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A STUDY ON THE FACTOR OF STUDENT ABSENTEEISM AT FACULTY OF BUSINESS, UNISEL SHAH ALAM

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A STUDY ON THE FACTOR OF STUDENT ABSENTEEISM AT FACULTY OF BUSINESS, UNISEL SHAH ALAM

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A STUDY ON THE FACTOR OF STUDENT ABSENTEEISM AT FACULTY OF BUSINESS, UNISEL SHAH ALAM

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background of the study Absence nowadays cannot be separated from the individual who was called a student. This absence of phenomena, it is easy to see even likened it has become a necessity in the nature of students. So it is not surprising if this habit continues to fall proceeds among school students as examples of primary, secondary and even at university level, the problem still persists. Other than that, the sector is also facing the field of employment in the same problems that their employer impasse in the absence of these phenomena solution. University Selangor (UNISEL) at Shah Alam, Faculty of Business also facing the same thing, the absence of student in class getting worse. They are a few among of student sometimes attend a class a few time in a week, other than that the attendances of student in class based on the subject that they like. These scenarios actually should not be happened, because as a student they already know and thinks to differentiate between the good thing and the worse. Besides that, they also well know the impact and affect while they absent from a class. According to the (Marburger, 2001) states that the difficulty inferring the effect of absenteeism on performance because, once a student is absent in a class, he or she
  2. 2. 2 may miss the opportunity of learning other techniques. He found out that missing in class progress the likelihood of missing examination material covered that day compared to the student who were present in the class. Therefore, we feel that this problem is very serious. As such we take responsibility to investigate and find a solution to this problem from continuing to happen. At the sometimes, we can know the accurate information about these problems and can be able to cope with this problem from the root. 1.1 Problems statement Do not came to class attitudes is synonymous with absenteeism, but it happens often clearly visible in front of our eyes. It does not matter if the school environment, the employment problem will occur. This is because a few individuals who are fond of this kind of attitude lightly upon themselves. And at the same times some individual take these attitudes simply on themselves, they feel it just the small thing but they doesn’t realize that these kinds of attitudes were create a bad impact trough their future. Besides that, were as a researcher takes a move ahead in eradicating this problem. In UNISEL, we can see clearly about absenteeism student from the class. Form the information we get from the some lecturer, sometime the student attendance absent from the class is half of the class. Here we know that how these problems seriously
  3. 3. 3 happened in UNISEL. At the same times, we want to review what actually the factor makes student not interested to attend the class. In other than that we want to, make student realize the affect while they refuse or absent from the class. As a student, they must to well know what exactly their responsibility, role like we call student. In addition, it is important for student to know that with these bad attitudes they will get the bad outcomes as usually when related on performances for sure it about the (CGPA) of their academic. According to (Schmidt,1983), absenteeism affects the students’ ability to get high scores in examinations which can cause the decreasing of grades or the student may fail and will cause him or her to repeat the same year level. Students who have spent time attending lectures or classes have a significant, positive effect on students’ performance. Students that participated exhibits higher grades and scores in examinations that the student. 1.2Objective of Study Purpose this study is made to find out the factors that influence student absences to class. As well, this study helps the management of the university, especially in overcome problems absenteeism among students particularly in the Faculty of Business.
  4. 4. 4 In addition, we also take the responsibility of in given awareness to each student on the future impact on the attitude of those who prefer not to attend the class and take easily for this kind of attitude.From these of scenario we referring to aims and objectives to make of this study and the main objectives can be summarizing as follow: i) To study the factor that effect of student absenteeism. ii) To measures what kind of gender that is most critically in absenteeism issues. iii) To give suggestions and solutions for further improvement towards absenteeism. 1.3 Significance of the study The important of this study is, to get accurate information about the absenteeism affect through the student performances. These reviews of research not only help researcher and educators identify the contemporary research topics and research methodology but also suggest directions for future research as well as some guidelines for the nature of that research. In addition, to study and rises information of factor and effect student absenteeism. From the information the university can used and will take the positive reaction to further improving.
  5. 5. 5 In the same in this study could be helpful to new researchers to make a guide for study them. As well, it shows that we on our research its enable to be used as a reference and source of information useful to all parties. Besides that, it was helping to all parties, particularly the improvements to the management and administration of the university. 1.4 Limitation of Study There are the problems, obstacles and challenges faced by the researcher in conducting and completing the research: 1.4.1 Time constrain Time constrain is very important for researcher to complete this study in the given period. This is because the researcher must to complete in a few month period. The period has been given are insufficient because the researcher must divide the times with other commitment such as a study schedule and complete other assignments. 1.4.2 Cost constraint The main problem for researcher in completing this research is financial cost. The financial cost will be the major factors that will slow down to do these studies because researcher needs to provide a lot of money in order
  6. 6. 6 to get the information and materials such as from the internet, printing and transportations. 1.4.3 Lack of information and resources Lack of information and resources obtained by researcher will be problem to accomplish this research. This is because researcher needs to find the information through the internet as an alternative reference for the research. Whereas, needs to find more journals, research articles and books as additional information. Researcher also facing difficulties in obtains reference materials from the library. 1.4.4 Lack of response from respondent The information from respondent is very important to do the research. Limitations occur when the response provides less commitment and cooperation to give their feedback. Through questionnaires some of respondent were not follow the guidelines when answering the questions. Furthermore, most of them no honestly provide the right answers as a feedback. It can lead researcher difficult to make a conclusion of their research conducted.
  7. 7. 7 1.5 Definition of terms 1.5.1 School A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students’ were progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught is commonly called a university college or university. 1.5.2 Absenteeism Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance. More recent scholarship seeks to understand absenteeism as an indicator of psychological, medical, or social adjustment to work.
