5 4 the power of kings


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5 4 the power of kings

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Europe in the Middle Ages Section 4: The Power of Kings
  2. 2. Vocabulary <ul><li>Nation : A community of people that shares territory and a government </li></ul><ul><li>Martyr : A person who sacrifices something of great value and especially life itself for the sake of a principle </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Power of Nobles <ul><li>Under Feudalism, the nobles held much power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was not uncommon for a noble to have more land, vassals, and knights than his king </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. European Feudalism King Nobles Knights Peasants
  5. 5. The Division of Land
  6. 6. The Decline of Feudalism <ul><li>The growth of towns and the middle class helped lead to the decline of feudalism </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Kings supported and defended towns in exchange for money </li></ul></ul>The Decline of Feudalism Continued
  8. 8. The Decline of Feudalism Continued <ul><ul><li>Kings used this money to attack troublesome nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Crusades weakened the power of the nobles as well </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Birth of Nations <ul><li>With the decline of feudalism and the nobles, kings became more powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings controlled more land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These kingdoms slowly became nations </li></ul>
  10. 10. Early Nations of Europe Map Page 117
  11. 11. Changes in England <ul><li>In 1066, a noble from Normandy , France invaded England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His name was William the Conqueror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William defeated the British at The Battle of Hastings and conquered England </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Battle of Hastings
  13. 13. Changes in England Continued <ul><li>William became a very strong King of England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His successors were strong as well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of his successors, King John , tried to take too much power </li></ul>
  14. 14. Changes in England Continued <ul><ul><li>He taxed people too heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He jailed his enemies unjustly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He argued with the pope over the appointment of bishops </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The pope excommunicated King John </li></ul><ul><li>In 1215 the nobles demanded a meeting with King John at Runnymede , England </li></ul><ul><li>They forced him to sign the Magna Carta </li></ul>The Magna Carta
  16. 16. The Magna Carta Continued <ul><li>Magna Carta = “Great Charter” </li></ul><ul><li>It limited the kings power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>King could no longer tax without permission from the Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King could no longer jail any free man without just cause </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Hundred Years War <ul><li>Was a war between the two new nations of England and France </li></ul><ul><li>This war lasted from 1337-1453 </li></ul><ul><li>Both countries wanted control of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Hundred Years War
  19. 19. The Hundred Years War <ul><li>England won most of the battles </li></ul>Continued
  20. 20. The Hundred Years War Continued <ul><li>But France would not give in </li></ul>
  21. 21. Joan of Arc <ul><li>A young peasant girl named Joan of Arc was put in charge of French forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She won The Battle of Orleans </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Joan of Arc Continued <ul><ul><li>Joan also won many other battles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>She was taken captive by English forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The English put her on trial as a witch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They burned her at the stake </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Joan of Arc Continued <ul><li>Joan continued to inspire the French forces as a martyr </li></ul><ul><li>In the end, the French chased the English out and won the 100 Years War </li></ul>
  24. 24. Results of the War <ul><li>New weapons such as the longbow and the cannon, made knights less important </li></ul>
  25. 25. The English Longbow
  26. 26. Cannon make Castles Obsolete
  27. 27. Results of the War Continued <ul><li>People on both sides begin to think of themselves as citizens of their nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings gained power in this way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The war set the modern boundaries of England and France </li></ul>