When the empire fell, the Germanic people that had previouslybeen hovering on the borders moved in to settled land formerly ruled by Rome... They brought their CULTURE and VALUES.
The Angles were a Germanic tribe from modern day northern Germany. They travelled to and conquered lands in the modern day United Kingdom. The Saxons were a Germanic tribe from modern day northwestern Germany. They travelled to Angles and conquered lands in the modern day United Kingdom.Saxons
The Franks were a Germanic tribe from modern day southwestern Germany. They travelled to and conquered lands in modern day France, and their descendants became the kingdom of the French.Franks
The Magyars were a tribe from western Asia,probably modern day Mongolia/Kazakhstan.. MagyarsThey travelled to and conquered lands in modernday Hungary/Romania, and their descendants became the kingdom of Hungary.
Vikings The Vikings were Norse, a people from Scandanavia, in modern day Norway/Sweden. They travelled to and conquered lands all over Europe, but eventually some of them settled inNormans Normandy (as Normans) in modern day France.
The Vikings were Norse, a people from Scandanavia, in modern day Norway/Sweden. They travelled to and conquered lands all over Europe, but eventually some of them settled inNormans Normandy (as Normans) in modern day France. Normandy in modern day France. The Normans were a people of Norse descent that settled in France and adopted French culture. They travelled to and conquered lands in modern day United Kingdom in 1066, becoming the reigning monarchs of England.
The Angles were a Germanic The Vikings were Norse, a people fromtribe from modern day northern Scandanavia, in modern day Norway/Sweden.Germany. They travelled to and They travelled to and conquered lands all over Magyars conquered lands in the modern Europe, but eventually some of them settled in day United Kingdom. Normandy (as Normans) in modern day France. Vikings Angles The Magyars were a tribe Saxons from western Asia, probably modern day Mongolia/ Kazakhstan.. They travelledNormans Franks to and conquered lands in modern day Hungary/ Romania, and their descendants became the kingdom of Hungary. The Normans were a people of Norse descent that settled in The Saxons were a Germanic The Franks were a Germanic tribe from modern day France and adopted French tribe from modern day northwestern Germany. They culture. They travelled to and southeastern Germany. They travelled to and conquered lands conquered lands in modern day travelled to and conquered lands in the modern day United United Kingdom in 1066, becoming in modern day France, and their Kingdom.the reigning monarchs of England. descendants became the kingdom of the French.
When talking about the Early Middle Ages,it is important to remember a few things: •the major structure/government (ROME) that had been around for a long time has just fallen... •there are no distinct countries... •there are lots of different groups of people vying for power...
1 The Middle Ages period refers to 500-1500AD. From:the fall of the WesternRoman Empire in 476AD To: the fall of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire in 1453AD.
Magyars Vikings Angles SaxonsNormans Franks 2 Lots of tribes were moving around Europe, trying to get power.
N FROM northern Germany. Angles WENT TO/CONQUERED the UK. Saxons FROM northwestern Germany. WENT TO/CONQUERED the UK.Franks FROM southeastern Germany. WENT TO/CONQUERED FRANCE. Where in Europe did the Germanic tribes come from?
Q: When any group moves, what does the group bring with it? Angles Saxons Franks A: The y brinCultu g thei r r e & VA LU ES
The Germanic tribes very highly3 valued personal ties. Warriors would gladly die for someone they knew and respected, they wouldn’t obey a king they hadn’t even met.
During the Roman Empire, all power came from one centralized place. Centralized Government: A government which controls all aspect from one central location.
during Rome, personal ties was not the ﬁrst priority.
Because of the value of personal4 ties, centralized government would no longer work in Europe. A new government system had to be established: FEUDALISM.VALUE OF PERSONAL TIES + SIZE OF EUROPE = CENTRALIZED GOV’T WON’T WORK
The Feudal system was the social,5 economic & political government system of the Middle Ages.
In the Middle Ages,there were two typesof people with power: & Leaders in the Church Warriors with military strength
Warriors conquered landsusing their military strength. Warriors became Kings in name through agreements with and appointments by the Church. “If you name me king, then my armies will protect you/ “Sounds conquer lands in your good.” name/go on crusade/etc” “I solemnly make you KING of [insert territory] in the name of GOD.” “I swear to “K.” protect you.”
Warriors or Kingstook control of lands using strength.But then they had to rule them. Remember personal ties? They were still important.
Feudalism was a system of government that developed over time as a result of: 1. Vast Territory to Rule 2. Value of Personal Ties
Feudalism was: 3. Economic 1. Political 2. Social
Vast territory.Would it be possible for aKing to know everyone inthis territory personally?How do you rule that vast a territory if you value personal ties?
You cut it up...and delegate power of each piece to a vassal in return for taxes and military service...
Each lord, in turn... Who is strongest?cuts up his land & distributes a piece to a knight(vassal) in return for service & taxes...
