of 4 6 20% 24 teachers and 3 5 16% 15 administrators 2 9 30% 18 1 0 0 0 30 100% 107 3.5 A 3 8) Idealize violence 5 10 33% 50 4 6 20% 24 3 5 16% 15 2 9 30% 18 1 0 0 0 30 100% 107 3.5 A 3 Table 3 presents the causes of bullying Ranked 1 was Lack of involvement in child’s interests, activities, and daily life the item 1 of the table 3 shows that a big number of respondents agreed to this factor as indicated by its weighted mean of 3.9 this means that the main reason of bullying others is because Lack of involvement in child’s interests, activities, and daily life The children are bullying others because Overly permissive, lack of limits, Apathy towards bullying on the part of teachers and administrators and Idealize violence, is shown in items 3, 7 and 8 of the table which obtained a weighted mean of 3.5 and verbally interpreted as Agree ranked 3 . ranked 5. are items 4) Harsh, physical discipline and 6 Unsupervised student areas such as lunchrooms, bathrooms, hallways, locker rooms,
  39. 39. playgrounds both has weighted mean of 3.4 which means moderately agree. Bullying can occur in nearly any part in or around the school building, though it may occur more frequently in physical education classes and activities, recess, hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and while waiting for buses, and in classes that require group work and/or after school activities. Bullying in school sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next victim. These bullies may taunt and tease their target before physically bullying the target.
  40. 40. Table 4 Effects of Bullying Effects W F % WF WM VI R a) Loss of interest 5 8 26% 40 in school and 4 5 16% 20 extracurricular 3 6 20% 18 activities 2 7 13% 14 1 4 13% 4 Total 30 100% 96 3.2 MA 1 b) Frequent 5 4 13% 20 complaints of 4 10 33% 40 illness to avoid 3 5 16% 15 attending school 2 4 13% 8 1 7 23% 7 Total 30 100% 93 3.1 MA 2 c) Sudden decrease 5 3 20% 15 in academic 4 6 20% 24 performance 3 7 23% 21 2 8 26% 16 1 6 20% 6 Total 30 100% 82 2.7 MA 4 d) Seems afraid of 5 5 16% 25 going to school, 4 4 13% 16 riding the bus, 3 6 20% 18 walking to school, 2 6 20% 12 or taking part in 1 9 30% 9 organized activities with peers Total 30 100 90 3.0 MA 3 e Anxiety or low 5 4 13% 20 self-esteem 4 6 20% 24 3 5 16% 15 2 9 30% 18 1 6 20% 6 Total 30 100% 85 2.8 MA 5
  41. 41. It is indicated in item a) a) Loss of interest in school and extracurricular activities is one of the main effects of being bulliedwith its weighted mean of 3.2 verbally interpreted as moderately agreed ranked 1.Item b Frequent complaints of illness to avoid attending school indicated that it is one of the effects of being bullied with weighted mean of 3.0 verbally interpreted as moderately agreed, ranked 2. Ranked 3 is item d) Seems afraid of going to school, riding the bus, walking to school, or taking part in organized activities with peers has weighted mean of 3.0 interpreted as moderately agree. Ranked 4 is item c) Sudden decrease in academic performance has weighted mean of 2.7 interpreted as moderately agree Ranked 5 is item e) Anxiety or low self-esteem has weighted mean of 2.8 verbally interpreted as moderately agree
  42. 42. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of the findings; the conclusions arrived at based on the findings and recommendations offered. Summary This study was aimed at assessing the effects of Bullying. ”. The questionnaire was the main instrument used to gather the needed data. This study was conducted during the First semester of School year 2012-2013. Summary of the Findings: Profile of the Respondents. Gender Profile The table one shows the sex profile of the respondents, the table shows that there were 18 or 60% of the respondents were females ranked 1, and 12 or 40% were males ranked 2. Age Profile That there were 12 or 40 percent of the respondents aged of 37 and above with as ranked are 7 or 23.3 percent were at aged ranged of as 31-36 ranked two, four or 16.7 percent belongs to
