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3 1 south america and the incas


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3 1 south america and the incas

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 : Early Civilizations of the Americas SECTION 1 : South America and the Incas
  2. 2. VOCABULARY <ul><li>Census : An official count of people in a certain place at a certain time </li></ul><ul><li>Gorge : A narrow pass between steep cliffs or walls </li></ul><ul><li>Terraces : Steplike ledges cut into mountains to make land suitable for farming </li></ul>
  3. 3. GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH AMERICA <ul><li>The Andes Mountain Range stretches along the west coast (Map Page 63) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold weather from high altitude </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Continued <ul><li>The Amazon River flows from west to east across South America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second longest river in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forest region </li></ul></ul>GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH AMERICA
  5. 5. Maps of South America
  6. 6. <ul><li>Equator cuts across the northern part of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is warmer in the north and colder in the south </li></ul>GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH AMERICA Continued
  7. 7. Maps of South America
  8. 8. THE START OF THE INCA EMPIRE <ul><li>Around 1200 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Inca people lived in the Andes Mts. </li></ul><ul><li>Incas settled in a city they called Cuzco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuzco = center </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. THE START OF THE INCA EMPIRE <ul><li>The Inca grew strong and conquered neighboring peoples </li></ul><ul><li>By 1400, the Incas controled a vast empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,500 miles long </li></ul></ul>Continued
  10. 10. The Inca Empire
  11. 11. INCA GOVERNMENT <ul><li>The Inca emperor was called the Sapa Inca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People believed he was related to the sun-god </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. INCA GOVERNMENT Continued <ul><li>Under the Sapa Inca were the nobles </li></ul><ul><li>The nobles oversaw government officials who made sure the empire ran smoothly </li></ul>
  13. 13. INCA GOVERNMENT Continued <ul><li>Officials used a census to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure everyone paid taxes </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. INCA GOVERNMENT Continued <ul><ul><li>Record what work the men did </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warrior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold mining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building roads or cities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. INCA GOVERNMENT Continued <ul><li>In return, the government took care of the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. INCA COMMUNICATION <ul><li>The Inca spoke Quechua </li></ul><ul><li>They did not have a written language </li></ul><ul><li>The Inca used groups of knotted strings called quipu to record information on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Births & deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvests & taxes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Inca Quipu
  18. 18. INCA COMMUNICATION Continued <ul><li>An impressive road system was built </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paved with stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut along the cliffs </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. INCA COMMUNICATION Continued <ul><ul><li>Inca bridges were built to cross gorges </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. INCA COMMUNICATION Continued <ul><li>The Inca had no horses or cattle </li></ul><ul><li>They did not invent the wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, the Inca used llamas to help them carry heavy loads </li></ul>
  21. 22. INCA BUILDINGS <ul><li>The Inca used stones to build great palaces and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Their stonework is considered to be some of the best ever </li></ul>
  22. 23. Inca Stonework
  23. 24. INCA BUILDINGS Continued <ul><li>The famous “lost city” of Machu Picchu is the best example of this </li></ul>
  24. 25. INCA FARMING <ul><li>They used terraces so they could farm on the sides of the mountains </li></ul>
  25. 26. INCA FARMING Continued <ul><li>Built complex irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Were the first to grow the potato </li></ul>