HISTORY Edward, the Confessor, dies 1066 William of Normandy (the Conqueror) claims Edward promised him the throne Saxon council chose Harold II as king Norman invasion (Battle of Hastings) – Harold is killed, William claims throne
William suppressed Anglo/Saxon nobility and claimed land Business now conducted in French or Latin This threatened the continuation of English developing into a language
Feudalism Feudal system – exchange of property for personal services King owned the land – parceled it out to supporters (Lords) Lords further subdivided to Barons who supplied tax money and knights
Knights in return for services received smaller land parcels called manors. Peasants (serfs) worked the manors.
PLANTAGENETS Norman rule ended in 1154 when Henry Plantagenet comes to the throne (Henry II) Henry appoints Thomas Beckett Archbishop of Canterbury Beckett defies the King and appeals to the Pope who sided with Beckett— angers the King
Henry’s knights misunderstand his anger and murder Beckett in 1170 Henry condemned the crime by making a pilgrimage, a holy journey, to Beckett’s shrine in Canterbury
MAGNA CARTA Next king, Richard I, spend time and money in overseas military expeditions. King John inherited the debts and tries to raise money by taxing barons. Barons resist and John signs the Magna Carta in 1215 (no tax without meeting with Barons Beginning of constitutional government.
Black Death Trade expanded, formation of guilds and apprenticeships— London flourishes Plague swept England in 1348 and 1349—closer living conditions (unsanitary). Led to labor shortage—peasants were now paid. Feudalism starts to fade away.
Literature Lyric poetry – now either secular (love and nature), or religious Ballad – folk song or story, i.e., Robin Hood. Drama – church used this format to get people to listen to Bible stories. Morality play – depicted the life of an ordinary man and taught a moral lesson.
Canterbury Tales Written by Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Series of stories told by pilgrims journeying to shrine of St. Thomas a’ Beckett.
Printing Press Johann Guttenburg, German, invented movable type in 1454 Came to England in 1476 Literature and specifically the Bible now widespread. Canterbury Tales one of first pieces of lit copied on press.