The United States Presidents Pp 2008 2009

4,417 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
4 Comments
17 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • loved it
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • this is nicce mr garren

    $-Justin young
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • This is really a very nice and informative presentation. This kind of slide shows are very helpfull for getting information without feeling bore.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • i cnt see the powrpiont ill saty after school and stuff so i can get the notes kk
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,417
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
885
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
4
Likes
17
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The United States Presidents Pp 2008 2009

  1. 1. THE UNITED STATES PRESIDENTS GEORGE WASHINGTON TO ANDREW JACKSON George Washington Thomas Jefferson John Adams James Madison James Monroe John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson
  2. 2. GEORGE WASHINGTON: 1789-1797 <ul><li>Background: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Born in Virginia on February 22, 1732. </li></ul><ul><li>Born into wealthy planter family. </li></ul><ul><li>Father died when he was 11. </li></ul><ul><li>He became owner of small plantation. </li></ul><ul><li>Married Martha Custis in 1759. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Washington’s Presidency: 1789-1797 </li></ul><ul><li>Sworn in as President in 1789. John Adams was his Vice President. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed the Federal Judiciary Act (1789): Created the </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court of the US with 5 justices. Washington appointed </li></ul><ul><li>John Jay as 1 st Chief Justice. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Washington selected a cabinet to act as his advisors: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Thomas Jefferson : Department of State </li></ul><ul><li>b. Henry Knox : War Department </li></ul><ul><li>c. Alexander Hamilton : Treasury Department </li></ul><ul><li>d. Edmund Randolph : Attorney General </li></ul>PRECEDENT : An example set by one person that becomes standard practice for others.
  4. 5. <ul><li>4. Hamilton worked to solve money problems in US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Combined all state and national debts into one large debt: easier to pay off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Issued bonds to begin paying off debt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Created first Bank of the United States: Bank used by gov’t to deposit money and borrow money from. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Suggested taxes to raise money for gov’t. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Whiskey Tax : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Western farmers did not like the tax because they made whiskey from corn in order to transport it to eastern cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Western farmers began the Whiskey Rebellion (1794): Farmers took up arms and chased away tax collectors. Washington led 13,000 soldiers to put down rebellion. Farmers gave up and agreed to pay the tax. </li></ul></ul>President Washington led the army in order to put down the rebellion.
  5. 6. American farmers protesting the Whiskey Tax: Many western farmers made whiskey out of corn. They felt the tax was unfair. They would tar and feather tax collectors who came to collect the tax money.
  6. 7. The Growth of Political Parties : During Washington’s Presidency political parties began to emerge. Many Americans have different opinions about the direction of government policy. This difference in opinion caused the creation of political parties. Political parties began in 1792 in the US. POLITICAL PARTY : Groups organized to promote specific political goals and support candidates for office. A. Political parties develop : Under Washington, people did not agree on what the government could do or how much power it should have. -Thomas Jefferson believed that Alexander Hamilton was making the government to powerful. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison formed the Democratic-Republican Party . This party was supported mainly by farmers and they believed that the government should be kept small and it should follow the Constitution word for word (strict interpretation). -Alexander Hamilton supported a strong national government. He and John Adams created the Federalist Party . This party was supported by business and manufacturing people in the east. This party favored a loose interpretation of the Constitution. B. Washington remains popular with both parties : Pres. Washington did not become involved in the political parties that were being created. He was reelected as President in 1792.
  7. 8. Federalists : Democratic-Republicans :
  8. 9. Problems with France and Britain : During Washington’s 2nd term in office, problems arose with France and Great Britain. A. The French Revolution leads to wars within Europe : In 1789, the French Revolution broke out in France. Many Americans supported this revolution because it was the lower and middle class people revolting against the nobility and rulers of France. -Soon, many Americans stopped supporting the French because the French Revolution turned to violence and thousands of innocent people (women and children) were being executed just because they were nobles. -The US government issues the Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 as a way to stay out of any European wars that might be started due to the French Revolution. -This document declared that the US would remain neutral in any war. The US would continue trade all nations of Europe, regardless of warfare. NEUTRAL : To not take a side. B. The British seize American ships and sailors : During this period of time, the British Navy did not want the US to trade with France. The British Navy began to stop American ships bound for French ports. Some American ships were seized or taken and some sailors were impressed into the British Navy. -The US government became very angry with Great Britain. IMPRESSED : The practice by the British of forcing American sailors to serve in the British Navy.
