PRESIDENT DWIGHT EISHENHOWER<br /><ul><li>Nickname:  "Ike"
Born:   Oct. 14, 1890, in Texas
Died:  March 28, 1969, in Washington, D.C.
Education:  Graduate of West Point
WWII:Supreme Allied Commander during WWII
34th President:  Republican, 1953 to 1961
VP:  Richard Nixon</li></li></ul><li>Post War America<br />Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944<br />Baby Boom<br />Subur...
GI BILL OF RIGHTS<br />On June 22, 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the "Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944...
GI BILL OF RIGHTS<br /><ul><li>Help veterans adjust to civilian life after separation from service
Gain higher education if you couldn’t afford one
Restore lost educational opportunities because of military service.
Enhance our nation through a more highly educated and productive work force
FDR signing the GI Bill of Rights into law.
This was a correction of our mistake after WWI.</li></li></ul><li>GI BILL OF RIGHTS<br />GI Bill provided 6 benefits<br />...
Loans for a home, farm, or business
unemployment pay of $20 a week for 52 weeks
job-finding assistance</li></ul>Eligible for GI Bill Benefits<br />WWII veteran, served 90 days or more after September 16...
2,230,000 in college
3,480,000 in other schools
1,400,000 in on-job training
690,000 in farm training</li></ul>Total cost of the World War II education program was $14.5 billion.<br />
Suburban Living<br />Levittown, L. I.: “The American Dream”<br />1949  William Levitt produced           150 houses per w...
Suburban Living:The New “American Dream”<br /> 1 story high<br /> 12’x19’ living room<br /> 2 bedrooms<br /> tiled bathroo...
Suburban Living<br />SHIFTS IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, 1940-1970<br />194019501960	1970<br />Central Cities	  31.6%      ...
Suburban LivingThe Typical TV Suburban Families<br />Leave It to Beaver1957-1963<br />The Donna Reed Show1958-1966<br />Fa...
Baby Boomers<br /><ul><li>It seems to me that every other young housewife I see is pregnant.
British visitor to America, 1958.</li></li></ul><li>Baby Boomers<br /><ul><li>During Great Depression, birthrate and popul...
Post WWII, both increase</li></li></ul><li>TRUMAN AT HOME<br />Truman’s “Fair Deal” program<br /><ul><li>called for improv...
full employment
a higher minimum wage
better farm price supports
New Tennessee Valley Administrations
 extension of Social Security.</li></ul>“Point Four Program”<br /><ul><li>financial support of poor, underdeveloped lands
keep underprivileged peoples from becoming communists.</li></li></ul><li>Popular Culture<br />Consumer-driven mass economy...
Consumerism<br />Americans were caught up in the “economic boom” that took place after WWII<br />1950 --> Introduction of ...
Consumerism<br />Americans were becoming a consumer society…..Buying whatever new product that came out that would make th...
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Hoye 1950s p2

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Hoye 1950s p2

  1. 1. PRESIDENT DWIGHT EISHENHOWER<br /><ul><li>Nickname: "Ike"
  2. 2. Born: Oct. 14, 1890, in Texas
  3. 3. Died: March 28, 1969, in Washington, D.C.
  4. 4. Education: Graduate of West Point
  5. 5. WWII:Supreme Allied Commander during WWII
  6. 6. 34th President: Republican, 1953 to 1961
  7. 7. VP: Richard Nixon</li></li></ul><li>Post War America<br />Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944<br />Baby Boom<br />Suburban Growth<br />Rise of the Sunbelt<br />
  8. 8. GI BILL OF RIGHTS<br />On June 22, 1944, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the "Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944"<br />“GI Bill of Rights”<br />
  9. 9. GI BILL OF RIGHTS<br /><ul><li>Help veterans adjust to civilian life after separation from service
  10. 10. Gain higher education if you couldn’t afford one
  11. 11. Restore lost educational opportunities because of military service.
  12. 12. Enhance our nation through a more highly educated and productive work force
  13. 13. FDR signing the GI Bill of Rights into law.
  14. 14. This was a correction of our mistake after WWI.</li></li></ul><li>GI BILL OF RIGHTS<br />GI Bill provided 6 benefits<br /><ul><li>education and training
  15. 15. Loans for a home, farm, or business
  16. 16. unemployment pay of $20 a week for 52 weeks
  17. 17. job-finding assistance</li></ul>Eligible for GI Bill Benefits<br />WWII veteran, served 90 days or more after September 16, 1940 and a honorable discharge. <br />Program ended July 25, 1956<br /><ul><li>Of the 15,440,000 veterans, some 7.8 million were trained.