  8. 8. 8 1.6 Organizational of the Project Paper The organizational of reports is especially designed and proposed to study on “A STUDY ON THE FACTOR AND EFFECT OF STUDENT ABSENTEESIM AT FACULTY OF BUSINESS IN UNISEL SHAH ALAM”. On these parts the reader will be clearly describe summarize that contains to be presented on each chapters. Chapter One Chapter one describe an introduction of a project purposed that include the background of the study, objective of the study, the significant of the studies, followed by limitation of studies. A definition of terms and organization of project paper are also included into the chapter one. Basically chapter one discuss the overview about the research overall to bring a basic and clear knowledge of our study. Chapter Two Literature review is the second chapter focus all about. Literature define is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published work from secondary sources of data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher. A literature been reviewed to consider in order to decide whether there are any change of necessary. Literature review helps to support our study of research process and used to guide for researcher where an information been gather by analyzing all resources from previous author and media.
  9. 9. 9 Chapter Three Chapter three is about research design and methodology. It help researcher on how to conduct the study and determine what methods should be used to meet the purpose of the study. A researcher design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the need information. Methodology helps to bring out on doing in study with a particular method and principles. There are two type of methods could be used in the study those are Primary Data and Secondary Data. This chapter helps our study to build with strong information. Chapter Four Chapters four were focus on data analysis and finding. Data analysis is the application of logic to the understanding of data that has been gathered, it varies from the simple determination of pattern to complex statistical analysis. Researcher will come out with the different parts or details of samples study been conducted before. The sample demography could be presented in written task or tabular format. Findings are information that is discovered as a result of research in a form of survey and report. Overall conclusion can only be made after data gathering and analysis.
  10. 10. 10 Chapter five Chapter five is explain about conclusions and recommendations. This chapter will summarize all the four chapters above. There are also a briefly explanation in final chapter. Conclusion could be explain as an opinion as the result of the overall study. While recommendation determine how a person should act in particular situation. Finally this chapter would bring a proper recommend for the suggestion to end of further researchers.
  11. 11. 11 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction The purpose of this study is tomake to find out the factors that influence student absences to class. As well, this study helps the management of the university, especially in overcome problems absenteeism among students particularly in the Faculty of Business. According to (Schmidt,1983), absenteeism affects the students’ ability to get high scores in examinations which can cause the decreasing of grades or the student may fail and will cause him or her to repeat the same year level. Students who have spent time attending lectures or classes have a significant, positive effect on students’ performance. Students that participated exhibits higher grades and scores in examinations that the student. 2.2 Absenteeism According to (Teasley,2004) absenteeism is a period of time when a student does not attend school students who do not attend school will generally fall behind their classmates in their academic success (Ford & Sutphen,1996) they have fewer opportunity to learn the materials that will help them to succeed (Epstein & Sheldon ,
  12. 12. 12 2002) the focus of student absenteeism ranges from early schooling until adolescent years (Ford &Sutphen , 1996). Absenteeism in students affects their school performances especially when they are in a group or teamwork for their assignments and projects. Since grouping will help develops the students cooperatives and ability to share and gain knowledge from their group mates, likewise, the group mates will also miss the opportunity of gaining knowledge from the absent student (Koppenhaver, 2003) Based on research of (Marburger,2001) states that the absences create a dead, tiresome, unpleasant classroom, environment that makes students who come to class uncomfortable and the lecturer irritable. Absenteeism disturbs the dynamic teaching- learning environment and adversely affects the overall well-being of classes (Segal ,2008). In quality terms, absenteeism is a waste of educational resources, time and human potential. Student absenteeism also causes rework and wasted time for lecturers (Lalek , 1995 &Rumburger 1997). According to (Park and Kerr 1990, Romer 1993, and Foltz 1996, Marburger 2001) it is widely recognized that absenteeism can negatively impact grades in economics courses and that high attendance rates can improve student performance in variety of classroom settings (Sheets et al. 1995, Johnston and James, 2000)
  13. 13. 13 According of study by (Brooks, 1997, as cited in Bond, 2004) absenteeism can be defined as persistent, habitual, and unexplained absence from school. Bond noted that chronic absenteeism occurs when a student is absent without reason 20% or more of school time: - this nominal figure is consistently identified regardless of the specific circumstances of the absenteeism. According to (Schmidt in 1983) absenteeism affects the students’ ability to get high scores in examinations which can cause the decreasing of grades or the student may fail and will cause him or her repeat the same year level. Students who have spent time attending lectures or classes have a significant, positive effect on students’ performance. Students that participated exhibits higher grades and scores in examinations that the student To prevent and correct serious attendance problems, school need to change the way they structured improves the quality of the courses and intensity interpersonal relationship between teachers and students (Epstein and Sheldon, 2002) Daniel RMarburger indicates that student performance is inversely correlated with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and improves exam performance.
  14. 14. 14 Newman Wadesango and SeverinoMachingambi (2011) study was to investigate the extent of student absenteeism in selected areas. Explore the reasons why student absent themselves from classes and examine the implications of student absenteeism. The study adopted the mixed methodology and used a survey research design as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and interviews with the chosen students. The study revealed that student absenteeism is rampant in the schools under study due to reasons such as: lack of subject interest, poor teaching strategies by teachers, unfavorable learning environment, too much socialization, and poor relations with the teachers. The study also found an inverse relationship between student absenteeism and course performance. According (DonkaMirthecva, 2009) some studies show that student’s attendance or absenteeism is closely linked with good students health thus resulting to higher academic achievements. According (Chang and Romero, 2008, Moonie, Sterling, Figgs and Castro, 2008) have identified chronic absenteeism as a persistent problem related to poor academic performances and potential behavioral and development issues. There is general agreement among researchers that being chronically absent places student at risk of negative academic consequences.