  9. 10. C. Britain maintains forts on the American border : Americans were also angry at the British because they still had military forts along the American frontier. They were supposed to leave the forts after the American Revolution, but they did not. They stayed because they had help from local Native American tribes who fought with the Americans. D. The Indians suffer a defeat : During the presidency of Washington, fighting had taken place between Native Americans and Americans in the Northwest Territory. Washington sent General Anthony Wayne into the territory to stop the Native Americans. -The US defeated a Native American force of about 2,000 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 . -The Native American tribes (Shawnee, Ottawa, and Chippewa) who lost the battle were forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Under this treaty, they agreed to give up their land and move westward.
  10. 11. Settling Differences with Foreign Powers : Without the help of the Native Americans, the British could not maintain control of the area along the American frontier. The British asked to talk with the American government. A. John Jay makes a treaty to keep peace : John Jay went to Britain and reached an agreement known as Jay’s Treaty . -The British agree to give up their forts along the American frontier. B. Pinckney’s Treaty settles differences with Spain : The Spanish were worried that the American government might try to take over the Spanish colonies in the America’s. -Thomas Pinckney goes to Spain to discuss a treaty. He reaches an agreement known as Pinckney’s Treaty . -This treaty gave Americans the right to travel on the Mississippi River, to go through New Orleans, and it set the boundary between Florida and Georgia. C. Washington retires : In 1796, Washington ended his 2nd term in office and decided not to run for reelection. -He gave his Farewell Address and said that he would not run for a 3rd term in office. This set a precedent that many other presidents followed. PRECEDENT : An example set by one person that becomes standard practice for others.
  11. 13. JOHN ADAMS: 1797-1801 <ul><li>Background: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Born in Massachusetts on October 30, 1735. </li></ul><ul><li>Became a lawyer in Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Married Abigail Smith in 1764. </li></ul><ul><li>Political Career: </li></ul><ul><li>Served in the First Continental Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Served in the Second Continental Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Helped write Declaration of Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Chosen as 1 st Vice President under George Washington in 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>Elected 2 nd United States President in 1797. </li></ul><ul><li>-Thomas Jefferson: Vice President </li></ul><ul><li>Served from 1797-1801. </li></ul><ul><li>Died in 1826. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Trouble at Home : During the 1790’s, political parties were fighting each other for political power. A. Congress limits personal freedoms : In 1798, Congress passed a set of laws called the Alien and Sedition Acts . - Alien Act : Increased the length of time (5 to 14 years) newcomers had to live in the US in order to gain citizenship. - Sedition Act : Outlawed sedition. ALIEN : Foreigners in a country. SEDITION : Saying anything false or critical about the government. B. Jefferson leads opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts : Many people in the gov’t saw these laws as a clear threat to American freedom. -Jefferson and James Madison wrote resolutions challenging the federal government’s power. These resolutions are known as the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. -These resolutions said that states do not have to accept or follow unconstitutional laws passed by Congress. States could nullify such laws. NULLIFY : To cancel a law. -Jefferson gains a great deal of popularity in the US by opposing these laws.
  13. 15. THOMAS JEFFERSON: 1801-1809 Background: 1. Born in Virginia on April 13, 1743. 2. Became a lawyer and owned a plantation. 3. Married Martha Skelton in 1772. <ul><li>Political Career: </li></ul><ul><li>Served in the First Continental Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>-Wrote the Declaration of Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as ambassador to France during and after American Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as governor of Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as Secretary of State under Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as Vice President under John Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>Elected 3 rd President in 1800. (1801-1809) </li></ul><ul><li>-Aaron Burr: Vice President </li></ul><ul><li>7. Died 1826. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>A Stronger Judicial Branch : During the presidency of Jefferson, the Supreme Court expanded its power under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall. </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury v. Madison : (1803) </li></ul><ul><li>-William Marbury: Appointed by President John Adams as a federal judge. Adams made the appointment in his last hours as President. </li></ul><ul><li>-Jefferson became President before the appointment became official. Jefferson wanted to stop the appointment and appoint his own person. He told James Madison (Secretary of State) not to deliver the appointment. </li></ul>-Marbury asked the Supreme Court to force Madison to deliver the papers based on a Congressional law called “Writs of Mandamus.” Under this law, the courts could order a gov’t worker to carry out their duties. -Supreme Court said the law was unconstitutional and could not order Madison to deliver the papers. -Supreme Court used power of Judicial Review. JUDICIAL REVIEW : Power of the courts to determine whether legislative and executive actions are in accordance with the Constitution.
