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2 late colonies-to_jackson-2


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2 late colonies-to_jackson-2

  3. 3. In 1754 thecolonistsconsideredthemselves English
  4. 4. ALBANY PLAN OF UNIONIn 1754,representatives fromseven colonies metin Albany
  5. 5. Developed byBenjaminFranklin
  6. 6. Provided for an inter-colonial governmentand a system forcollecting taxes for thecolonies defense
  7. 7. Efforts to unitethe colonies metwith less successthan he hoped
  8. 8. Produced“Join or Die” cartoon and flag
  9. 9. THE SEVEN YEARS WAR(1754-1763)
  10. 10. Lastedten years
  11. 11. also called the Frenchand Indian WarThey fought on SAME side
  12. 12. Colonists were expandingwestward – Frenchwanted to protect furtradeFrench tried to stopthem by buildingfortified outposts
  13. 13. George Washingtonattacked a Frenchoutpost and lost badlyAllowed to return toVirginia, he waswelcomed as a hero!!
  14. 14. When the war wasover, England wasthe undisputedcolonial power ofthe continent
  15. 15. Many Americansserved in the EnglisharmyEnglish did not makea good impression!
  16. 16. Sowed the first seeds of anti-British sentiment in thecoloniesIndians particularlydisliked the English
  17. 17. English raised the price ofgoods sold to the IndiansPontiac rallied a groupof tribes in the OhioValley and attackedcolonial outposts
  18. 18. British governmentissued the Proclamationof 1763 forbiddingsettlement west of therivers running throughthe Appalachians
  19. 19. Settlers had alreadymoved west of theline.The proclamationagitated them
  21. 21. Coloniestradition of self-taxation wasbeing usurped
  22. 22. Stamp Act affected agroup that wasliterate, persuasive,and argumentative-namely, lawyers
  23. 23. James Otis wroteThe Rights of theBritish ColoniesAsserted and Proved
  24. 24. Otis put forwardthe "No taxationwithoutrepresentation"argument
  25. 25. Otis did not advocate secession
  26. 26. Patrick Henrydrafted the VirginiaStamp ActResolves, protestingthe tax
  28. 28. Taxed goods importeddirectly from BritainSome of the tax collectedwas set aside for the theBritish army
  29. 29. Patriots weremostly whiteProtestantproperty holders
  31. 31. The rebels were stilllooking for themasterpiece ofpropaganda thatwould rally colonists
  32. 32. Guess whocomes on thescene ….
  33. 33. They got itin CommonSense
  34. 34. In a nation of 2million, most of whomcouldnt read, it soldmore than 100,000copies in its first threemonths
  35. 35. (about the same as selling 13million compact discs today).
  36. 36. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence
  37. 37. With thedocuments signingon July 4, 1776, theRevolutionary War officially began.
  38. 38. Continental Army (as opposedto local militias) had troublerecruiting good soldiersRecruited blacks, and up to 5,000fought on the side of the rebels (inreturn, most of those who had beenslaves were granted their freedom)
  39. 39. Franco-AmericanAlliance
  40. 40. Helped the colonistsconsiderably.Ultimately, thecolonists won a warof attrition
  41. 41. The Treaty of Paris,signed at the end of 1782,granted the United Statesindependence andgenerous territorialrights.
  44. 44. As soon as the Declaration of Independence wassigned, states began writing their own constitutions
  45. 45. In 1777 the ContinentalCongress sent the Articlesof Confederation, the firstnational constitution, tothe colonies forratification
  46. 46. FLAWS
  47. 47. It did not give thenationalgovernment thepower to tax or toregulate trade
  48. 48. Amendments to thearticles required theunanimous consentof all the states
  49. 49. OtherProblems
  50. 50. Women and blacks hadmade sacrifices in thefight for liberation, andsome expected at least adegree of compensation
  51. 51. In 1787 an army of1,500 farmers marchedon Boston to protest anumber of unfairpolicies, both economicand political.
  52. 52. They were armed and veryangry, and they gave the eliteclass the wake-up call that therevolution might not be overyet. Shays Rebellion helpedconvince some that a strongercentral government wasnecessary
  53. 53. Northwest Ordinanceof 1787 contained a billof rights, abolishedslavery in theNorthwest territories
  55. 55. The Virginia Plan, largelythe brainchild of JamesMadison, called for anentirely new governmentbased on the principle ofchecks and balances.
  56. 56. Only three of the 42delegates refused to signthe finished document(two because it did notinclude a bill of rights)
  57. 57. Opposition forcesportrayed the federalgovernment underthe Constitution as anall-powerful beast
  58. 58. Anti-Federalists,were particularlyappalled by theabsence of a bill ofrights
  59. 59. Federalist position wasforcefully and persuasivelyargued in the FederalistPapers, anonymouslyauthored by JamesMadison, AlexanderHamilton, and John Jay
  60. 60. The Constitutionwent into effect in1789; the Bill ofRights was added in1791.
