World History Chapter 5: Classical Greece


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Notes taken from McDougal Littell's "World History"

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World History Chapter 5: Classical Greece

  1. 1. Geography effects Greek Traditions and Customs<br />Greece- Mountainous peninsula jutting out into Mediterranean sea.<br />Lived around the sea<br />Neighboring Seas were transportation routes connecting Greece to other societies since Greece lacked natural resources i.e. timber, metal, arable farmland<br />Rugged terrain & mountains-3/4 of Greece dividing it into independent communities<br />
  2. 2. Geography Effect on Social Life<br />Little farmland and fresh water- Not able to support a large population<br />Desire for more living space, grassland for livestock, farmland may have been factors which motivated Greeks to seek new sites for colonies<br />Varied Climate- 48-80 degrees- Supported outdoor life such as leisure time, outdoor events, dicussions.<br />
  3. 3. Mycenaean Civilization Developes<br />Indo-Europeans migrated form Eurasian steppes to Greek mainland later known as Mycenaeans.<br />Located in southern Greece surrounded by thick wall which could withstand almost any attack.<br />Warrior-king ruled surrounding villages, farms, and city-states such as Athens. <br />
  4. 4. Contact with Minoans<br />Through trade or war, Myc. Came into contact with Minoans who influenced them and thus:<br />Saw Value of seaborne trade<br />Adapted Minoan writing system to Greek language<br />Decorated vases with Minoan designs<br /><ul><li>Minoans formed the core of Greek religion, art, politics, literature.
  5. 5. Westerns Civilization has its roots in the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures</li></li></ul><li>Mycenaeans Fight The Trojan War<br />Myc, fight a 10-year war against Troy in Anatolia <br />Legend says Trojan prince captured Helen, wife of Greek King.<br />Historians originally thought these legends were fictional, however, excavations prove the Trojan War was one of the last Myc. Battle campaigns<br />Thus Myc. Civilization collapsed after the war<br />
  6. 6. Greek Culture Declines under the Dorians<br />Soon after Trojan War, sea raiders attacked and burned Myc. cities.<br />Soon, Dorians moved in- spoke dialect of Greek and may have been relatives of Bronze-Age Greeks<br />Dorian rule caused economy, trade, and writing to come to a standstill.<br />Thus little is known about these 400 years<br />
  7. 7. Epics of Homer<br />Oral tradition taught later Greeks during this time of illiteracy<br />Blind man named Homer composed epics such as the Iliad which forms backdrop of the Trojan War.<br />These give insight to Greek ideal of aretemeaning virtue and excellence<br />Through myths, Greeks explained mysteries of nature and human passions.<br />
  8. 8. Different forms of Government Emerge<br />City-state or polis was the political unit in Greece which included surrounding countryside<br />The agora or marketplace was on a fortified hilltop called an acropolis where citizens gathered to discuss politics<br />Monarchy: Single person ruled government<br />Aristocracy: inherited rule by small group of noble, land-owning families<br />Oligarchy: ruled by few powerful/military people<br />Tyrants: Nobles/ wealthy citizens seized control by appealing to citizens. Worked for interest of ordinary people<br />
  9. 9. Athens Builds Limited Democracy<br />Athenian reformers moved toward democracy, rule by the people. Citizens participated directly in political decision making.<br />Draco- <br />developed legal code based on idea that all people were under equal law regardless of wealth. <br />Upheld debt slavery <br />dealt harshly with criminals making death a common punishment.<br />
  10. 10. Contributors to First Steps of Democracy<br />Solon- <br />Outlawed debt slavery<br />organized citizens according to wealth. <br />Only top 3 classes could hold political office but all could participate in assembly. <br />Introduced concept that all citizens could bring charges against wrongdoers.<br />Cleisthenes- <br />Organized citizens into 10 groups based on location instead of wealth. <br />Increased power of assembly by allowing citizens to submit laws for debate.<br /> Created Council of 500 which proposed laws and counseled assembly. Members were chosen by random. <br />Reforms allowed Athenians to participate in limited democracy<br />
  11. 11. Athenian Education<br />Only sons of wealthy families received education starting at 7 years old to prepare them to be good citizens<br />Studied grammar, poetry, history, math, music, public speaking, and logic training, and spent part of the day on athletics<br />Girls stayed at home to learn how to be good wives and mothers. Some were able to read and write<br />Had very little to do with life outside the home<br />
  12. 12. Sparta Builds A Military State<br />In southern Greek known as Peloponnesus, Sparta was cut off from the Greek world by the Gulf or Corinth<br />Conquered neighboring Messenians who became helots, peasants forced to stay on the land they worked.<br />Messenian revolt shocked the Spartans when they realized their vulnerability and decided change into a strong city-state.<br />