  15. 17. Westward Expansion : Jefferson encouraged Americans to move westward. He also took steps to increase the size of the US. -Even before the American Revolution, Americans were moving west beyond the Appalachian Mountains. In the 1770’s, Daniel Boone opened the Wilderness Road into Kentucky and Tennessee. Vermont became the 14 th state in 1791. Kentucky became the 15 th state in 1791 and Tennessee became the 16 th state in 1796. -After the American Revolution, westward movement increases a great deal. -Settlers move into Northwest Territory and Mississippi Territory. -Ohio became the 17 th state in 1803. Buying Louisiana : Jefferson sent delegates to buy Louisiana from the French. Napoleon Bonaparte decided to sell the territory to the US for $15 million. -The Louisiana Territory became part of the US in 1803. Doubled the size of the US. -Jefferson sent a group of explorers to explore, map, and write about the new territory. The group was led by Lewis and Clark. They explored this area between 1804-1806. -Americans began moving into this area because of their reports of rich land, thick forests, fresh water, and animal life.
  16. 18. By the late 1700’s, Americans were moving westward towards the Mississippi River. New territories and states were being created out of this area.
  17. 19. Between 1804 and 1806, Lewis and Clark explored the Louisiana Territory and reached the Pacific Ocean. Their reports about this land encouraged thousands of Americans to move westward beyond the Mississippi River.
  18. 20. Growing Conflict with Britain : During the early 1800’s, the US tried to remain neutral while France and Britain fought each other in Europe. The US continued to trade with both nations. -Both nations seized American merchant ships. The British impressed American sailors into the British Navy. -1807: Congresses passes the Embargo Act . Under this law, American merchants could not trade with any foreign nations. American merchants lost a lot of money. -1809: The US passes the Non-Intercourse Act . Under this law, American merchants could not trade with Britain or France.
  19. 21. Native American Troubles : Americans were angry with the British because they supplied weapons to the Native Americans on the frontier and encouraged them to fight with the US. -The Native Americans were willing to fight against Americans because they felt that Americans were illegally taking away their land. -As Americans moved west, they forced Native Americans from their land. -Native Americans resisted this attempt to take their land. -Tecumseh: A Shawnee chief organized an alliance of N.A. tribes in order to fight the US. -1811: Battle of Tippecanoe : American army under command of William Henry Harrison defeated the N.A. alliance. -Many Americans held the British responsible for the hostilities with the N.A. * Many Americans were very angry with the British : 1. Seizing American merchant ships at sea. 2. Impressing American sailors. 3. Giving weapons to the Native Americans on our frontier. They were using the weapons to attack American settlements on the frontier.
  20. 22. JAMES MADISON: 1809-1817 Background: 1. Born in Virginia on March 16, 1751. 2. Became a lawyer. 3. Married Dorothea “Dolly” Todd in 1794. <ul><li>Political Career: </li></ul><ul><li>Served in the Constitutional Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>-Helped create the US Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote many of the Federalist essays. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as Secretary of State under Jefferson. </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1836. </li></ul>Nickname: “ The Father of the Constitution”
  21. 23. Madison’s Presidency: 1809-1817 The War of 1812 : Many members of Congress wanted to go to war with Britain. These men were known as the “War Hawks.” -Congress declared war on Britain in 1812. -US was not prepared for war: Less than 7,000 soldiers in army, little combat experience, small navy, divided public opinion -British blockaded the American coast. -British army invades the US: Burned Washington D.C. -British attack Ft. McHenry: Francis Scott Key writes Star-Spangled Banner. -1812: USS Constitution defeats British ship.
  22. 24. -By 1814, the war had become a stand-off. Neither side was going to win. -The US and Britain signed the Treaty of Ghent that ended the war. -Before the treaty was made public in the US, the American Army under General Andrew Jackson defeated a British army at the Battle of New Orleans.
  23. 26. Results of the War of 1812 : When the war ended in 1815, Europeans had a new respect for the United States. The US was stronger than ever before. 1. Greater sense of nationalism in the US. 2. US economy grew and expanded. Americans more prosperous than before. Manufacturing increased 3. Republican party increases power in gov’t.