  15. 15. 15 Absenteeism can have pronounced negative impacts on students of poverty (Ready,2010) and according (Balfane And Byrnes,2012) absenteeism can reduce the like hood of post-secondary enrolment. There is also evidence of a particular pattern of non-attendance amongst university students, with most absenteeism accusing on Mondays-and Fridays being of one day in duration (Timmins, 2002, Rodgers, 2002) According (Gatherer and Manning, 1998) suggest that there are may actually be psychological benefits to occasional absences. Yet, if one were to try to dress this in timetabling and in so doing, scheduled classes only on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. Student’s perceptions of the classroom or teachers as chaotic, uncaring or boring were associated with student absenteeism and truancy (Duckworth and Dejong, 1989, Redericket al, 1997) Research found that several family and community enrolment practices were associated with student attendance including rewarding. Students for good attendance communicating with families about student attendance, providing families with information about people to contact at school or intuitions, conducting worships on attendance, and providing after-school programs for students (Epstein and Sheldon, 2002)
  16. 16. 16 According to (Henry, 2007) social learning theory may also be applied to the way parents pass on their values and expectations relatives to schooling and education. The attitude a student’s parents have toward truancy plays an important role in the extent to which truant behavior persists. High rates of unexcused absences have been linked to “ school disengagement “ and lower academic achievement.(Gotttried,2009)students with high number of unexcused absences might be less motivated and supported at home then a students with an equal number of exceed ones :Therefore the reasons for school institutions absences are related to the extent to which students learn. Recent studies show students who are chronically absent are involved with the following disruptive classroom behavior in the current percentiles;29% are bullies, bullied 19%.Have disrespect for teachers,19% are afflicted with gangs, and 13% are verbally abuse teachers (Reimer& Sminh,2005) see school absenteeism as a cause of low scholastics an more students are referred to for disciplinary action (Sommer and Najd 1991) Class attendance is likely to be substantially influenced by contextual factors (Crede, Roch&Kiesecuyuks 2010) such as attendance norms of university perceived difficulty of the class, characteristic of the instructors and whether students can obtain lecture material online. It is also true that individual differences factors such as motivation, consciencetiousness and intelligence increase the likelihood of a student attending class ( Decades and Fortz 1996, Arulampalam, Naylor, and Smith 2012).
  17. 17. 17 2.3 Summary As a summarize of the literature review, we can conclude that rate of absenteeism among students is currently in high percentages. Based on previous research conducted by researchers there are many factors contributing to the major problems of the absenteeism such as parental responsibility, incondusive studying environment, administration role, and lectures role and so on.
  18. 18. 18 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter describes the methodology used to collect data, which will be used to answer the hypothesis. Research design and methodology is important, because it provides more prospective on the problem being studies. This research is based on study carried out at Faculty of Business in UNISEL (Shah Alam) to study on their factor once absenteeism. Exploratory research provides qualitative the concept or defines the problems. The purpose of quantitative research is to determine the phenomena in the form of number. The methods used in this research are definition, research design, respondent, data collection, sampling method, targeted population, and data analysis. 3.2 Business Research Defined Business research a task to generate accurate information to be used in decision-making. The task is defined as the systematic and objectives process for gathering, recording, and analyzing data as aid in business decision makings. Literally, research means to “search again”. It involve patient study and scientific investigation wherein the research takes another more careful look on data to discover all that can be as the subject of study.
  19. 19. 19 The gathered information or data that been collected were analyzed to be accurate, where the business research must be objective. The importance of objectivity, research is valueless. 3.2.1 Categories of business research There are three categories of business research which is: i) Basic (pure) research Research that intended to expand the boundaries of knowledge or verify the acceptability of a given theory. ii) Applied research A research those was undertaken of answer a question of specific problem or to make decision towards a particular course of decision or action. iii) Evaluation A formal objective measurement, which apprise the extent to a given activity, project or program achieved its objective. 3.3.2 Type of business research There are several types of research methods that used to conduct business research, which i) Exploratory Research
  20. 20. 20 Research is conducted to clarify and define the nature of the research problems. It helps to identify information for future researcher to conduct a research. ii) Descriptive Research Specifically conduct to describe the characteristics of population of population. iii) Causal Research A research those were narrow down the cause and effect relationship among variables specifically. This research applies exploratory research to bring the problem into more understanding of the field of study. By the analyzing of the existing studies of subject, by doing some research and informally investigating of the situation, this study can help to build a strong conclusion of the concept. They are several techniques for obtained a clear idea. The research applies explanatory. 3.3 Research Design After a research problem has been formulated, the nest process is followed by research design. Research design is as a master plan in specifying information needed. The objective of this study is to determine during the starting of the research to ensure whether appropriate information was collected in solving the problem.
  21. 21. 21 3.4 DataCollection 3.4.1 Primary Data Primary data is a data that were gathering and assemble specifically for the research project. The data are collected through observation, interview and also questionnaires. This type of data is used in collecting information for our studies. 3.4.2 Questionnaires A list of questionnaires were prepared by observation and investigating based on field of study been research and the respondent were requires to filled u the questionnaires. The respondent should have to read and answering the questions. This survey involved of the student Faculty of Business in (UNISEL) Shah Alam. It consist of the four parts which are (Part A), demography, (Part B) about absenteeism and to identify the possible causes of absenteeism, (Parts C) to identify the possible effect of absenteeism and the last parts is (Part D) ways to overcome absenteeism. Relevance and accurate are two basic criteria a questionnaires must be meet in term to achieve the researcher’s purpose. To bring the research successfully, a systematically questionnaires should build up. 3.5 Secondary Data Secondary data is a data that have been previously collected and assemble for some project research done by other hand. Such data are cheaper and more quickly to be accessed than primary data and also may be available when primary data cannot be
  22. 22. 22 accessed at all. To carry outdated is collect all information from article, journal, and internet where then will be analyzed. With the secondary data helps to make primary data collection more specific whereas we can able to identify the gaps and deficiencies and what additional information needs to be collected and helps to improve the understanding of the problem. Secondary data also provides a basis for comparison for the data that were collected by the researcher. 3.5.1 Internal Data A data that is gathered from the internal source the administration management which is the statistics report. Throughout the report the information such as a statistics of absenteeism, which course and the information related to our studies. 3.5.2 External Data  Reference books A main resource of books about absenteeism were used in collecting information and referred as guideline to conduct the study.  Articles and journals The articles and journals give extra information about the study to analysis with information available.  Internet Internet provides easy and quick references from websites related to the study.
