The Impact of Bullying in Adolescents at School
A research paper presented to the
Faculty of the English and Foreign Language Department
in partial fulfillment of the requirement
in English Communication 2
1. Paulyn Gonzaga
2. Dennimar Domingo
3. Arcy Joy Ferreras
4. Nika Rochele Alcantara
5. Racel Anne Balagtas
6. Christine Shaira Sanchez
Professor Danilo Escandor
February 6, 2013
We profoundly would like to express our grateful to Adamson University (Adu) for
providing us great learning experiences.
Our special thanks go to our professor, Mr. Danilo Escandor, for teaching us on how to
conduct this research correctly. He always there for correcting us, to give us right direction, and to
provide us with his brilliant insights. We realized that without him, we would never have made this
work to come to a good end.
We also would like to thank the authors of different researches that give us different ideas in
conducting our research paper. They allow us to explore more about their ideas when it comes to the
topic that we‟re conducting.
Also our parents for giving us their confidence in ours, encouragement and love, through our
studies and our lives. They have made substantial sacrifices to help us attain our goals.
And last but not least, especially God for giving us enough strength, wisdom and knowledge
to do this research paper.
Every day thousands of teens wake up afraid to go to school. Bullying is a problem that
affects millions of students, and it has everyone worried, not just the kids on its receiving end.
Yet because parents, teachers, and other adults don't always see it, they may not understand how
extreme bullying can get. Some bullies attack their targets physically, which can mean anything
from shoving or tripping to punching or hitting, or even sexual assault. Others use psychological
control or verbal insults to put themselves in charge.
Bullying is a behavior that can only be easily recognized when individuals experience
it. Bullying can happen to anyone at any age and anywhere whether at school, home, or even in a
workplace. So far, it is difficult to define bullying since it relates to both a wide range behavior
that may constitute bullying, and the characteristics of bullying behavior (Montgomery, 1994, p.
3). However, the definitions in use were adopted by Roland (1989) and Olweus (1991). Roland
defines bullying as “long standing violence, physical or psychological, perpetrated by an
individual or group directed against an individual who cannot defend himself or herself” (p. 21).
In line with this Olweus also defines bullying as “repeated, negative actions over time, including
hitting, kicking, threatening, locking in a room, saying nasty and unpleasant things, and teasing”
Rigby, (2008) suggests that bullying is “the systematic abuse of power in interpersonal
relationship” (p. 22). In other words, bullying is when a person is picked on over and over again
by an individual or group with more power, either in terms of physical strength or social
standing. Rigby argues that the abuse of power is not restricted only to certain managerial or
“authority” positions, but that most individuals have “the opportunity to exercise power to
control over someone”. Thus, there are apparently imbalances in physical and psychological
strength between the bully and the victim (Olweus and Solberg, 1998, p. 7). Regarding the
recognition of bullying, Olweus and Solberg, (1998) have suggested some typical characteristics
to recognize bullying behavior. They said that “we generally speak of bullying when one or more
persons repeatedly and over a period of time say or do painful and unpleasant things to someone
who has problems defending himself or herself” (p.7). To address the terms “painful” and
“unpleasant” experience, Olweus and Solberg refer them as direct bullying and indirect bullying.
They argue that “the pain and unpleasantness may be due to direct bullying involving hitting,
kicking, insults, offensive and sneering comments or threat” while indirect bullying, which is just
as painful, is the experience of being socially isolated and excluded from group membership
(Olweus and Solberg, 1998, p. 7). Having said this, there is a quite reasonable assumption that a
psychological element is always present in most, if not all, bullying (Rigby, 2005, p. 26).
Young children who are first bullied during their pre-teen years appear to be less
negatively impacted in the long term than are the children who are first bullied as teens.
However, people who were first bullied as teens report longer term social withdrawal and more
reactively to violence than other groups. Bullying is the experience of most of the people. It can
happen to anyone at any age and anywhere whether at home, school, or even in the workplace.