  18. 18. 2,230,000 in college
  19. 19. 3,480,000 in other schools
  20. 20. 1,400,000 in on-job training
  21. 21. 690,000 in farm training</li></ul>Total cost of the World War II education program was $14.5 billion.<br />
  22. 22. Suburban Living<br />Levittown, L. I.: “The American Dream”<br />1949  William Levitt produced 150 houses per week.<br />$7,990 or $60/month with no down payment.<br />
  23. 23. Suburban Living:The New “American Dream”<br /> 1 story high<br /> 12’x19’ living room<br /> 2 bedrooms<br /> tiled bathroom<br /> garage<br /> small backyard<br /> front lawn<br />By 1960  1/3 of the U. S. population in the suburbs.<br />
  24. 24. Suburban Living<br />SHIFTS IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, 1940-1970<br />194019501960 1970<br />Central Cities 31.6% 32.3% 32.6% 32.0%<br />Suburbs 19.5% 23.8% 30.7% 41.6%<br />Rural Areas/ 48.9% 43.9% 36.7% 26.4%<br />Small Towns<br />U. S. Bureau of the Census.<br />
  25. 25. Suburban LivingThe Typical TV Suburban Families<br />Leave It to Beaver1957-1963<br />The Donna Reed Show1958-1966<br />Father Knows Best1954-1958<br />The Ozzie & Harriet Show1952-1966<br />
  26. 26. Baby Boomers<br /><ul><li>It seems to me that every other young housewife I see is pregnant.
  27. 27. British visitor to America, 1958.</li></li></ul><li>Baby Boomers<br /><ul><li>During Great Depression, birthrate and population decreased.
  28. 28. Post WWII, both increase</li></li></ul><li>TRUMAN AT HOME<br />Truman’s “Fair Deal” program<br /><ul><li>called for improved housing
  29. 29. full employment
  30. 30. a higher minimum wage
  31. 31. better farm price supports
  32. 32. New Tennessee Valley Administrations
  33. 33. extension of Social Security.</li></ul>“Point Four Program”<br /><ul><li>financial support of poor, underdeveloped lands
  34. 34. keep underprivileged peoples from becoming communists.</li></li></ul><li>Popular Culture<br />Consumer-driven mass economy<br />Television<br />By 1961, 55 million TV sets<br />3 national networks, bland sit-coms, westerns, quiz shows, sports, <br />“vast wasteland” for children, culture<br />Advertising<br />All media, aggressive<br />Shopping centers, credit cards<br />Change from “mom & pop” to franchises<br />
  35. 35. Consumerism<br />Americans were caught up in the “economic boom” that took place after WWII<br />1950 --> Introduction of the Diner’s Card<br />
  36. 36. Consumerism<br />Americans were becoming a consumer society…..Buying whatever new product that came out that would make their lives comfortable.<br />
  37. 37. Television<br />1946--> 7,000 TV sets in the U. S.1950 --> 50,000,000 TV sets in the U. S.<br />Television is a vast wasteland --> Newton Minnow, Chairman of Federal Communications Commission, 1961<br />Mass Audience<br /><ul><li>TV celebrated traditional American values:
  38. 38. Superman-----Truth, Justice, and the American way!</li></li></ul><li>Television<br />Davy Crockett--King of the Wild Frontier<br />Sheriff Matt Dillon, Gunsmoke<br />The Lone Ranger (and his faithful sidekick, Tonto): Who is that masked man??<br />
  39. 39. Television<br />Family Shows --> glossy view of mostly middle-class suburban life.<br />Wally and the Beav<br />I Love Lucy<br />Alice Kramden, The Honeymooners<br />
  40. 40. Popular Culture<br />Paperback books<br />Reading Increase despite television—1 million copies a day<br />Records<br />Mass-marketed, inexpensive LP’s or 45’s<br />Rock and Roll music becomes popular with teenagers<br />
  41. 41. RISE OF THE TEENAGE CULTURE<br /> Elvis Presley Chuck Berry<br />elvis<br />
  42. 42. Teen Culture<br />In the 1950s --> the word “teenager” entered the American language.<br />1956 --> 13 mil. teens with $7 billion to spend a year.<br />1951 --> “race music” --> “ROCK ‘N ROLL”<br />Elvis Presley --> “The King”<br />
  43. 43. Teen Culture<br />“Happy Days” <br />OR“Juvenile Delinquency”?<br />Marlon Brando inThe Wild One (1953)<br />James Dean inRebel Without a Cause (1955)<br />Dobie Gillis<br />