  23. 23. 23 3.6Population and Sample Size Population refers to an entire group of people, events, or things of interest that the researchers wish to investigate (Gay and Diehl, 1992). The process of research sampling involves any procedure using a small number of items or parts of the whole population to make conclusions regarding the whole population. A sample is subset, or some part of larger population. The purpose of sampling is to enable the researchers to estimate unknown characteristics of the population. The population for this study consists of three major programs of Faculty of Business in UNISEL. There are BHRM, BIM, and BOA students. The research was conducted through the questionnaire. The sample target required is 50 respondents from each program, which randomly selected to answer the questionnaires. Therefore, this research is to ensure that ensure that the objective of the research able to achieved without any mistakes or errors. 3.6.1 Respondent A respondent is a person who wills answer the questionnaires, all of the respondent are under the Faculty of Business. Despite the questionnaires are used to collect data and information accurately from the survey. The sample is from the BHRM, BIM and BOA student.
  24. 24. 24 3.7 Data Analysis and Procedure Data analysis in survey research is characteristics by a wide spectrum of statistics analysis used to collect the data and then analyzed to be converted into a format that will answer the researcher’s questions. The analysis involves determining consistent patterns and summarizing the appropriate details that relived in the investigation. In this study, researcher will used Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0 to key in all the data which collected from respondent and cross tabulation. 3.7.1 Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) SPSS is very user friendly and best learned by hands-on utilization. SPSS is a comprehensive statistical software package for helping in analyze the study ta and an import the dissertation data from almost any kind of the file for analysis. In analyze, SPSS used to generate tabulated dissertation reports, charts, and plots of distribution and trends, as well as descriptive statistics, and complex statistical analysis using the collected data. 3.7.2 Tabulation Researcher will use tabulation in this study. Tabulation refers to the in orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format of information gathered. Counting the number of response through a question and separate them into a frequency distribution is a simple tabulation or marginal tabulation, which help the researcher to keep the most basic from of a information. During the data tabulated, a meaningful
  25. 25. 25 categories and character symbols will used to represent for group or responses. The rules used to interpret; categories and recording the data are called codes. This coding process can be used a fully facilities by a computer or a manual work as hand tabulation. Other than that, researcher can also use cross tabulation. Where, researcher question involving relationship among multiple less than internal variable. The results were combined of frequency table displaying one variable in rows and another variable in columns. The purpose of categorization and cross tabulation is to allow the inspection and comparison of differences among group.
  26. 26. 26 CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 4.1 Introduction This chapter shows the results of data analysis that has been undertaken and has been achieved from the studies. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed by one of the researchers. The questionnaire comprises two major parts A deals with demographic question and Part B contains 27 questions related to causes, effects and ways to overcomes absenteeism problems. A five point Likert Scale is used to identify student respondent’s level of agreement on a statement given. The scale is follows: 5 Strongly Disagree, 4: Disagree, 3: Neutral, 2: Agree, 1: Strongly Agree. Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 16.0 to get reliability, percentage, frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and independent samples test.
  27. 27. 27 4.2 Part A: DEMOGRAPHIC (RESPONDENT’S BACKGROUND) 4.2.1 Programs Table 4.2.1 : programs Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid BHRM 50 33.3 33.3 33.3 BOF 50 33.3 33.3 66.7 BBM 50 33.3 33.3 100.0 Total 150 100.0 100.0
  28. 28. 28 Figure 4.2.1: programs Figure 4.2.1 above shows the programs of the respondents. The total respondent is 150. So, we had divided for three major programs such as BHRM, BOF, and BBM. For each programs there are 50 respondents or 33.3%. 34% 33% 33% Programs bhrm bof bbm
  29. 29. 29 4.2.2: Gender Table 4.2.2 : Gender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid male 33 22.0 22.0 22.0 female 117 78.0 78.0 100.0 Total 150 100.0 100.0 Figure 4.2.2: gender 22% 78% Gender male female
  30. 30. 30 Figure 4.2.2 above shows the gender of the respondents. The total respondent is 150 and they are 78% or 117 respondents are females while 22% or 33 respondents are male. It means that, female have a highest percentage than male. 4.2.3: Year of Study Table 4.2.3 : year of study Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 1 30 20.0 20.0 20.0 2 48 32.0 32.0 52.0 3 72 48.0 48.0 100.0 Total 150 100.0 100.0
  31. 31. 31 Figure 4.2.3: Year of Study Figure 4.2.3 above shows the year of study of respondents. There are 30 respondent or 20% from year 1 followed by 48 respondent or 32% from year 2 and 72 respondents or 48% from year 3. 20% 32% 48% Year Of Study 1 2 3
  32. 32. 32 4.2.4: Age Table 4.2.4 : Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 18-20 11 7.3 7.3 7.3 21-23 102 68.0 68.0 75.3 24-26 37 24.7 24.7 100.0 Total 150 100.0 100.0 Figure 4.2.4: Age Figure and table 4.2.4 shows age of the respondents. There are 11 respondents or 7.3% comes from age group 18-20, followed by 102 respondents or 68% from 21-23 age group and end with 37 respondents or 24.7% from 24-26 age groups. 7% 68% 25% Age 18-20 21-23 24-26
  33. 33. 33 4.3 RELIABILITY Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .918 27 Table: 4.3.1 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item- Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted absenteeism is voluntary non- attendance without valid reasons 95.90 184.923 .542 .915 Family ,friends, lectures and ourselves has ultimate responsibility for managing absenteeism 95.57 189.387 .489 .916 quality/clarity of lectures 95.67 186.613 .580 .914 teaching skill of the lecturer 95.64 185.910 .578 .914 lack of sleep 95.65 191.611 .345 .918 lecturer timetable scheduled not the right hour 95.75 188.160 .518 .915 need to attend to extracurricular/personal activities 95.91 189.207 .483 .916 number of student in class 95.91 190.998 .353 .918 students did not finished the 95.81 190.761 .425 .917