  43. 43. aged ranged of 26-30 as ranked three; four or 13.3 percent at the age 21-25 as ranked 4; and the last ranked belong to aged 20 below is with two or 6.7 percent. EFFECTS OF BULLYING causes of bullying Ranked 1 was Lack of involvement in child’s interests, activities, and daily life the item 1 of the table 3 shows that a big number of respondents agreed to this factor as indicated by its weighted mean of 3.9 this means that the main reason of bullying others is because Lack of involvement in child’s interests, activities, and daily life Effects of Bullying It is indicated in a) Loss of interest in school and extracurricular activities is one of the main effects of being bulliedwith its weighted mean of 3.2 verbally interpreted as moderately agreed ranked 1.Item b Frequent complaints of illness to avoid attending school indicated that it is one of the effects of being bullied with weighted mean of 3.0 verbally interpreted as moderately agreed, ranked 2. Ranked 3 is item d) Seems afraid of going to school, riding the bus, walking to school, or taking part in organized
  44. 44. activities with peers has weighted mean of 3.0 interpreted as moderately agree. Ranked 4 is item c) Sudden decrease in academic performance has weighted mean of 2.7 interpreted as moderately agree Ranked 5 is item e) Anxiety or low self-esteem has weighted mean of 2.8 verbally interpreted as moderately agree Conclusion Based on the findings, the following conclusions are given and concluded: 1. Bullies react aggressively in response to provocation or perceived insults or slights. It is unclear whether their acts of bullying give them pleasure or are just the most effective way they have learned to get what they want from others 2. Bullying negatively affects both the child being victimized and the child who is the bully. There are always short-term affects and if the bullying is severe enough there can also be long term effects.
  45. 45. 3. Children who are bullied can suffer from low self esteem and other emotional problems and children who do the bullying are much more likely to have problems with drugs and alcohol later in life 4. . The victims of bullies often loose self esteem, start having trouble in school, and withdraw from friends and activities. If it is not stopped and continues for long enough, children can suffer these problems permanently. 5. Not being able to understand the harm they do to themselves (let alone their victims), psychopathic bullies are particularly dangerous." RECOMENDATION From the findings of the study based on the conclusions drawn the following 1. Bullying should not be taken lightly as it can cause serious problems for all the children involved. 2. Being bullied is a very stressful ordeal for children. Many bullying victims are reluctant to talk about their experiences making it even harder to help them. 3. Never tell the child just to ignore the bullying. They will feel as if you are just going to ignore it and they should not have bothered to tell in the first place.
  46. 46. 4. Make contact with the bully’s parents. Often they are unaware of their child’s behavior and will want to help work with you to make positive changes. 5. Do not allow your child to hang around empty playgrounds or stay late at school alone. Teach them to always use the buddy system. 6. Sometimes children exhibit certain behaviors that irritate or provoke others. If this is the case, help the child to find more suitable ways to interact with friends and peer groups.
  47. 47. Reference Complete Newgate Calendar Tarlton Law Library The University of Texas School of Law George Alexander Wood and Alexander Wellesley Leith The Complete Newgate Calendar Volume V, Tarlton Law Library The University of Texas School of Law Zwerdling, Alex (1987 ) Virginia Woolf and the Real World p.263 Pawlowski, Merry M. (2001) Virginia Woolf and fascism: resisting the dictators' seduction p.104 Besag, V. E. (1989) Bullies and Victims in Schools. Milton Keynes, England: Open University PressOlweus, D., Olweus.org Carey, T.A. (2003) Improving the success of anti-bullying intervention programs: A tool for matching programs with purposes. International Journal of Reality Therapy, Crothers, L. M. & Levinson, E. M. (2004, Fall). Assessment of Bullying: A review of methods and instruments. Journal of Counseling & Development Ross, P. N. (1998). Arresting violence: A resource guide for schools and their communities. Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers' Federation. Juvonen (2003) Bullying Among Young Adolescents: The Strong, the Weak and the Troubled in Pediatrics, December 2003, "The benefits of bullying". 2004. Retrieved 2011-09- 03. Bullies are healthiest pupils". BBC News. 1999-12-14. Retrieved 2011-09-03. "Child Development Academician says Bullying is beneficial to Kids". 2009. Retrieved 2011-09-03. Hamilton, Fiona. The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/education/article7 133986.ece.