  62. 62. Created agovernment madeup of the bestminds of his time
  63. 63. Thomas Jefferson asSecretary of State andAlexander Hamiltonas Secretary of theTreasury H/O
  64. 64. These two menstrongly disagreedabout the properrelationship betweenthe federal governmentand state governments
  65. 65. Hamilton proposed a National Bank --Jefferson and JamesMadison argued that theConstitution allowedCongress only those powersspecifically granted to it
  66. 66. Hamiltons plancalled for the federalgovernment toassume the statesdebts
  67. 67. Plan clearly favoredNorthern banksNorthern states alsohad more remainingdebt than Southernstates
  68. 68. FrenchRevolution tookplace during theWashingtonadministration
  69. 69. Thomas Paine supported it.Jefferson wanted tosupport the revolution andits republican idealsHamilton had aristocraticleanings and so disliked therevolutionaries
  70. 70. France and England resumedhostilities Even Jefferson agreed that neutrality was the correct course to follow
  71. 71. American supporters of therevolution held enthusiasticralliesRallies were organized byDemocratic-Republican societies,which evolved into theDemocratic-Republican politicalparty
  72. 72. Development of politicalparties troubled the framersof the ConstitutionWashington even accusedthe Democratic-Republicansocieties of instigating theWhiskey Rebellion
  73. 73. Armed rebels acrossPennsylvania, Maryland, andVirginia defied governmentefforts to collect the new taxWashington sent a largetroop detachment todisperse the rebels
  74. 74. Washington sent John Jay toEngland to negotiate a treatyconcerning free tradeCongress attempted towithhold funding to enforcethe treaty
  75. 75. The House ofRepresentatives askedWashington to submitall documentspertinent to the treaty
  76. 76. Washingtonrefused,establishing theprecedent ofexecutive privilege
  78. 78. Electoral college selectedJohn Adams, aFederalist, asWashingtons successorSecond-place candidatebecame vice-president
  79. 79. So Adams vice-president was theDemocratic-Republican ThomasJefferson
  80. 80. Adams greatestachievement wasavoiding war withFrance
  81. 81. XYZ AffairAfter the U.S. signed the JayTreaty with Britain, Francebegan seizing American ships …
  82. 82. Adams sent three diplomats toParis, where French officialsdemanded a huge bribe beforethey would allow negotiationsAdams published their writtenreport in the newspapers
  83. 83. He deleted the Frenchofficials names andreplaced them with theletters X, Y, and ZPublic becamevehemently anti-French
  84. 84. Alien and Sedition Acts,allowed the government toforcibly expel foreignersand to jail newspapereditors for "scandalousand malicious writing."
  85. 85. Acts were purelypolitical, aimed atdestroying theDemocratic-Republicans,
  86. 86. Jefferson led the oppositionTogether withMadison, he drafted theVirginia and KentuckyResolutions
  87. 87. Argued that thestates had the rightto judge theconstitutionality offederal laws
  88. 88. Later referred to as nullificationJefferson used the laws andthe resolutions as key issuesin his 1800 campaign for thepresidency
  89. 89. THE ELECTION OF 1800
  90. 90. Federalist party was splitclearing the way to thepresidency for theDemocratic-Republicans
  91. 91. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burreach received an equal number ofvotes in the Electoral College,which meant that the Federalist-dominated House ofRepresentatives was required tochoose a president from betweenthe two
  92. 92. Alexander Hamiltonswallowed hard andcampaigned for Jefferson,with whom he disagreed onmost issues and whom hepersonally disliked, because hebelieved Burr to be "a mostunfit and dangerous man."
  93. 93. Burr laterprovedHamilton rightby killing him
  94. 94. For the second time in asmany elections, a presidentwas saddled with a vice-president he did not wantRemedied in 1804 withthe Twelfth Amendmentto the Constitution
  95. 95. THEJEFFERSONIAN REPUBLIC (1800-1823)
  96. 96. JEFFERSONSFIRST TERMAdams was so upset about theelection that he left thecapital before Jefferson tookoffice
  97. 97. Before he lefttown, however, he made anumber of "midnightappointments," filling asmany governmentpositions with Federalistsas he could
  98. 98. Jeffersons response wasto refuse to recognizethose appointmentsUpon taking office, Jefferson alsoimmediately pardoned all thoseconvicted under the Alien and SeditionActs, then persuaded Congress, nowcontrolled by his party, to repeal thelaws
  99. 99. Jeffersons refusal to acceptAdams midnight appointmentsresulted in a number of lawsuitsMarbury v. Madison,reached the SupremeCourt in 1803
  100. 100. William Marbury, one ofAdams last-minuteappointees, had suedSecretary of State JamesMadison for refusing tocertify his appointment tothe federal bench
  101. 101. Chief Justice JohnMarshall was a FederalistMarshall was not certainthat the court could forceJefferson to acceptMarburys appointment
  102. 102. Court ruled that Marbury didindeed have a right to hisjudgeship, but that the courtcould not enforce his rightAlthough the power to do so hadbeen granted to the SupremeCourt in the Judiciary Act of1789, Marshall now declared itunconstitutional
  103. 103. Majoraccomplishment ofJeffersons firstterm was theLouisiana Purchase