  34. 34. 34 homework before the class start always students felt sick and unhealthy life 95.87 190.089 .472 .916 students are not interested in a particular subject 95.63 187.240 .604 .914 students have behavioral/or emotional problems that interfere the learning process 95.77 186.932 .589 .914 academic performances low 95.71 187.631 .575 .914 student knowledge is outdated compared to other students in class 95.63 188.021 .602 .914 lectures perception on your ability is low 95.80 185.638 .585 .914 fail to score well in quizzes, tests and final exams 95.74 188.905 .557 .915 absenteeism will affect your carry marks 95.45 185.632 .585 .914 your name will be bar from final exam 95.51 187.164 .513 .915 effect your CGPA/GPA 95.45 186.719 .588 .914 fail to get loan for next semesters 95.69 184.550 .520 .915 trying to copy answer from other student in exam 95.87 184.031 .562 .914 fail to graduate in academy to schedule 95.80 180.859 .643 .913 make sure the classes size smaller (max 30 students) 95.61 189.688 .436 .917 establishing a program of constantly emphasizing the benefits of attending the class to students 95.65 189.532 .511 .915 build a friendly and mutually 95.41 192.593 .422 .917
  35. 35. 35 respectful lectures/ students relationships prioritize the ability of lectures to engage / entertain the class 95.30 193.178 .395 .917 adjustment on class timing should be done 95.14 186.712 .589 .914 4.4 PART B Table 4.4.1: Distribution of mean and standard deviation for causes of an absenteeism. Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation absenteeism is voluntary non- attendance without valid reasons 150 1 5 3.44 1.077 family, friends ,lectures and ourselves has ultimate responsibility for managing absenteeism 150 1 5 3.77 .878 quality/clarity of lectures 150 1 5 3.67 .916
  36. 36. 36 teaching skill of the lecturer 150 1 5 3.70 .961 lack of sleep 150 1 5 3.69 .984 lecturer timetable scheduled not the right hour 150 1 5 3.59 .914 need to attend to extracurricular/personal activities 150 1 5 3.43 .900 number of student in class 150 1 5 3.43 1.006 students did not finished the homework before the class start 150 1 5 3.53 .887 always students felt sick and unhealthy life 150 1 5 3.47 .857 students are not interested in a particular subject 150 1 5 3.71 .848 students have behavioral/or emotional problems that interfere the learning process 150 1 5 3.57 .885 Valid N (listwise) 150 Family, friends ,lectures and ourselves has ultimate responsibility for managing absenteeism is the most influencing factors of absenteeism with average(mean 3.77)(SD = 0.878) followed by students are not interested in a particular subject(mean=3.71)(SD=0.848)and teaching skill of the lecturer (mean=3.70)(SD=0.96). Lack of the sleep is the fourth influencing factor of absenteeism (mean =3.69)(SD=0.984) followed by quality/clarity of lecturer with (mean 3.67) (SD=0.916). (Mean 3.59) and
  37. 37. 37 (SD=0.914) is lecturer timetable scheduled not the right hour and (mean 3.57) (SD=0.885) is the students have behavioral/or emotional problems that interfere the learning process. Then followed by (mean 3.53) (SD=0.0887) students did not finished the homework before the class start followed by always students felt sick and unhealthy life with (mean3.47)(SD=1.006),(mean 3.44) (SD=1.077) with absenteeism is voluntary non-attendance without valid reasons. Second last followed by need to attend to extracurricular/personal activities with average (mean 3.43) (SD=0.900) and lastly number of student in class (mean=3.43) (SD=1.006). Table 4.4.2: Distribution of mean and standard deviation for effects of absenteeism. Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation academic performances low 150 1 5 3.63 .862 student knowledge is outdated compared to other students in class 150 1 5 3.71 .805 lectures perception on your ability is low 150 1 5 3.54 .967 fail to score well in quizzes ,tests and final exams 150 1 5 3.60 .811 absenteeism will affect your carry marks 150 1 5 3.89 .966 your name will be bar from final exam 150 1 5 3.83 .986 effect your CGPA/GPA 150 1 5 3.89 .899 fail to get loan for next semesters 150 1 5 3.65 1.142 trying to copy answer from other student in exam 150 1 5 3.47 1.097 fail to graduate in academy to 150 1 5 3.54 1.145
  38. 38. 38 Absenteeism will affect your carry marks is the most major effect of absenteeism with average (mean3.89) (SD=0.966) followed by effect your CGPA/GPA with same valued of (mean 3.89)(SD=0.899) thirdly followed by your name will be bar from final exam (mean=3.83) (SD=0.986). Then continue with student knowledge is outdated compared to other students in class(mean=3.71) (SD=0.805) fail to get loan for next semesters (mean= 3.65) (SD=1.192).next is academic performances low (mean=3.63) (SD=0.862), fail to score well in quizzes, tests and final exams(mean=3.60) (SD=0.811) and lectures perception on your ability is low (mean=3.54)(SD=0.967). Second last is fail to graduate in academy to schedule (mean 3.54) (SD=1.145) and end with trying to copy answer from other student in exam (mean=3.47) (SD=1.097). Table 4.4.3: Distribution of mean and standard deviation for ways to overcomes absenteeism. Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation make sure the classes size smaller (max 30 students) 150 1 5 3.73 .948 schedule Valid N (listwise) 150
  39. 39. 39 establishing a program of constantly emphasizing the benefits of attending the class to students 150 1 5 3.69 .835 build a friendly and mutually respectful lectures/ students relationships 150 1 5 3.93 .752 prioritize the ability of lectures to engage / entertain the class 150 1 5 4.04 .750 adjustment on class timing should be done 150 1 5 4.20 .897 Valid N (listwise) 150 Adjustment on class timing should be done is the most popular ways to overcome absenteeism with average (mean= 4.20) (SD=0.897) followed by prioritize the ability of lectures to engage / entertain the class(mean=4.04) (SD=0.750) third popular ways is build a friendly and mutually respectful lectures/ students relationships(mean=3.93)(SD=0.752)continue by make sure the classes size smaller (max 30 students)(mean=3.73)(SD=0.948) and lastly establishing a program of constantly emphasizing the benefits of attending the class to students with average (mean3.69) (SD=0.835).
