Progressive EraProgressive Era
a.k.a. Progressivisma.k.a. Progressivism
1890-19201890-1920
ProgressivismProgressivism
 Not a single political movementNot a single political movement
 A collection of ideas on how...
Pendleton ActPendleton Act
 Patronage (spoils system) – gov’t jobsPatronage (spoils system) – gov’t jobs
given to support...
WabashWabash v.v. IllinoisIllinois
 Railroads charged lower shipping rates forRailroads charged lower shipping rates for
...
McKinley TariffMcKinley Tariff
 Tariffs are taxes on imports from foreignTariffs are taxes on imports from foreign
nation...
Legalized SegregationLegalized Segregation
 Civil laws cannot dictate how society treats peopleCivil laws cannot dictate ...
PlessyPlessy v.v. FergusonFerguson
 Homer Plessy—1/8 African AmericanHomer Plessy—1/8 African American
 Intentionally sa...
Societal ProblemsSocietal Problems
 Believed industrialism and urbanizationBelieved industrialism and urbanization
caused...
 Muckrakers – journalists who publishedMuckrakers – journalists who published
articles about corruptionarticles about cor...
Political ReformsPolitical Reforms
 Direct primaries – voting public choosesDirect primaries – voting public chooses
cand...
Other ReformsOther Reforms
 Zoning laws – divide cities into zones forZoning laws – divide cities into zones for
specific...
Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt
 Square DealSquare Deal
 Taking on Big BusinessTaking on Big Business
 Sued Northe...
William Howard TaftWilliam Howard Taft
 Preferred to avoid conflictsPreferred to avoid conflicts
 Big supporter of compe...
Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson
 Worked to lower tariffsWorked to lower tariffs
 Created Federal Reserve systemCreated Fede...
African AmericansAfrican Americans
 National Association for the Advancement ofNational Association for the Advancement o...
TheThe
EndEnd
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Progressive era

  1. 1. Progressive EraProgressive Era a.k.a. Progressivisma.k.a. Progressivism 1890-19201890-1920
  2. 2. ProgressivismProgressivism  Not a single political movementNot a single political movement  A collection of ideas on how to fix problemsA collection of ideas on how to fix problems
  3. 3. Pendleton ActPendleton Act  Patronage (spoils system) – gov’t jobsPatronage (spoils system) – gov’t jobs given to supporters of winning party in angiven to supporters of winning party in an electionelection  Act was civil service reformAct was civil service reform  President fills federal jobs according to CivilPresident fills federal jobs according to Civil Service Committee rulesService Committee rules  Civil Service ExaminationsCivil Service Examinations  Examination given for federal jobsExamination given for federal jobs  Only qualified candidates placed on listOnly qualified candidates placed on list  Selection for job comes from listSelection for job comes from list
  4. 4. WabashWabash v.v. IllinoisIllinois  Railroads charged lower shipping rates forRailroads charged lower shipping rates for large corporationslarge corporations  Illinois laws began to regulate railroad ratesIllinois laws began to regulate railroad rates  Regulating trade between statesRegulating trade between states  Wabash Railroad sued State of IllinoisWabash Railroad sued State of Illinois  Supreme Court ruled Illinois could not restrict ratesSupreme Court ruled Illinois could not restrict rates on traffic between stateson traffic between states  Only federal gov’t can regulate interstate commerceOnly federal gov’t can regulate interstate commerce  Interstate Commerce Commission establishedInterstate Commerce Commission established  Legislation limited rates to ‘reasonable and fair’Legislation limited rates to ‘reasonable and fair’
  5. 5. McKinley TariffMcKinley Tariff  Tariffs are taxes on imports from foreignTariffs are taxes on imports from foreign nationsnations  McKinley Tariff designed to help USMcKinley Tariff designed to help US businessesbusinesses  Cut tariff rates on some goods—tobacco & rawCut tariff rates on some goods—tobacco & raw sugarsugar  Increased rates on textilesIncreased rates on textiles  Purpose—get people to buy AmericanPurpose—get people to buy American  Lowered federal revenueLowered federal revenue  National budget deficitNational budget deficit  Negative impact on US economyNegative impact on US economy
  6. 6. Legalized SegregationLegalized Segregation  Civil laws cannot dictate how society treats peopleCivil laws cannot dictate how society treats people  Southern practicesSouthern practices  Jim Crow laws – segregation, voting restrictionsJim Crow laws – segregation, voting restrictions  Loopholes in 15Loopholes in 15thth Amendment prohibited votingAmendment prohibited voting  Poll taxPoll tax  Literacy testLiteracy test  Civil Rights Act of 1875Civil Rights Act of 1875  Prohibited keeping people out of public places based onProhibited keeping people out of public places based on racerace  Supreme Court overturned act in 1883—opening door forSupreme Court overturned act in 1883—opening door for legalized segregationlegalized segregation