Each knight has to ﬁght...so he needs to get people to work the land. Enter peasants and serfs, who live on and work the land in exchange for protection from the knight and basic human needs.
Feudalism was a system of exchanges... Place to Place to Place to Rule bankroll Live & Work Land Land Land in in King Lord Knight Peasant exchange in exchange exchange for... for... for... $ &wr $ ok $ &wr $ ok $ &wr $ ok Taxes Taxes Taxes & & & Knights Service Labor
Though kings were gaining land, wealth & inﬂuence during the Middle Ages,6Christianity became the major power in Europe. Christianity spread in three major ways: Powerful People Proselytism Education
Clovis was a Frankish leader. Powerful People His wife Clothilde Clovis was polytheistic was Christian. (like most of the Franks).
He and 3,000 of his men were baptized shortly after.
Missionaries.People traveled the empire spreading the word and tryingto convert others to the new religion. ely tism Pros Monasteries & Convents. Educa tion The homes of monks and nuns, these religious communities became Europe’s most educated communities. Monks opened schools, maintained libraries, and copied books. papacy: the authority/office of the pope secular: no religious basis/connectionproselytize: getting other people to believe what you believe
And also, life was lacking for many.Christianity is about COMPASSION.Life was hard. People needed something to put faith in. The idea thatthis world wasn’t it... that there was something after this life to lookforward to...in short, people loved the idea.Add to this, the lack of learning at the time:Most people couldn’t read or write. Priests did the interpreting ofreligion for them, explaining exactly what they had to do to be saved.People wanted salvation. This opened up opportunities for the Churchto become rich and powerful.
Though kings were gaining land, wealth & inﬂuence7 during the Middle Ages, Christianity became the major power in Europe... People began to think of the new European nations as a Christian Empire.
The new Christian Empire fought with 8 other religious empires. 732 AD: Battle of ToursCharles the Hammer defeats a Muslim raiding party from Spain.
751 AD: Battle of TalasAs the territory of Islam had been growing east, for some time, the Tang Empire of China had steadily been expanding west. The t wo empires came to blows at the Talas River in modern day Kyrgyzstan.
other religions, meanwhile, were spreading to a variety of places.IslamBuddhismHinduism
OrthodoxShi’a Reform ✡ ✡ Roman Catholic☪ Protestant ✝ Conservative early ✝ ✡ 1850s 1800sCE 1517CE Eastern Orthodox ✝ CE Sunni ☪ 1054CE Mohammed 640CE ☪ ✝ 32CE Jesus Christ ✡ 1300BCE Moses Ishmael Isaac let’s consider 1800BCE Abraham some history... ✡
A bit about Islam... • Mohammad received his ﬁrst revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610 AD. •622 AD : Mohammed ﬂees Mecca for Medina. • Mohammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an after his Medina death. Mecca
Islam grew & spread quickly. Like Christianity, Islam had a many things that people liked: •Easy to learn and practice •No priesthood - personal relationship with God •Taught equality •Easily portable - easy for nomads and those on the trade routes to practice Also like Christianity: •followersof Islam practice proselytism
A few more things about Islam... An Abrahamic tradition, it has many similarities: •Strict monotheists •Believein the Judeo-Christian God, who they call Allah •Believethat the Torah and the Bible are also the word of God, and that Jesus and Moses were also prophets... But that the Qu’ran is the truest form of the word of God and Mohammed his true prophet
In Europe, the Church gradually became the political body that appointed kings.
Charles the Hammer wasn’t a king, but his son PEPIN wanted to be.
So he made a deal. Power in Europe became a give and take between the Church and Kings. He agreed to go to war with his army in the name of thechurch, fighting against their enemies... ...and the pope named Pepin king.
Middle Ages KEY POINT #4IN THE MIDDLE AGES, POWER WAS SHARED (AND OFTEN FOUGHT OVER) BY SECULAR KINGS AND THE RELIGIOUS CHURCH. KINGS HAD A LOT OF POWER,BUT AFTER ALL, THE CHURCH WAS THE ONE THAT MADE THEM KINGS IN THE FIRST PLACE.
Frankish Kingdom Rome The Byzantine Empire When Pepin died, he left a strengthened kingdom to his two sons, Carloman and Charles. Carloman died, Charles took the kingdom. We know him today as CHARLEMAGNE or Charles the Great.
Charlemagne’s Kingdom Rome The Byzantine Empire
Charlemagne impressed the church even more than his father...HE... fought the Muslims in Spain conquered new lands to the east and south expanded the Empire to the point that it was larger than the Byzantine empire united Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire AND SPREAD CHRISTIANITY THROUGHOUT.
Charlemagne’s Kingdom Rome The Byzantine Empire
And so the Church appointed him HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR,.. Effectively uniting the political and religious rule of Europe.