  40. 40. 40 Table 4.4.4 No Statements Answer SD D N A SA F % F % F % F % F % 1 absenteeism is voluntary non-attendance without valid reasons 15 10.0 8 5.3 38 25.3 74 49.3 15 10.0 2 Family,friends,lectures and ourselves has ultimate responsibility for managing absenteeism 5 3.3 7 4.7 28 18.7 88 58.7 22 14.7 3 quality/clarity of lectures 5 3.3 10 6.7 35 23.3 79 52.7 21 14.0 4 teaching skill of the lecturer 7 4.7 9 6.0 29 19.3 82 54.7 23 15.3 5 lack of sleep 5 3.3 14 9.3 31 20.7 73 48.7 27 18.0 6 lecturer timetable scheduled not the right hour 3 2.0 17 11.3 37 24.7 75 50.0 18 12.0 7 need to attend to extracurricular/personal activities 7 4.7 12 8.0 50 33.3 72 48.0 9 6.0 8 number of student in class 7 4.7 23 15.3 32 21.3 75 50.0 12 8.0 9 students did not finished the homework before the class start 5 3.3 13 8.7 41 27.3 79 52.3 12 8.0 10 always students felt sick and unhealthy life 2 1.3 21 14.0 40 26.7 78 52.0 9 6.0 11 students are not interested in a particular subject 3 2.0 10 6.7 34 22.7 84 56.0 19 12.7 12 students have behavioral/or emotional problems that interfere the learning process 5 3.3 12 8.0 38 25.3 82 54.7 13 8.7 13 academic performances low 5 3.3 9 6.0 36 24.0 86 57.8 14 9.3 14 student knowledge is outdated compared to other students in class 4 2.7 5 3.3 37 24.7 84 58.7 16 10.7 15 lectures perception on your ability is low 4 2.7 22 14.7 30 20.0 77 51.3 17 11.3 16 fail to score well in quizzes ,tests and final exams 3 2.0 10 6.7 43 28.7 82 54.7 12 8.0 17 absenteeism will affect your carry marks 5 3.3 8 5.3 25 16.7 73 48.7 39 26.0
  41. 41. 41 18 your name will be bar from final exam 6 4.0 9 6.0 24 16.0 76 50.7 35 23.3 19 effect your CGPA/GPA 1 0.7 13 18.7 24 16.0 75 50.0 37 24.7 20 fail to get loan for next semesters 13 8.7 11 7.3 22 14.7 74 49.3 30 20.0 21 trying to copy answer from other student in exam 10 6.7 19 12.7 34 22.7 65 43.3 22 14.7 22 fail to graduate in academy to schedule 14 9.3 12 8.0 28 18.7 71 47.3 25 17.3 23 make sure the classes sized smaller (max 30 students) 7 4.7 5 3.3 36 24.0 76 50.7 26 17.3 24 establishing a program of constantly empathizing the benefits of attending the class to students 4 2.7 7 4.7 37 24.7 85 56.7 17 11.3 25 build a friendly and mutually respectful lectures/ students relationships 2 1.3 4 2.7 24 16.0 93 62.0 27 18.0 26 prioritize the ability of lectures to engage / entertain the class 1 0.7 2 1.3 27 18.0 80 53.3 40 26.7 27 adjustment on class timing should be done 3 2.0 1 0.7 27 18.0 51 34.0 68 45.3 T-TEST Table 4.4.5: Programs ANOVA programs Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 26.735 49 .546 .745 .873 Within Groups 73.265 100 .733 Total 100.000 149
  42. 42. 42 ANOVA test are used to analysis weather there are any changes according programs towards absenteeism. But here had been proven that there are no changes between BHRM, BOF, and BBM towards absenteeism. All programs equally absent to classes. This is because the sig (0.873) which is more than p value (0.05). Table 4.4.6: Gender Group Statistics gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Absenteeism male 33 97.1212 17.72843 3.08612 female 117 99.9658 13.07401 1.20869 Table above shows group statistics of the absenteeism. According to the table there are no differences between male and female to the absenteeism. Gender are not brings any changes to the absenteeism. This is because the P value is more than (>0.05). Mean of the male is 97.12 while female is 99.97 and standard deviation for male is (17.73) while female 13.08. Table 4.4.7: Year of Study ANOVA year of study Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
  43. 43. 43 Between Groups 28.404 49 .580 .937 .592 Within Groups 61.836 100 .618 Total 90.240 149 Table shows there are no differences between year of study and absenteeism. Student’s keep absent to class even they are first year student or final year students. This is because the p value is more than (0.05) sig (0.592). Table 4.4.8: Age ANOVA age Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 16.778 49 .342 1.282 .148 Within Groups 26.715 100 .267 Total 43.493 149 Table shows that there are no differences between age and absenteeism. This is because p value is more than (0.05) and sig. value is (0.148).
  44. 44. 44 CHAPTER FIVE RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Introduction Chapter 5 provides an overview of the research study, summarize the research findings through the discussion of a study on factor of student absenteeism at Faculty Of Business, UNISEL Shah Alam. The function on this chapter is to summarize the findings of the study in form of conclusion, to recommend or apply, to interpret the question, to suggest extension and integrate. The points raised in the introduction chapter must be responded to in the conclusion chapter. The researcher should provide the conclusion of the analysis and suggestions will be discussed details in this chapter. The researchers were prepared the questionnaire by using the secondary data and it based on research objective. The research was conducted at University Selangor (UNISEL). The total population involve in this research is 150 students. Simple random sampling method has been chosen in the distribution of the questionnaires. As many as 150 questionnaires have been distributed and researchers collected it successfully. There are many 150 of the respondents are successfully involved in this study.