  104. 104. Jefferson sent JamesMonroe to France to buyNew Orleans for $2 millionThe French offered to sellMonroe the whole Louisianaterritory for $15 million
  105. 105. Ironically, Jeffersonthe anti-federalist hadundertaken the largestfederal action in thenations brief history
  106. 106. Jefferson sent explorersAll returned with favorablereports, causing manypioneers to turn theirattentions westward
  108. 108. War of 1812In 1805 the Britishand French were atwar
  109. 109. British began stoppingAmerican ships andimpressing those sailors whomight have deserted theBritish navyJefferson responded with aboycott, biding his time whileincreasing military and navalappropriations
  110. 110. Jefferson lobbied for and wonthe Embargo Act of 1807Shut down Americasimport and export business,with disastrous economicresults
  111. 111. Jefferson repealed theunsuccessful EmbargoAct in the final days ofhis presidency
  113. 113. Madison, seeking a solution toAmericas trade problems,reopened trade with both Franceand England. He promised thatif either of the countries wouldrenounce its interference withAmerican trade, he would cut offtrade with the other one
  114. 114. Napoleon made that promiseBritish, angry at the newembargo, stepped uptheir attacks onAmerican ships
  115. 115. Native Americans alignedthemselves with the BritishThe British capturedWashington, D.C., in 1814and set the White House onfire
  116. 116. Federalists, opposed to thewar and not aware that itsend was coming, met in theHartford Convention toconsider a massive overhaulof the Constitution or,failing that, secession
  117. 117. When English-Frenchhostilities ended (withNapoleons defeat), manyof the issues that hadcaused the war evaporated
  118. 118. War had one clearpositive resultIt spurredAmericanmanufacturing
  119. 119. "Henry ClaysAmerican System."Combination of programs thatincluded protective tariffs onimports, improvements tointerstate roads and the re-chartering of the National Bank
  120. 120. Clay’s American System wasviewed by many as anattempt at centralization ofpower and as a threat to StateSovereigntyAbraham Lincoln wasa “Clay disciple”
  122. 122. Demise of the Federalistsbriefly left the U.S withonly one political party.This period of unity isreferred to as "the Eraof Good Feelings."
  123. 123. Chief Justice JohnMarshalls rulingscontinued tostrengthen the federalgovernment and itsprimacy
  124. 124. McCulloch v.Maryland thestates could not taxthe National Bank
  125. 125. a financial scarecalled the Panic of1819 threw theAmerican economyinto turmoil
  126. 126. panic followed aperiod of economicgrowth, inflation, andland speculation, all ofwhich had destabilizedthe economy
  127. 127. National bankcalled in its loans,many borrowerscouldnt repaythem
  128. 128. no nationally organizedpolitical oppositionresulted from thepanic, and Monroeeasily won reelection in1820
  129. 129. Secretary of State underMonroe, John QuincyAdams negotiated anumber of treaties thatfixed U.S. borders, openednew territories, andacquired Florida
  130. 130. revolutions in CentralAmerica and South America(against Europeanimperialism)US recognized thenew nations
  131. 131. they decided that Americashould assert its authorityover the Western HemisphereMonroe Doctrine
  132. 132. Claimed Americasright to interveneanywhere in its ownhemisphere, if it felt itssecurity wasthreatened
  133. 133. new period ofexpansion alsoresulted in a nationaldebate over slavery
  134. 134. Eleven states allowedslavery, elevenprohibited itMissouris applicationfor statehood, however,threatened the balance
  135. 135. 3/5 rule ---REAL Lincoln--- etc.
  136. 136. MissouriCompromise(1) admittedMissouri as a slavestate
  137. 137. (2) carved off a pieceof Massachusetts,called it Maineadmitted Maine asa free state
  138. 138. (3) established thesouthern border ofMissouri as thenorthernmost point inwhich slavery would beallowed in the westernterritories
  141. 141. turning point inpresidential elections …majority of states nowallowed voters to choosetheir presidentialelectors directly
  142. 142. Congressional caucuses hadchosen their partiesnominee in earlier electionsWith more people voting directlyfor electors, however, the caucusnominee was no longerguaranteed to represent hisparty
  143. 143. Democratic-Republican caucuschose William H. CrawfordOthers--among them JohnQuincy Adams, HenryClay, and AndrewJackson--decided tochallenge the nomination
  144. 144. Of the four, AndrewJackson received thegreatest number ofpopular votes andelectoral votes
  145. 145. But none of the four hadwon a majority, so …….the election wasdecided in the House ofRepresentatives
  146. 146. Clay threw his support toAdams, thereby handingAdams the victory… and Clay wasnamed Secretary ofState (importance of this ..)
  147. 147. Opponentsreferred to Claysappointment asthe "corruptbargain."
  148. 148. RememberClay’s AmericanSystem?
  149. 149. Contrary CongressMore congressmenhad initiallysupported Jacksonthan Adams
  150. 150. Adams was also handicapped with an obnoxious personality(It ran in the Family)
  151. 151. He had been aFederalistcongressman andwas the son of aFederalist president
  152. 152. His effort to strengthen thecentral government was thusviewed with deep suspicionJacksons supportersstrongly favoredstates rights