Bullying can destroy the life of an individual because sometimes it can lead to suicide.
According to some findings, the existence of bullying in schools has become a
worldwide phenomenon and a problem that can create negative impacts for the general school
atmosphere and for the rights of students to learn in a safe environment without fear. Bullying
can also have negative lifelong consequences both for students who bully and for their victims.
Although formal research as well as intervention programs to prevent bullying have been taking
place for decades in some developed countries, the problems associated with bullying have been
also discussed all over the world wherever formal schooling environments exist.
Bullying can have a wide-ranging impact on teens – from victims, to those who witness
bullying, to the bullies themselves – and affect each one well into adulthood. “Bullying is a form
of abuse and it is a narcissistic sort of act” (Mark Dombeck, PhD, 2006). In the article of Mr.
Mark Dombeck, Ph.D (2007), “The Long term Effects of Bullying”, he said that both bullying
and traditional forms of abuse are selfish and/or sadistic, destructive, and often violent acts
perpetrated upon victim who do not in any way, shape or form deserve to be treated in that
Most bullying starts out as a small tease for the bully to examine the vulnerability of
their victim. Then they find the obvious or underline difference between them and their victim to
initiate the labeling, this includes anything from race, religion, sexuality, to physical disabilities,
skin colors and etc. 35% of kids were directly involved in bullying incidents, 85% of girls and
76% of boys reported having experienced sexual harassment, 24% race related bullying
In this research study, we will not discuss how to stop bullying, but rather, to explore
the reasons why bullies intend to bully other people, also the different types of bullying, how to
cope up with it and most importantly are the effect or impact of bullying to the students who are
being bullied by the bullies. This research paper tends to help other researchers who will conduct
further investigation about bullying.
Most people however have not been able to know what bullying or what it means to
bully. Bullying is not a simple as one terrorizing or tormenting others. That is not something that
a person can easily see and prevent the harm of others. Each person can easily find a way to
harass another by separating what makes them different from each other and use that difference
between each other to make it the advantage of the bully.
People bully because they think they are better than others because they find some
people having low self-esteem. Bullying happens when someone hurts or scares another person
on purpose and the person that‟s being a bully has a hard time or can‟t defend themselves. When
younger kids bully is normally named calling, teasing or making fun of them by the way they
look, speak or even how smart they are. Older age bullying is a topic that needs to be talked
about because it has the kind of level who‟s going to be more violent and is a lot more severe
than younger age bullying. And sometimes it ends up in a fight. This is crummy because the
children who are being bullied do not deserve what they are getting. Nobody deserves to be
harassed and manipulated or to be bullied for no reason or any reason because it‟s quite unfair,
illegal and injustice for the one who being bullied.
Most people think bullying only happens in schools among kids. Bullying can happen
within adults as well as it happens between children in other places besides school. The most
common place bullying can occur is at school. At school, children will bully each other for many
different reasons even if they are popular. It is hard to tell if kids are being bullied but whether
you believe it or not they are being bullied even if they don‟t show me or make it obvious to tell
because the bully will just hurt them some more.
As well as the general bullying described, there can be some way specific types that all
children should be aware of. Bullying isn‟t always so obvious, it can happen inside and outside
of school and these days there are more ways to upset people than before. Some types of bullying
Physical Bullying. According to bullyingstatistics.com, “Physical bullying is a serious
problem, affecting not only the bully and the victim, but also the other students who
witness the bullying. Parents, teachers, and other concerned adults and young people
should be aware of what physical bullying is and some of the ways to handle it.”
Physical bullying is the most obvious type of bullying that cause a lot of
damage to their victims, physically. Bullies use force and body strength to overpower
their victims. Most of this type occurs in and around the schools. Physical bullying
includes kicking, punching, hitting, and other physical attacks.