  45. 45. 45 5.2 Recommendation 5.2.1 Adjustment on class timing Adjustment on class timing is most vital ways to overcome absenteeism among students. Class timing playing an important role to the students. Too much early and late class timing will make students to not attend the class. Faculty or upper management in UNISEL should adjust the class timing scheduled so that students will attend the class more regularly. Management in UNISEL should analyze the most correctable/ flexible class timing to the students before finalized the class timing. Here we suggested not starting class too early such as at 8 am and end up late at 7 pm will make students feel lazy and frustrated. The best class timing is around 9 am to 6 pm in other words follow up office hours is better. 5.2.2 Prioritize the ability of lectures to engage/entertain the class Lectures play more vital role in education systems. How far a lecture able to engage /entertain the class is a non-answer question to everyone. Lectures should know how to conduct their class well so that student will not absent from attend the classes. Management/ faculty should make sure that all lectures in UNISEL are able to conduct their classes in proper way as well as entertain their students. We recommend to the management to send lectures especially who are new in field of teaching, less experience, and having low performances to the training so that they can able to deliver their best to the students.
  46. 46. 46 5.2.3 Build a friendly and mutually respectful lectures / students relationships. Bonding between student and lectures are important factors to reduce absenteeism. Lectures and students themselves should build a strong relationship between them to create a good and health environment. Communications play an important role towards build a friendly relationship among both parties. Both parties should give respect each other to avoid disputes among them. We suggested to management/faculty often organized educational trip/or vacation trip for students/lectures in order to them build strong friendly and mutually respectful relationships. 5.2.4 Make sure the classes size smaller We had observed that in FOB there are a lot of students (especially for BHRM) there are more than 60 students in a class for one subject. This make student’s feel uncomfortable to attend a class. Some of the reasons they did not like to attend a class especially classes which placed more than 60 students are class are noise, cannot interact with lectures, limited chair provided, students sits at back unable to pay attentions and so on. One of the way to overcome this problems, faculty/management should make the class size smaller (max 30 students). A lot of students agree with this suggestions because they feel more comfortable to attend the class- don’t need to worry about sitting place even they come late to classes
  47. 47. 47 5.2.5 Establishing the programs of constantly emphasizingthe benefits of attending the class to students Management / faculty should establish the programs of constantly emphasizingthe benefits of attending the class to students so that they will conscious about the consequences of skipping class. This is because a lot of students out there are still having zero knowledge about the importance of attending a class. They also still blind about the effect of absenteeism to their future careers. We suggested to faculty that often establishing a awareness programs to the students about the benefits of attending the classes so that they will be able to take a good decision as well think twice before skipping class. 5.3 Conclusions
  48. 48. 48 Based on research we had conducted, finally we had find out answer/result for our objectives. The main factors of absenteeism is family, friends, lectures and ourselves has ultimate responsibility for managing absenteeism with average (mean 3.77) (SD = 0.878) followed by students are not interested in a particular subject (mean=3.71) (SD=0.848) and teaching skill of the lecturer (mean=3.70) (SD=0.96) and so on. Based on our second objectives we had concluded that both female and male are equally contribute to the absenteeism issues. In order to achieve our third objectives we suggested to the faculty/management in UNISEL to adjust the class timing as way for reduce and overcome absenteeism. As a whole it can be concluded that absenteeism is a problem or issues that can be solved easily if all parties (students, lectures, UNISEL management) work together to overcome absenteeism issues in future. Discussion The purpose of our study was to find out the factors that influence student absences to class. As well, this study helps the management of the university, especially in overcome problems absenteeism among students particularly in the Faculty of Business. In addition, we also take the responsibility of in given awareness to each student on the future impact on the attitude of those who prefer not to attend the class and take easil
  49. 49. 49 this kind of attitude. From these of scenario we referring to aims and objectives to make of this study and the main objectives can be summarizing as follow: i) To study the factor that effect of student absenteeism. ii) To measures what kind of gender that is most critically in absenteeism issues. iii) To give suggestions and solutions for further improvement towards absenteeism. Our results provided some support for the questionnaire that we had arise during conducting the research. Firstly, the factor that effect of student absenteeism is family, friends, lectures and ourselves has ultimate responsibility for managing absenteeism with average( mean 3.77 )interested in a particular subject (mean=3.71) (SD=0.848) and teaching skill of the lecturer (mean=3.70) (SD=0.96) and so on. Based on our second objectives we had concluded that both female and male are equally contribute to the absenteeism issues. This is because our results shows that gender are not brings any changes to the absenteeism. This is because the P value is more than (>0.05). Mean of the male is (97.12) while female is (99.97) and( standard deviation for male is 17.73) while female (13.08).