  24. 27. JAMES MONROE: 1817-1825 Background: 1. Born in Virginia on April 28, 1758. 3. Married Elizabeth Kortright in 1786. <ul><li>Political Career: </li></ul><ul><li>Served as US Senator from Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as governor of Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as ambassador to Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as Secretary of State. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as Secretary of War. </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1831. </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Monroe’s Presidency: 1817-1825 </li></ul><ul><li>During the presidency of James Monroe, the nation was very peaceful. </li></ul><ul><li>-Only one political party ran the gov’t: the Republicans. </li></ul><ul><li>-Americans were happy with the gov’t. </li></ul><ul><li>-The economy was growing; Americans were prosperous. </li></ul><ul><li>-This period of time (1817-1825) is called the Era of Good Feelings . </li></ul><ul><li>Congress was led by 3 outspoken men: </li></ul><ul><li>A. John Calhoun : South Carolina -Supported policies that favored the South. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Daniel Webster : Massachusetts -Supported policies that favored the Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Henry Clay : Kentucky -Supported policies that favored the West. </li></ul><ul><li>-All 3 were loyal to the section of the country that they came from. They promoted programs and policies that favored their sections. This is known as sectionalism. </li></ul><ul><li>SECTIONALISM : Loyalty to local interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay proposed the American System: This was a program designed to make the US self-sufficient and independent of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>-Tariff on imported goods to help American businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>-New roads and canals to improve transportation and trade in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>-Gov’t create a new national bank. </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Between 1812 and 1821, 5 new states entered the United States: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Louisiana (1812): Slave state d. Illinois (1818): Free state </li></ul><ul><li>b. Indiana (1816): Free state e. Alabama (1819): Slave state </li></ul><ul><li>c. Mississippi (1817): Slave state </li></ul><ul><li>-By 1819, there was an equal number of free and slave states. (12) </li></ul><ul><li>-Maine will enter the union in 1820 as a Free state. </li></ul><ul><li>The Missouri Compromise : The Missouri Territory applied for statehood in 1819. They wanted to enter the United States as slave state. This meant that slavery was legal in the state. </li></ul><ul><li>-Northern states objected because there would be one more slave state and the free states would lose power in Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>-Southern states favored this because it would expand slavery and give the slave states more power in Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>-Under this compromise: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Maine entered as a Free state and Missouri entered as a Slave state. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Slavery was allowed south of the 36 °30’North latitude line and not allowed north. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Missouri Compromise : 1. Maine enters as a free state. 2. Missouri enters as a slave state. (This keeps the balance.) 3. Slavery allowed south of 36°30’North latitude line and not allowed north. 1. 2. 3.
  28. 31. Florida : Between 1810 and 1824, Spain lost control of its American colonies. The United States benefited from this because we were able to acquire Florida. -President Monroe began a policy designed to end European influence and involvement in American affairs. -1819: United States paid $5 million to Spain for Florida and acquired it in the Adams-Onis Treaty . The Monroe Doctrine (1823): President Monroe announced a new policy that the US gov’t would follow. This policy is known as the Monroe Doctrine. 1. The US would stay out of European affairs. 2. Europe was to stay out of the Western Hemisphere (the America’s). 3. The US would oppose any European attempt to colonize the America’s.
  29. 32. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS: 1825-1829 Background: 1. Born in Massachusetts on July 11, 1767. 2. Married Louisa Catherine Johnson in 1797. 3. Became a lawyer in Massachusetts. <ul><li>Political Career: </li></ul><ul><li>Served as US Senator from Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as ambassador to Russia and Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1848. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Adam’s Presidency: 1825-1829 </li></ul><ul><li>The election of 1824 was marked by sectional rivalry. Each section of the US wanted their own candidate elected. </li></ul><ul><li>-Northeast: John Quincy Adams </li></ul><ul><li>-South: William Crawford </li></ul><ul><li>-West: Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>-John Quincy Adams would win the presidency, but many Americans were unhappy with this election. </li></ul><ul><li>Erie Canal: Completed during the presidency of John Quincy Adams. </li></ul><ul><li>-Built in New York to connect Buffalo to Albany. Built by the New York State government under Governor DeWitt Clinton. </li></ul><ul><li>-Canal connected the Hudson River to the Great Lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>-Soon became the most important transportation route between the eastern coast and the western farmlands and cities. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Shipping costs greatly reduced by using the Erie Canal. -Easier to transport by water. -Could transport more by boat than land. -Faster than land. Statistics : -363 miles long. -84 locks. -dug by hand. -Water: 4 feet deep -28-40 feet wide
  32. 35. Mules or horses pulled boats along the canal. -Pathways were on both sides of the canal for pulling boats in both directions.
  33. 37. The Erie Canal was built by hand over an 8 year period of time. New York State Governor DeWitt Clinton poured a container of water from Lake Erie into New York Harbor during the opening ceremony of the canal.
  34. 38. Locks were used to get boats up and down between different levels of water.
  35. 39. Canal boat loaded with hay. Horse being unloaded from canal boat. Boys playing hockey in winter on canal. Canal boat being pulled by mule team.