Bullying can start at any age. It is a form of aggressive behavior that involves
an imbalance of power manifested by the use of force. It is often a warning sign that
children and teens are heading for trouble and are at risk for serious violence. Teens,
particularly the boys who bully are likely to engage in other antisocial/delinquent
behavior like vandalism, shoplifting, truancy and drug use into adulthood. Bullies have
a strong need to dominate others and usually have little empathy for their targets. Male
bullies are often physically bigger and stronger than their peers. Bullies tend to get in
trouble more often, and do more poorly in school than teens who do not bully others.
They are also more likely to fight, drink and smoke than their peers.
Cyber Bullying. Bullying also can happen to people online this is called cyber
bullying. It is when a child or a teen bully on the internet using a computer or mobile
phones. Things like sending text messages or e-mail, posting sick pictures or messages
about the others in blogs or on websites, using another person‟s name to spread rumors
or lies about someone else, in other words, bullying happens everywhere.
Every day we hear about bullying, whether it is in the news, at school, or from
our friends. What has developed as a common thing among people of all ages was
having serious effects and caused tragedy for many people. Students go to school and
sometimes don‟t realize the harm they are causing to other people when they make
jokes about others‟ disabilities, culture or physical appearances. As technology
advances, so do other aspects of life, such as bullying. Now, bullying has spread into
cyberspace and can attack individuals through the internet. Personally, I believe
bullying will only continue to expand along with technology and find ways to harm
people by any means necessary. Although it is evident bullying never be fully
controlled, it can moderated and reduced by enforcing strict regulations against the
Emotional Bullying. "The saying, if sticks and stones will break my bones, but words
will never hurt me was ever true, it sure isn't true today" (Gaul, 2012). Bullying in and
out of schools is getting out of control. In today's world, bullying is nothing out of the
ordinary. Bullying is a worldwide epidemic, like a virus or cancer it picks and gnaws
into the bone of our youth. It leaves its victims tattered to the very soul. Students who
are bullied have lasting fears that their torment will continue to harass them. Various
reports and studies have established that approximately 15% of students are initiators of
bullying behavior (Olweus, 2011). However in our schools we have never been able to
see much harassment through physical or mental forms.
Emotional Bullying is any act including confinement, isolation, verbal assault,
humiliation, intimidation, infantilization, or any other treatment which may diminish
the sense of identity, dignity, and self-worth. (Tracy, 2012)
Emotional abuse is also known as psychological abuse or as "chronic verbal
aggression" by researchers. People who suffer from emotional abuse tend to have
very low self-esteem, show personality changes (such as becoming withdrawn) and
may even become depressed, anxious or suicidal.
Verbal Bullying. These are one of the more difficult types of bullies to identify since
their attacks tend to only occur when adults are not present. Even though verbal
bullying creates no physical damage, this type of abuse can have lasting psychological
impacts on victims.
Verbal bullies intimidate and harm their victims using words. This type of
bullying may go unnoticed and unreported for long periods of time. Occurs when some
uses language to gain power or his/her peers. Make use of relentless insults and teasing
to bully his/her peers.
Most people may think of physical bullying as the most damaging type of
bullying to a person; however, verbal bullying can be just as harmful as physical
bullying, if not worse. According to Fraser-Thrill, verbal bullying is when someone
uses language to gain power over his or her peers. The bully may use insults or teasing
to get his or her point across. (2005)
From time to time we are all likely to say something which is nasty and
abusive to our friends or our relatives. Usually when we realize that what we have said
is hurtful, we feel sorry for the hurt we have caused and apologize. Verbal abusers are
not likely to apologize, not because they don't realize that they have been hurtful, but
because that is their aim.
Verbal bullying is a type of bullying done by speaking. Calling names,
spreading rumors, threatening somebody, and making fun of others are all forms of
verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying. In verbal
bullying the main weapon the bully uses are their voice.