  48. 48. Williams, K. D., Forgás, J. P. & von Hippel, W. (Eds.) (2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, & Bullying. Psychology Press: New York, NY. Kim YS, Leventhal B; Leventhal (2008). "Bullying and suicide. A review". International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. Petty tyranny in organizations , Ashforth, Blake, Human Relations, Vol. 47, No. 7, 755-778 (2004) Pollastri AR, Cardemil EV, O'Donnell EH; Cardemil (December 2009). "Self-Esteem in Pure Bullies and Bully/Victims: A Longitudinal Analysis". Journal of Interpersonal Violence Batsche, George M.; Knoff, Howard M. (1994). "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools". School Psychology Review 23 Patterson G (December 2005). "The bully as victim?". Paediatric Nursing Craig, W.M. (1998). "The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children". Personality and Individual Differences. Ferguson, Christopher J. (2011). "Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents.". Journal of Youth and Adolescence Katherine Liepe-Levinson and Martin H. Levinson, “A General Semantics Approach to,” Institute of General, 2005: 4-16 E. D. Nelson and R. D. Lambert, “Sticks, Stones and Semantics: The Ivory Tower,” Qualitative Sociology, 2001: Ellen deLara; Garbarino, James (2003). And Words Can Hurt Forever: How to Protect Adolescents from Bullying, Harassment, and Emotional Violence. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2899-5 Whitted, K.S. (2005). Student reports of physical and psychological maltreatment in schools: An under-explored aspect of student victimization in schools. University of Tennessee.
  49. 49. SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE Name (Optional): ______Age Gender ______ Direction: . Please put a check mark to the blank provided corresponds to any number written above each item to best express your opinion by using the following code below: 5 – Strongly Agree 4 – Agree 3 – Moderately Agree 2 – Disagree 1 – Strongly disagree 1. Causes of Bullying causes 5 4 3 2 1 1) Lack of involvement in child’s interests, activities, and daily life 2 Lack of supervision 3) Overly permissive, lack of limits 4) Harsh, physical discipline 5) Unsupervised break times 6 Unsupervised student areas such as lunchrooms, bathrooms, hallways, locker rooms, playgrounds 7) Apathy towards bullying on the part of teachers and administrators
  50. 50. 8) Idealize violence 2. Effects of Bullying Effects 5 4 3 2 1 a) Loss of interest in school and extra curricular activities b) Frequent complaints of illness to avoid attending school c) Sudden decrease in academic performance d) Seems afraid of going to school, riding the bus, walking to school, or taking part in organized activities with peers e) Anxiety or low self- esteem
  51. 51. LETTER TO THE RESPONDENT Dear Respondents, Greetings! The undersigned researchers who are BS Criminology students of Nueva Ecaija University of Science and Technology, Cabanatuan City are presently conducting their research study entitled “Effects of Bullying ”. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Psychology In connection with the above, they requesting your outmost cooperation and support by answering the herein attached questionnaire checklist. Rest assured that your answer will be treated with strict confidentiality. Thank You: Very truly yours, Marlon de Lara Cedric D Jale arceo Arnie Angelo Andulan Melvin Marcelo Mark Joseph Arenas Maricris Estrada Jaypee Grospe Eddie Boy Tamares Rommel Grospe Jimver Reyes Noted by: ________________ Professor
  52. 52. Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology Cabanatuan City Prof. Aniceto Y. Frany Dean. College of Criminology Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology Cabanatuan City Dear Sir: This is to request permission from your good office of allowing the hereunder researchers to conduct their study entitled “effects of bullying” in our school NEUST In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Psychology In connection to this, may we request your permission to allow us to distribute questionnaires to the criminology students in under your jurisdiction regarding our research . Thank you very much for your kind consideration. Truly yours, Marlon de Lara Cedric D Jale arceo Arnie Angelo Andulan Melvin Marcelo Mark Joseph Arenas Maricris Estrada Jaypee Grospe APPROVED: Eddie Boy Tamares Rommel Grospe PROF. ANICETO Y. FRANY Jimver Reyes Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology Cabanatuan City Noted by: ____________________ Adviser
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