  36. 40. Erie Canal going crossing streams by using aqueducts.
  37. 42. ANDREW JACKSON: 7 TH PRESIDENT: 1829-1837 Background: 1. Born in South Carolina on March 15, 1767. 2. Married Rachel Donelson Robards in 1791. 3. Became a lawyer in Tennessee. <ul><li>Political/Military Career: </li></ul><ul><li>Served in Continental Army during American Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as Major-General of American Army during the War of 1812 and afterwards. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Won the Battle of New Orleans against the British. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fought Indians in western frontier area. </li></ul><ul><li>Served as US Representative and Senator from Tennessee. </li></ul><ul><li>Died 1845. </li></ul>
  38. 43. <ul><li>Jackson’s Presidency: 1829-1837 </li></ul><ul><li>Ran as a candidate for the newly created Democratic political party. This party replaced the Democratic-Republican party. </li></ul><ul><li>Began the Spoils System in politics. </li></ul><ul><li>-Fired some gov’t workers and replaced them with his own supporters. </li></ul><ul><li>SPOILS SYSTEM : The practice of giving government jobs to political supporters. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern and Southern states argue over tariffs. President Adams had signed a new tariff and President Jackson supported it. The tariff placed high taxes on imported goods. </li></ul><ul><li>-Northern states wanted it because it protected their factories from imports. </li></ul><ul><li>-Southern states did not want it because they did not have many factories in the South and imported most of their goods from Britain and France. This tariff would increase the prices they paid. </li></ul><ul><li>-South Carolina threatened to leave the union. Southerners said Congress did not have the right to pass tariff laws. Only states could do this. This brought up the issue of states’ rights. John Calhoun, of the south, supported states’ rights. </li></ul><ul><li>STATES’ RIGHTS : The idea that state governments were more powerful than the federal gov’t. </li></ul>
  39. 44. -Daniel Webster of Massachusetts argued against States’ Rights and said the Constitution created a gov’t where the federal gov’t was stronger than the state governments. -Congress reduced the tariff to satisfy the South. The southern states were still not happy with the lower tariff. -South Carolina threatened to secede from the union. SECEDE : To withdraw. -Congress passed a new law lowing the tariff again. South Carolina was satisfied and conflict was avoided. Daniel Webster
  40. 45. <ul><li>2 nd Term of Office: During Jackson’s 2 nd term as President, he became very powerful. Many people complained that he acted more like a king than a president. </li></ul><ul><li>Native American Policy : Many Americans wanted all Native American tribes to be moved west of the Mississippi River. Americans wanted the rich, fertile land east of the Miss. River. </li></ul><ul><li>-During Jackson’s presidency, many tribes agreed to move. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sauk, Fox, Seminole, Wyandot, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Potawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Cherokee Indians all moved west. </li></ul><ul><li>-” Trail of Tears ”: In 1838, 15,000 Cherokee Indians were rounded up and forced to move west. Over a 4 month period, they walked 1,000 miles to their new homes. About 25% died on the trip west. </li></ul>King Andrew
  41. 48. -The Cherokee were referred to the “Civilized Tribe” because they tried to fit in with the “white” culture. They adopted many customs of the white culture. -Farming. -Schools. -Living in “European” style houses. -European style clothing. -They built a town called Echota in Georgia. -John Ross was their chief.
  42. 49. Printing press in the town of Echota. John Ross on his plantation. -He owned slaves to do the work on his land.
  43. 50. American soldiers rounding up Cherokee families. Cherokee families on the “Trail of Tears”.
  44. 51. The Cherokee and other Indian tribes would settle on reservations set up the US gov’t. It was General Winfield Scott who carried out the Indian Removal plan of the US gov’t.
  45. 52. Andrew Jackson was the President of the United States from 1829-1837. By the end of his 2 nd term of office, sectional differences were becoming very clear within the United States. Many issues were causing tension between the northern, southern, and western states. Some of the issues included: 1. Tariffs 3. Native Americans 2. Slavery 4. Governmental powers After Andrew Jackson, several presidents will be elected that will be unable to resolve these issues. The sectional differences will continue to grow during the following presidencies. 8. Martin Van Buren:1837-1841 9. William Henry Harrison: 1841 (Died after one month of pneumonia.) 10. John Tyler: 1841-1845 11. James Polk: 1845-1849 12. Zachary Taylor: 1849-1850 13. Millard Fillmore: 1850-1853 14. Franklin Pierce: 1853-1857 15. James Buchanan: 1857-1861 16. Abraham Lincoln: 1861-1865

×