  50. 50. 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY Babbie G, Mouton G. (2001). The Practical of Social Research. Jamaica. Task Force on Educational Reform. (2004). A transformed education system: Report. Kingston, Jamaica: Author Chang, H. N., & Romero, M. (2008.) Present, Engaged, and Accounted For: The Critical Importance of Addressing Chronic Absence in the Early Grades. Report. New York, N.Y.: National Center for Children in Poverty. Rothman, S. (2001) School absence and student background factors: A multilevel analysis. International Education Journal 2(1): 59–68. Sheldon, S. B., & Epstein, J. L. (2004).Getting Students to School: Using Family and Community Involvement to Reduce Chronic Absenteeism. School and Community Journal 4(2): 39-56. Arcia, E. (2006). Achievement and enrollment status of suspended students: Outcomes in a large, multicultural school district. Education & Urban Society, 38(3), 359- 369.doi:10.1177/0013124506286947
  51. 51. 51 Rothman, S. (1999) Non-attendance and student background factors. Paper presented at the joint annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education and the New Zealand Association for Research in Education, Melbourne, November December. Balfanz, R. & Byrnes, V. (2012). Chronic Absenteeism: Summarizing What We Know From Nationally Available Data. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Center for Social Organization of Schools. Attwood, G. &Croll, P. (2006). Truancy in secondary school pupils: Prevalence, trajectories and pupil perspectives. Research Papers in Education, 21 (2006): 467–484
  52. 52. 52 APPENDIXES
  53. 53. 53 APPENDIX Appendix 1: Pai chart of gender
  54. 54. 54 Appendix 2: SPSS data
  55. 55. 55 Appendix 3: Frequency Table in SPSS
  56. 56. 56 Appendix 4:Oneway
  57. 57. 57 Appendix 5: Frequency Data in SPSS Format
  58. 58. 58 Appendix 6: Cronbach’s Alpha in SPSS
  59. 59. 59 This survey is conducted to investigate the factor that effect student absenteeism. (Kajianinidijalankanuntukmengkajifaktor yang terhadapkesanketidakhadiranpelajar.) SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC Please mark (√ ) your answer in the box provided. (Silatandakan (√) jawapanandadalamkotak yang disediakan) PROGRAMMES: BHRM BOF BBM GENDER: MALE FEMALE YEAR OF STUDY: 1 2 3 3 AGE: 18-20 21-23 24-26 27 ABOV
  60. 60. 60 SECTION B : PART A (ABOUT ABSENTEEISM) Please tick ( √ ) on each answer you choose. You may only choose (1) answer. For these following questions, please rate according to the following. (Silatandakan (√) padasetiapjawapan yang andapilih.Andahanyabolehmemilih (1) jawapan.Untuksoalan-soalanberikut. 1. Strongly Disagree (sangattid akbersetuj u) 2. Disagree (tidaksetuj u) 3. Neutra l (neutra l) 4. Agree (setuju) 5. Strongly Agree (sangatbersetuju) NO STATEMENT 1 2 3 4 5 1 Absenteeism is voluntary nonattendance without valid reasons. (Ketidakhadiranadalahkehadiransukarelabukantanpasebab yang sah) 2 Wehave ultimate responsibility for managing absenteeism. (Kita mempunyaitanggungjawabutamauntukmenguruskanketidakhadiran.) SECTION B :PART B TO IDENTIFY THE POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABSEENTEEISM NO STATEMENT 1 2 3 4 5 1 Quality/ clarity of lectures (Kualiti / kejelasanpensyarahjejaskankuliah) 2 Teaching skill of the lecturer (Kemahiranpensyarahmengajar) 3 Lack of sleep (kurangtidur) 4 Lecturer timetable scheduled not the right hour (jadualwaktupensyarahtidakpadamasadan jam yang
  61. 61. 61 tepat/betul) 5 Need to attend to extracurricular/ personal activities (Perlu dating keaktivitikurikulum / peribadi) 6 Number of student in class (bilanganpelajar di dalamkelas yang padat) 7 Students did not finished the homework before the class start (eg : tutorial, assignment) (pelajartidakmenyiapkantugasansebelumkelasbermula) 8 Always student felt sick and unhealthy life (pelajarkerapsakitdanmenjalanigayahidupkurangsihat) 9 Students are not interested in particular subject (pelajartidakberminatdalamsesetengahsubjek) 10 Students have behavioral / or emotional problems that interfere the learning process (Pelajarmempunyaimasalahtingkahlaku / atauemosi yang mengganggu prosespembelajaran) SECTION C : TO IDENTIFY THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF ABSEENTEEISM NO STATEMENT 1 2 3 4 5 1 Academic performance low (pencapaianakademikmenurun) 2 Subject knowledge is outdated compared to other students in the class (Rasa ketinggalanberbandingdenganpelajar lain di dalamkelas) 3 Lectures perception on your ability is low (Pensyarahmelihatkeupayaan/kemampuanandarendah)
  62. 62. 62 4 Fail to score well in quizzes, tests, and final exam (gagalmenjawabdenganbaikdalamujian, kuizdalampeperiksaanakhir) 5 Absenteesim will affect your carrymarks (ketidakhadiranakanmenjejaskanmarkahanda) 6 Your name will be bar from final exam (namaandaakandibekukandarimendudukipeperiksaanakhir) 7 Effect your CGPA and GPA State your CGPA: …………… (menjejaskan pointer) 8 Fail to get loan for next semester (gagalmemperolehipembiayaan/pinjaman) 9 Trying to copy answer from other student in exam (cubauntukmenirujawapanketikapeperiksaan) 10 Fail to graduate in academy to schedule (gagalmenamatkanpengajianmengikutjadualtelahditetapkan) SECTION D : WAYS TO OVERCOME ABSEENTEEISM N O STATEMENTS 1 2 3 4 5 1 Make sure the classes sizes smaller (max 30 students) (memastikandisetiapkelasbilanganpelajarmaksimumhanya 30 orang pelajarsahaja) 2 Establishing a program of constantly emphasing the benefits of attending the class to students (Mewujudkan program secaraberterusanmemberitumpuankhususkepadafaedahmenghadirikelasu
  63. 63. 63 ntukpelajar) 3 Build a friendly and mutually respectful lecturer/ students relationships (Membinahubunganmesradansalingmenghormatiantarapensyarah / pelajar) 4 Prioritize the ability of lectures to engage /entertain the class (Mengutamakankebolehanpensyarahuntukmengendalikankelas) 5 Adjustment on class timing should be done. (Penyesuaiankepadapenetapanmasakelasperludilakukan) REFERENCES Website http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/132643_Student-absenteeism-high Definition on Research Design (on-line) Available (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/research-design.html) Definition on Data Analysis (on-line) Available (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/data-analysis.html) http://www.google.com(search) Definition on Research Method (On-line) Available (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/research-method.html)
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