Open source operating systems


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Expert Lecture delivered at K. K. Wagh Polytechnic, Nashik (INDIA)
Tushar B Kute (Asst. Professor, Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Nashik)

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Open source operating systems

  1. 1. Tushar B Kute, Assistant Professor, Sandip Institute of Technology & Research Centre, Nashik
  2. 2. <ul><li>First of all let us see what is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Computer programme or software is set of instructions to computer to work in a desired manner. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Instructions to computers are normally written by programmers in Programming Languages like – C, C++, Java etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These instructions are readable by humans and referred as Source Code . </li></ul><ul><li>To make machines i.e. computers to understand this source code – it either permanently translated (compiled) or on-the-fly translated (interpreted) into machine level codes. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>As normal software industry practice, only the final working machine readable version (Compiled Program) of the software is handed over to users. </li></ul><ul><li>The software works fine because machines don’t need source code. They only understand the compiled version. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the recipients or the users do not know how it works. </li></ul><ul><li>If any modification is required, the same can be done only by the producers who retain the source code. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Here original source code of the software is also given. </li></ul><ul><li>If required, the users can modify the source code and then compile the software to use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the source code is Open ed up. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Thus, Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is also available to the users. </li></ul><ul><li>They may read it, make changes, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is a non-profit corporation formed to educate about and advocate for the benefits of open source and to build bridges among different constituencies in the open-source community. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. </li></ul><ul><li>The promise of open source is better quality , higher reliability , more flexibility , lower cost , and an end to predatory vendor lock-in . </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Open source license doesn't just mean access to the source code – it has to meet other criteria as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The important issue is that the source code should available; there should be permission to modify the source code and further distribute it. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>1. Free Redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>2. Source Code </li></ul><ul><li>3. Derived Works </li></ul><ul><li>4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code </li></ul><ul><li>5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor </li></ul><ul><li>7. Distribution of License </li></ul><ul><li>8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product </li></ul><ul><li>9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software </li></ul><ul><li>10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Free software movement was launched in 1983. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, a splinter group of this movement advocated that the term “free” software should be replaced by “open source” software. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem with “Free” was that it implied “Zero Cost” and not the intended meaning “Freedom”. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>GNU GPL </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser GPL </li></ul><ul><li>BSD License </li></ul><ul><li>Mozilla Public License </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Public License </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Community Source License </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>The freedom to run the program, for any purpose ( freedom 0 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish ( freedom 1 ). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor ( freedom 2 ). </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits ( freedom 3 ). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Are they different? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source Software and Free Software for all practical purposes are same . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But “ Free ” here actually means Freedom not free of cost </li></ul><ul><li>“ Free User “ rather “Free Software ” </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Linux – an operating system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apache – widely used web-server software. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MySQL – widely relational database software that power most web-based applications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PERL – a scripting language. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHP – a widely used scripting language in dynamic websites. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OpenOffice – Office suit like Microsoft Office. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox – Internet browsing software like Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>Thunderbird – E-mail client. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audacity – is an open source tool to edit audio. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Songbird – is a media player. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIMP – is an Image Editor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GMMP – is a music player. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eclipse – An IDE for C / C++ / Java programming. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gambas – A visual programming language tool just same as V Basic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NASM - Netwide Assembler for assembly programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>    </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Operating system is the software that you use to operate your PC. If the operating system is platform dependent, platform information will belong in the hardware section. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Free Redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced dependence on software vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to customize </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of security </li></ul><ul><li>Use of System Resources </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Intended use </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial support </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Software compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>GPL License required. </li></ul><ul><li>All code, whether developed cooperatively or separately, licensed on the same terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of copyright law to restrict downstream “enclosure” . This is the distinction between open source and public domain software. </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>A very popular open source operating system that runs on a variety of hardware platforms . Linux is widely deployed as a server OS . </li></ul><ul><li>Linux is a multi-tasking, multiuser operating system. Although modified by numerous people. </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Ubuntu Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Fedora Linux </li></ul><ul><li>OpenSUSE Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Mandriva Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Linux Mint </li></ul><ul><li>Debian Linux </li></ul><ul><li>SlackWare Linux </li></ul>
  26. 29. Linux Windows Free of Cost Purchase License Fast Upgrading Slower Upgrading Backward Compatibility Forward Compatibility Multiuser Support Multiuser Support Difficult for Programmer Easy for Programmer
  27. 30. <ul><li>GCC – GNU C Compiler. </li></ul><ul><li>G++ - GNU C/C++ Compiler. </li></ul><ul><li>Eclispe – IDE for C/C++/Java programs. </li></ul><ul><li>GDB – GNU Debugger. </li></ul><ul><li>NASM – Nwtwide Assembler. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li> </li></ul>