Bullying has many untold factors as to why people do it. Many students have
had some occasional bullying in any given school term. There are many reasons
possibilities as to why people bully. Most of the time it's because the victim is
differences why some might be bullied. Below are some of the differences why someone
might be bullied:
Someone’s appearance. (e.g. hair color or style, height). A person
might be bullied due to their physical appearance ,such as a clear
distinctive mark on their face, for example a birthmark or scars
Also the way people dress can make them stand out from others,
this can create a situation where the person dressing differently might be
Many people who experience this way have their self-esteem
slowly dwindled away as so does their ability to argue back as they will
often accept the remarks made about them.
Some people may out themselves off from the world as they see
themselves as outcasts or unwanted by people they known , when in fact it
is the opposite and they just need a little bit more love plus time to rebuild
their lives. (Clarke Alex and physical, c.2001)
There are many differences as we are all different in some shape or
form, this makes us unique and give no one the right to bully us for it. We
are all different t the end of the day.(Mccabe,Randi E.,Antony,Martin
M.,Summrfelat, Laura J., Liss , Andrea and swinson,Richard P.,2003)
Someone's race. Race often referent as „‟Racism”. The victim is a
different race or color to another person ; they may have a different religion
or culture to the bully. No one can choose the color they are born, it‟s the
way they are and the way they are meant to be. Neither should anyone feel
any less of a human jut because they are a different color, neither does this
give the right to bully someone.
Someone's religion. Religion bullying is when a victim is bullied due
to a religion they follow. For an example of someone is a Christian and
someone else isn‟t the Christian may be bullied because of this.
Someone's nationality. National bullying a person because they are of a
different nationality. In some cases it goes unnoticed bit in others it is frowned
upon with huge vigor.
In some countries like the UK for example, national bullying is
becoming a more common thing as more and more people from such countries as
Slovakia and Romania are moving to the UK for a better life.
But people would find it very hard but also slightly unwelcoming as they
will not be able to cope with pressure put on upon them. Victims of nationality
bullying are believed to be more likely to fail in their education as they will be
under too much stress to be able to cope with the pressure of exam and such like.
Someone's sexual orientation. Bullying someone due to their sexual
orientations often referred to as “HOMOPHOBIC BULLIYING” or
“HOMOPHOBIA” this is when a victim is bullied due to them being different ,
odd, or strange because they are Bi, gay, lesbian, or transgender. Just because
some aren‟t normal or straight does not give anyone the right to bully.
Someone being jealous. Someone may often turn to bullying if
they are jealous of someone being more clever or bright than themselves. It
can also be due to jealousy of the possessions people own or the person's
family background or social class.
Sexual Bullying. Sometimes schools and other places use one term or the other legal
reasons. For instance, a school document may use the term “Bullying” to describe
what‟s against school policy, while a law might use the term “Harassment” to define
what‟s against the law-same behavior might be against school policy and also against
With sexual bullying, the focus is on thins like a person‟s appearance, body
parts or sexual orientation. Includes spreading gossip or rumors of a sexual nature.
Maybe verbal (like making rude comments to or about someone), may we technology
to harass someone sexually (like sending inappropriate text messages or videos).
Sometimes harassment and bullying can even get physical.
Sexual bullying doesn‟t just happen to girls. Boys can harass girls, but girls
also can harass guys, guys can harass other guys, and girls may harass other girls. Isn‟t
limited to people of the same age, either. Adults sometimes sexually harass young
people (and occasionally, teens may harass adults, though that‟s pretty rare). Most of
the time, when sexual harassment happens to teens, it‟s being done by people in the
same age group.
Sexual harassment and sexual bullying are very similar – they both involve
unwelcome or unwanted sexual comments, attention, or physical contact. For the
person who is being targeted, though, it doesn‟t make much difference if something is
called bullying or harassment. This kind of behavior is upsetting no matter what it‟s
called. Like anyone who‟s being bullied, people who are sexually bullied or harassed
can feel a great deal of emotional stress if the situation continues without relief.
Both males and females are capable of carrying out a vicious attack such as bullying on
others. Some bullied only do it to uphold their reputation and look hard. Another reason would
be either set of a bully trying to maintain their superficial superiority.