  7. 7. PlessyPlessy v.v. FergusonFerguson  Homer Plessy—1/8 African AmericanHomer Plessy—1/8 African American  Intentionally sat in wrong section of trainIntentionally sat in wrong section of train  Arrested, fined, appealed to Supreme CourtArrested, fined, appealed to Supreme Court  Supreme Court upheld the Louisiana lawSupreme Court upheld the Louisiana law requiring segregationrequiring segregation  Significance of ruling:Significance of ruling:  Endorsed “separate but equal” facilitiesEndorsed “separate but equal” facilities  Established legal basis for discrimination inEstablished legal basis for discrimination in South for over 50 yearsSouth for over 50 years
  8. 8. Societal ProblemsSocietal Problems  Believed industrialism and urbanizationBelieved industrialism and urbanization caused society problemscaused society problems  Wanted gov’t to take more active role to solveWanted gov’t to take more active role to solve problemsproblems  Science and technology benefited peopleScience and technology benefited people  Using scientific principles could produce solutionsUsing scientific principles could produce solutions to problemsto problems
  9. 9.  Muckrakers – journalists who publishedMuckrakers – journalists who published articles about corruptionarticles about corruption  Forced reformsForced reforms  Efficiency progressivesEfficiency progressives  Ideas from businesses who applied scientificIdeas from businesses who applied scientific methodsmethods  Commission planCommission plan  Hire specialists to run city departmentsHire specialists to run city departments
  10. 10. Political ReformsPolitical Reforms  Direct primaries – voting public choosesDirect primaries – voting public chooses candidates to run in general electioncandidates to run in general election  Initiative – citizens can introduce laws andInitiative – citizens can introduce laws and legislature required to vote on themlegislature required to vote on them  Referendum – proposed laws submitted toReferendum – proposed laws submitted to votersvoters  Recall – voters demand special election toRecall – voters demand special election to remove elected officialremove elected official  1717thth Amendment – direct election of SenatorsAmendment – direct election of Senators
  11. 11. Other ReformsOther Reforms  Zoning laws – divide cities into zones forZoning laws – divide cities into zones for specific usespecific use  1919thth Amendment – women’s suffrageAmendment – women’s suffrage  Child labor reformChild labor reform  Worker safetyWorker safety  Worker’s CompensationWorker’s Compensation  1818thth Amendment – prohibition; illegal toAmendment – prohibition; illegal to manufacture, sale, or transport alcoholmanufacture, sale, or transport alcohol
  12. 12. Theodore RooseveltTheodore Roosevelt  Square DealSquare Deal  Taking on Big BusinessTaking on Big Business  Sued Northern SecuritiesSued Northern Securities  Striking Coal MinersStriking Coal Miners  Use arbitration to break strikeUse arbitration to break strike  Interstate Commerce Commission power toInterstate Commerce Commission power to set railroad ratesset railroad rates  Pure Food and Drug ActPure Food and Drug Act  Upton Sinclair’s bookUpton Sinclair’s book The JungleThe Jungle  Meat Inspection ActMeat Inspection Act  Avid conservationistAvid conservationist  Increased power of executive branchIncreased power of executive branch
  13. 13. William Howard TaftWilliam Howard Taft  Preferred to avoid conflictsPreferred to avoid conflicts  Big supporter of competitionBig supporter of competition  ConservationistConservationist
  14. 14. Woodrow WilsonWoodrow Wilson  Worked to lower tariffsWorked to lower tariffs  Created Federal Reserve systemCreated Federal Reserve system  Banks keep portion of deposits in regional reserve bankBanks keep portion of deposits in regional reserve bank  Federal Trade CommissionFederal Trade Commission  Regulate American businessesRegulate American businesses  Stop unfair trade practicesStop unfair trade practices  Keating-Owen Child Labor ActKeating-Owen Child Labor Act  Banned employment of children under age 14 in factoriesBanned employment of children under age 14 in factories that made goods for interstate tradethat made goods for interstate trade  Expanded role of president and federal gov’tExpanded role of president and federal gov’t  Was president during World War IWas president during World War I
  15. 15. African AmericansAfrican Americans  National Association for the Advancement ofNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)Colored People (NAACP)  Founded in 1905 by W.E.B. DuBois and otherFounded in 1905 by W.E.B. DuBois and other African American leadersAfrican American leaders  Fight for full political rights for African AmericansFight for full political rights for African Americans
  16. 16. TheThe EndEnd

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