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The medieval period notes


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The medieval period notes

  1. 1. The Medieval Period1066 - 1485
  2. 2. HISTORY Edward, the Confessor, dies 1066 William of Normandy (the Conqueror) claims Edward promised him the throne Saxon council chose Harold II as king Norman invasion (Battle of Hastings) – Harold is killed, William claims throne
  3. 3.  William suppressed Anglo/Saxon nobility and claimed land Business now conducted in French or Latin This threatened the continuation of English developing into a language
  4. 4. Feudalism Feudal system – exchange of property for personal services King owned the land – parceled it out to supporters (Lords) Lords further subdivided to Barons who supplied tax money and knights
  5. 5.  Knights in return for services received smaller land parcels called manors. Peasants (serfs) worked the manors.
  6. 6. PLANTAGENETS Norman rule ended in 1154 when Henry Plantagenet comes to the throne (Henry II) Henry appoints Thomas Beckett Archbishop of Canterbury Beckett defies the King and appeals to the Pope who sided with Beckett— angers the King
  7. 7.  Henry’s knights misunderstand his anger and murder Beckett in 1170 Henry condemned the crime by making a pilgrimage, a holy journey, to Beckett’s shrine in Canterbury
  8. 8. MAGNA CARTA Next king, Richard I, spend time and money in overseas military expeditions. King John inherited the debts and tries to raise money by taxing barons. Barons resist and John signs the Magna Carta in 1215 (no tax without meeting with Barons Beginning of constitutional government.
  9. 9. Black Death Trade expanded, formation of guilds and apprenticeships— London flourishes Plague swept England in 1348 and 1349—closer living conditions (unsanitary). Led to labor shortage—peasants were now paid. Feudalism starts to fade away.
  10. 10. Literature Lyric poetry – now either secular (love and nature), or religious Ballad – folk song or story, i.e., Robin Hood. Drama – church used this format to get people to listen to Bible stories. Morality play – depicted the life of an ordinary man and taught a moral lesson.
  11. 11. Canterbury Tales Written by Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400) Series of stories told by pilgrims journeying to shrine of St. Thomas a’ Beckett.
  12. 12. Printing Press Johann Guttenburg, German, invented movable type in 1454 Came to England in 1476 Literature and specifically the Bible now widespread. Canterbury Tales one of first pieces of lit copied on press.