Many bullies only bully others out of jealousy and many of the people who have been
bullied go on to do great things with their life, like some famous people is who have bullied.
Both bullies and victims feel more negative about school and persistent bullying may
lead to stress and depression in the year to march 2006 child line reported that bullying featured
in many calls from children talking about suicide. Bullying can lead to anxiety low self-esteem,
hopelessness, and isolation. Many callers to Childline say they are self harming. There are
effects on school work too. Children miss lessons or are too scared to attend school. They lose
concentration when they do attend.
Some of the effects last long after bullying until they are adults. HMI in one study
found adults who said that being a person who is present when another bullied has an effect on
the bystanders too. They feel compromised helpless and guilty. (Childline)
Children can be both bullies and victims and those adopting both roles are often the
ones with the most significant behavioral problems (Wolke, 2000). child line discovered that
15% of primary children surveyed and 12 % of secondary pupils had both bullied and been
bullied in the past year.
For the victims of bullying effects can be severe, large surveys of children and adults
all seem to suggest a number of serious effects of bullying . These include. Bullying has a
serious effect on school retention and further education students who are bullied tend to leave
school earlier and many early school leavers mention bullying as the main reasons they left.
Almost half of the victims say that bullying affected their plans for further education.
Bullying has serious emotional consequences. In a large survey carried out in Australia,
almost half of the young people surveyed said they had thought about committing suicide as a
result of bullying, and 20 % have actually attempted suicide, some more than once. This
compares with 0.07% of the non-bullied group who contemplated suicide and 0.03 % who
attempted it student who are bullied are also three times more likely to be at risk of suffering
People who are bullied are likely to have lower levels of self-esteem. Results of the
survey mentioned above show that one of the major effects of bullying is lower self-esteem.
Over 40% of children who have been bullied reported low self-esteem, compared with only 6 %
in the non-bullied group. The large majority of both boys and girls said they felt worse about
themselves after they had been bullied.
People who are bullied appear to have more difficulty making friends. One of the worst
effects of bullying is that victims of bullying find it harder to make friends. This is possibly
because they are different and peer pressure stops other children standing up for them. Because it
is so important for teenagers to feel they belong to a group they will not risk being isolated
because they stand up for the victims
People who are bullied as children are more likely to experience continued bullying in
adulthood one of the saddest effects of bullying as a child is that it quite often sets up a pattern
Almost 40% of people bullied as a child report later bullying in further education or at
work. On the other hand, almost two thirds of young people do not experience further bullying
after they leave school.
Increased levels of absenteeism. Students who are bullied are more likely to stay away
from school than those who feel safe in. This has obvious effects on their educational
achievements, on their ability to make friends, and on self-esteem.
Decreased ability to devise coping strategies both bullies and their victims have fewer
ways to cope with conflict and to solve problems than those not involved in bullying. The effects
of bullying may mean these young people never learn to cope as adults and they cannot form
long. Term relationships. In addition, bullies are much more likely to adopt aggressive solutions
to resolve conflict.