  44. 44. Popular Culture<br />Role of Women<br />Mass media reinforced traditional roles<br />Lower wages in the workplace<br />Social Critics<br />Struggle against conformity<br />Wanted increased social spending<br />Beatniks<br />Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg <br />
  45. 45. Well-Defined Gender Roles<br />Changing Sexual Behavior:Alfred Kinsey--> 1948 --> Sexual Behavior in the Human Male1953 --> Sexual Behavior in the Human Female<br />* premarital sex was common. * extramarital affairs were frequent among married couples.<br />Kinsey’s results are an assault on the family as a basic unit of society, a negation of moral law, and a celebration of licentiousness. -- Life magazine, early 1950s<br />
  46. 46. Teen Culture<br />The “Beatnik” Generation:* Jack Kerouac --> On The Road * Allen Ginsberg --> poem, “Howl” * Neal Cassady * William S. Burroughs <br />A man is beat whenever he goes for broke and wagers the sum of his resources on a single number; and the young generation has done that continually from early youth------------John Clellan Holms<br /><ul><li>Jack Kerouac is said to have responded:We’re a beat generation!
  47. 47. Against traditional values of the Great Depressions and WWII generation (their parents)
  48. 48. Would influence the “counter-culture” of the 1960’s</li></li></ul><li>A Changing Workplace<br />New Corporate Culture<br />“The Company Man”<br />1947-1957 --> factory workers decreased by 4.3%, eliminating 1.5 million blue-collar jobs.<br /> By 1956 --> more white-collar than blue-collar jobs in the U. S<br />1956 --> Sloan Wilson’s The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit<br />
  49. 49. Well-Defined Gender Roles<br />Theideal 1950’s manwas the provider, protector, and the boss of the house. -- Life magazine, 1955<br />1956 --> William H. Whyte, Jr. --> The Organization Man * a middle-class, white suburban male is the ideal.<br />Young Gentleman<br />Family Man<br />The Provider<br />
  50. 50. Religious Revival<br />Today in the U. S., the Christian faith is back in the center of things. -- Time magazine, 1954<br />Church membership: 1940 --> 64,000,000 1960 --> 114,000,000<br />Television Preachers<br />1. Catholic Bishop Fulton J. Sheen --> “Life is Worth Living”<br />2. Methodist Minister Norman Vincent Peale --> The Powerof Positive Thinking<br />3. Reverend Billy Graham --> ecumenical message; warned against the evils of Communism.<br />
  51. 51. Progress Through Science<br />1951 -- First IBM Mainframe Computer<br />1952 -- Hydrogen Bomb Test<br />1953 -- DNA Structure Discovered<br />1954 -- Salk Vaccine Tested for polio<br />1957 -- First Commercial U. S. Nuclear Power Plant<br />1958 -- NASA Created (National Aeronautical Space Administration)<br />1959 -- Press Conference of the First 7 American Astronauts<br />
  52. 52. Highway Act of 1956<br />42,000 miles of interstate highways linking major cities<br />Improve national defense<br />Good for jobs, trucking<br />Bad for the poor, public transportation<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54. The Culture of the Car<br />America became a more homogeneous nation because of the automobile.<br />First McDonald’s (1955)<br />Drive-In Movies<br />Howard Johnson’s<br />
  55. 55. The Culture of the Car<br />Car registrations: 1945 --> 25,000,000 1960 --> 60,000,000<br />2-family cars doubles from 1951-1958<br />1956 -->Federal Interstate Highway Act--> largest public works project in American history!<br /> * Cost $32 billion * 41,000 miles of new highways built<br />
  56. 56. The Culture of the Car<br />1959 Chevy Corvette<br />1958 Pink Cadillac<br />
  57. 57. The Culture of the Car<br />1955 --> Disneyland opened in Southern California. (40% of the guests came from outside California, most by car.)<br />Frontier Land<br />Main Street<br />Tomorrow Land<br />
  58. 58. The Culture of the Car<br /><ul><li>The U. S. population was on the move in the 1950s.
  59. 59. NE & Mid-W ---> S & SW (“Sunbelt” states)</li>

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