  13. 13. Government and Daily Life<br />Government<br />Council Elders proposed laws which assembly voted on<br />2 Kings ruled over military<br />Oligarchy<br />Daily Life centered around military training<br />Individuality discouraged<br />Did not value arts<br />Valued duty and discipline<br />Girls receives some military training <br />Were allowed to run family estates while men were at war<br />
  14. 14. Persian Wars<br />Phalanx invented- foot soldiers or hoplites stood side by side holding a spear and shield <br />In 490 B.C. Greeks defeated Persians <br />Pheidippides ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to deliver message of Persian defeat and then died<br />Persians retreated when they found Athens heavily defended<br />10 years later, Darius’ son Xerxes went to Thermoplyae to fight 300 Spartans and 7000 Greeks. The Spartans sacrificed themselves for Greek forces to retreat <br />
  15. 15. Persian Wars 2<br />Themistocles, an Athenian leader convinces Athens to evacuate and fight at sea near the island of Salamis. <br />Greeks destroyed 1/3 of Persian fleet<br />Battle of Plateau- Greeks again defeated Persians<br />Delian League was formed a year later from city-stae alliances. They drove Persians from surrounding territories in Greece and ended threats of future attacks.<br />
  16. 16. Pericles Brings Greece’s Golden Age<br />Pericles- wise and able statesman who had 3 goals:<br />Strengthen Athenian Democracy<br />Hold & Strengthen the empire<br />Glorify Athens<br /><ul><li>Strengthen Democracy
  17. 17. Increased number of public officials who were paid- poor could serve
  18. 18. Introduces Direct Democracy
  19. 19. Athenian Empire
  20. 20. Formed Delian League- used $ from treasury to make Navy strongest in Mediterranean
  21. 21. Glorify Athens
  22. 22. Used treasury money to beautify Athens.</li></li></ul><li>Art and Architecture<br />The Parthenon- temple built to honor Athena built by Phidias. Contained a huge statue of Athena<br />Sculptors captured serene expressions and human body in motion.<br />Values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became the standard for classical art.<br />
  23. 23. Drama<br />2 kinds, Tragedy and Comedy<br />Aeschylus: was a famous writer who wrote Orestria which examines the idea of justice<br />Sophicles: wrote Oedipus the King<br />Euripedes: wrote Medea and included strong women.<br />Comedy showed the freedom and openness of public discussion that existed in democratic Athens<br />Aristophanes: wrote first great comedies<br />
  24. 24. History<br />Herodotus: pioneered accurate reporting of events and first considered work of history anout Persian Wars<br />Thucydides studied past events to aid in the understanding of the present.<br />
  25. 25. Peleponnesian War Ends Golden Age<br />Athens had stronger navy while Sparta had stronger army<br />Sparta burned Athens<br />Pericles responded by bringing residents into city walls<br />However, the plague struck and Pericles died<br />War continues for year but eventually lead to a truce<br />Soon after, Sparta destroyed Athens they surrendered<br />
  26. 26. Philosophers Question Tradition<br />War caused Athenians to lose confidence in democratic government and they begin to question their values<br />Greek Philosophers base their thinking on:<br />The Universe is put in an orderly way and subject to unchanging laws<br />People can understand these laws through logic and reason<br />Sophists were people who questioned traditional ideas<br />Protagoras: Questioned existence of Greek Gods and said there was no universal standard of truth<br />
  27. 27. Philosophers<br />Socrates<br />Said “the unexamined life is not worth living”<br />Brought to trial for corrupting the youth and neglecting the city’s gods. <br />Plato<br />Student of Socrates<br />Wrote The Republic about an ideal society<br />Aristotle<br />Invented scientific method and taught Alexander the Great<br />Applied his beliefs in various fields <br />
  28. 28. Alexander and Mycedonia<br />Macedonians- lived in rough mountains north of greece<br />King Philip 2nd transformed peasants to an army<br />Mac. Defeated Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea despite Demosthenes warnings<br />After Philips murder, Alexander took over<br />
  29. 29. Alexander<br />Favorite book was the Iliad<br />When the city of Thebes tried to rebel, Alexander destroyed the city and thus city-states gave up the idea of rebellion<br />His victory at Granicus against Persian forces scared Darius the 3rd <br />The following battle gave Alex the power over Anatolia<br />After rejecting Darius’ peace offering, Alex marched to Egypt where he was crowned pharaoh and named liberator and founded Alexandria at the mouth of the Nile<br />Alex’s victory at Gaugamela ended Persian power<br />
  30. 30. Alexander’s conquest ends <br />Led his army to Indus Valley but exhausted, the army begged to turn back<br />After Alexander died of illness, his henerals fought over control and eventually the kingdom was split into its original, separate regions <br />
  31. 31. The result of Greek and Eastern Blending<br />The Hellenistic Culture- blending of Persian, Egyptian, and Indian influences<br />The Koine language helped the diverse backgrounds to communicate<br />Alexandria- foremost city of commerce<br />Contained Alexander&apos;s tomb, library, art galleries, a zoo, gardens etc.<br />