Academic performance. A recent Meta analysis of 33 studies concluded that students
who are bullied are more likely to earn lower grades and scores on standardized achievement
tests. This association is very rebutted across grade levels and samples. The few studies that have
exanimate the casual effects time indicate that peer victimization increases the risk of lower
achievement. Recent analysis further suggests that bullying can account for up to an average 1.5
letter gradual decrease in one academic subject (e.g., math) across the three years of middle
school. The connection between harassment and low academic achievement has also been
observed in school level data as reported in California healthy student research project (chsrp)
Brief NO.1 CHKS data shows that schools with high academic performance index
(API) scores had significant lower rates of harassment than schools with low API scores even
after adjusting for socioeconomic and other school characteristics. Depending on the grade level
examined, the number of students reporting rates of harassment was 22-23 percentage points
higher at schools in the bottom API quintile than it was at schools in the top API quintile
statistical modeling and other research on the mechanisms that explain this connection indicate
that bullying experiences are related to psychological or behavioral difficulties which in turn
negatively impacts students sense of safety and connectedness, attendance and academic
achievements. Studies have shown that emotional distress, somatic problems, depressive
symptoms, and poor academic engagement are in fact, part of the explanation for the connection
between experiencing harassment and academic difficulties. In one study, emotional problems
associated with being bullied compromised academic performance as early as elementary school
consistent with the research summarized above, students who have been harassed compared to
their peers who have not reported lower rates of school safety and connectedness and higher
rates of truancy. They are more likely to experience a wide range of psychological behavioral
and emotional problems, such as incapacitating sadness or hopelessness, that are barriers to
learning (CHKS factsheets 4 TO 10)
Emotional well being. A physical, social and emotional well-being of its victim. It also
hurts the children who bully, as well as those who watch it happen. In fact, bullying creates a
climate of fear callousness and disrespect for everyone involved. Bullying begins in the
preschool years, peaks in early adolescence, and continues, but with less frequency. Over the
past two decades, what we know about bullying who is involved, where, when, and why it
occurs, and situation that allows it to spread has increased tremendously. This knowledge has
helped researchers develop new and useful strategies that both children and adults can use to
intervene effectively and better yet prevent bullying before it ever occurs. Into the high school
years. But bullying does not have to a part of growing up.
Social well has shown that bullying can have had a long lasting effect on children well
into adulthood causing serious implications of their social developments. The effects are
damaging to both the aggressor and the victim leading to a never ending chain of bullying.
Although, some may think bullying is natural and even typical, many believe it is dangerous and
can cause serious health problems for children in their developmental stages. Putting a stop to
bullying is essential as and minimizes violence and crime. It is important to know that bully
needs help also, as he/she may be a victim as well. Furthermore, when a child is exposed to a
household where the parent displays very minimal maternal responses to the child and has signs
of depressions, chances weak attachment skills. This may prompt the child to lack social skills
which can later affect the way he/she interacts with their peers in a school setting. Onyshiw and
Hayduk (2001) have suggested that children who are exposed to such households will become
sadder, withdrawn, and anxious and depressed causing them to display more physical and verbal
aggression. This may very well be the beginning of a bully in the making for this reason it is a
necessary that the child seek intervention at an early stage, so that aggression among other peers
can be prevented. If children and adults are not made aware of different methods of prevention
bullying or intervention of bullying chances are that many of these children will grow up to
commit crimes and become violent criminals who have aggressive. Much of the reason that
children become bullies or are victims of bullies is due to repetition, unequal power
relationships and intentionally. It is the intention behind the act, rather than the act itself which is
important. It is possible that the bully‟s behavior may lead to crime, criminal violence, and other
types of aggressive to early intervention? In research conducted by culling ford and Morrison
(1995), young offenders who were incarcerated, were interviewed and used in this study to have
them identify situations in their childhood that contributed to their violent behaviors. Some of the
most interesting responses were about teachers who failed to see the sign of a child was
susceptive to being bullied some of these young offenders said things like they embarrass you.
Some teachers used to make me spell words on the board they knew I couldn‟t spell o didn‟t like
that (Culling ford and Morrison, 1195). Many of these prisoners felt that the teachers
discriminated against them proper social skills. This gave many of the bullies on opportunity to
prey of these vulnerable victims.
In conclusion, bullying has quickly become a major issue in today‟s workplace. There are many
ways or things to do to stop bullying many programs help to address the same protective and risk
factors that bullying programs do. The best way to address bullying is to stop it before it starts.
Bullying can threaten students‟ physical and emotional safety at school and can
negatively impact their ability to learn. Prevention of bullying though education and awareness is
possible and that all of us can play a role. We need to understand the issue of bullying more
deeply. We need to learn about what the world‟s best research is telling us. We need to be aware
of practical approaches, policies, programs and resources that are effective.
