U-Cast/ Hanging Cast
Indication: # Shaft Humerus
U-slab: It is a U-shaped slab. This type of slab is used
along with the triangular sling. The U-slab can be
removed within 6-8 weeks when the Fracture is united.
Hanging cast: The hanging cast is used if there is a Fracture in the lower-third of the
Humerus. The weight of the limb and the cast provides sufficient traction so that the
Fracture gets aligned
Russell’s Skin Traction
Indication: #Femur # Leg
Bryant's Skin Traction
Indication: # Femur
Congenital Hip Abnomalities
Modified overhead skin traction
Indication: # Shaft Femur
Given in <2 yrs age/ <12kg Body Weight
Gallows traction (overhead Bryant skin traction) is useful for children
younger than 2 years who weigh 10-12 kg for Fracture shaft of femur. The
traction should be enough to just lift the buttocks of the child off the bed.
Careful examination of the neurovascular status of the extremity is
mandatory in the early period.
Older children have a risk of compartment syndrome , vascular
insufficiency, peroneal nerve palsy, and skin breakdown when treated with
It is an extremely destructive arthropathy of the elderly,
characterized by intraarticular or periarticular hydroxyapatite
crystals and rapid destruction of the rotator cuff and the
See this case that appeared in NEJM, that of an 85 year old
lady.Panel A was the X-ray finding at initial presentation when
she presented with right shoulder pain & hematoma. Arthocentesis
yielded a hemorrhagic non-inflammatory fluid..Culture was
negative and no evidence of malignancy on cytological analysis.
Alizarin red staining of the synovial fluid yielded hydroxyapatitie
crystals.See Panel B for X-ray taken after 3 months showing
complete destruction of the humeral head
Gamekeeper's thumb, osteoarthritis, de Quervain's syndrome, scaphoid fracture, thumb sprains, post-operative use, and post-removal of casting of the hand/thumb.
A hip spica cast is a sort of orthopedic cast used to immobilize the hip or thigh. It is used to facilitate healing of injured hip joints or of fractured femurs. A hip spica includes the trunk of the body and one or both legs. A hip spica which covers only one leg to the ankle or foot may be referred to as a single hip spica, while one which covers both legs is called a double hip spica. Aone-and-a-half hip spica encases one leg to the ankle or foot and the other to just above the knee.
The extent to which the hip spica covers the trunk depends greatly on the injury and the surgeon; the spica may extend only to the navel, allowing mobility of the spine and the possibility of walking with the aid of crutches, or may extend to the rib cage or even to the armpits in some rare cases. Hip spicas were formerly common in reducing femoral fractures, but today are rarely used except for congenital hip dislocations, and then mostly while the child is still an infant. In some cases, a hip spica may only extend down one or more legs to above the knee. Such casts, called pantaloon casts, are occasionally seen to immobilize an injured lumbar spine or pelvis, in which case the trunk portion of the cast usually extends to the armpits.
Bryant's traction is a form of orthopedic traction. It is mainly used in young children who have fractures of the femur or congenital abnormalities of the hip. Both the patient's limbs are suspended in the air vertically at a ninety degree angle from the hips and knees slightly flexed.