Being bullied is not a fun experience for anyone. By learning some of the facts
surrounding bullying, hopefully you will be better prepared to handle a situation that you might
be faced with. Just because you are not the victim of a bully doesn't mean that you are not
involved. If you see someone else bullying or someone being bullied you now have the tools to
help make some positive changes.
No matter what end of the bullying in the student, we need to make sure that all of us are
doing our part to prevent and stop this. Bullying is a serious matter, whether we like it or not. If
you do not think that you can handle the situation on your own, there is no harm in asking for
help. You can find help in a variety of places, even within your own family.
Some Ways that we can recommend to prevent Bullying
• Engage Parents and Youth
It is important for everyone in the community to work together to send a unified message against
bullying. Launch an awareness campaign to make the objectives known to the school, parents,
and community members.
Establish a school safety committee or task force to plan, implement, and evaluate your school's
bullying prevention program.
• Create Policies and Rules
Create a mission statement, code of conduct, school-wide rules, and a bullying reporting system.
These establish a climate in which bullying is not acceptable. Disseminate and communicate
• Build a Safe Environment
Establish a school culture of acceptance, tolerance and respect. Use staff meetings, assemblies,
class and parent meetings, newsletters to families, the school website, and the student handbook
to establish a positive climate at school. Reinforce positive social interactions and inclusiveness.
• Educate Students and School Staff
The build is bullying prevention material into the curriculum and school activities. Train teachers
and staff on the school‟s rules and policies. Give them the skills to intervene consistently and
Think carefully before you insult somebody, for who they really are, at least they‟re
open about it. Bullying behavior seems all over the world and almost in all sections of society. A
bully tries to attract the attention of others in a negative manner. That‟s why bullying is a serious
matter and should be dealt with. Our words have power so that we need to use them wisely. No
one deserves to feel worthless, so we need to prevent, or rather, stop bullying.
Altmann, J. 1980. Baboon Mothers and Infants, University of Chicago Press
Boehm, C. 1999. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge:
Harvard University Press
Clarke, Alex and Psychol, C. (2001) Managing the psychological aspects of altered
appearance: the development of an information resource for people with disfiguring
conditions. Patient Education and Counseling, 43(3), pp.307-311.
Cosmides, L & Tooby, J. 1990, Evolutionary Psychology A Primer
Fraser-Thrill, R. (2005). Verbal bullying definition what is verbal bullying
Lovegroove, Emily and Rumsey, Nichola. (2005) Ignoring It Doesn‟t Make It Stop:
Adolescents, Appearance, and Bullying.Cleft Palate-Craniofacia Journal, 42(1), pp.32-
McCabe, Randi E., Antony, Martin M., Summerfeldt, Laura J., Liss, Andrea & Swinson,
Richard P. (2003) Preliminary examination of the relationship between anxiety disorders
in adults and self-reported history of teasing or bullying experiences.Cognitive Behaviour
Therapy, 32(4), pp.187-194.
Milgram, S. 1974, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View, Harper
Nishida, T. 1996. The Death of Ntologi, The Unparalleled Leader of M Group. Pan African
News, Vol. 3, No. 1
Olweus, D. 1991. “Bully/victims problems among school children: Basic facts and effects of
a school-based intervention program”, (pp. 85-128) in K. Rubin and D. Pepler (Eds.), The
Development and Treatment of Childhood Aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Olweus, D. 1994. “Annotation: Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based
intervention program.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35: I171-1190.
Rigby, K. and P.T. Slee. 1991. “Bullying among Australian school children: Reported
behavior and attitudes toward victims.” The Journal of Social Psychology, 131 (5): 615-
Seyfarth, R. 1976, Social relationships among adult female baboons. Animal behavior 24,
Sharp, S. 1995. How much does bullying hurt? The effects of bullying on the personal well
being and educational progress of secondary age students. Educational and child
psychology, Vol 12 (Z), 81-88