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3 jackson to-gold_rush-3

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3 jackson to-gold_rush-3

  1. 1. THE JACKSONPRESIDENCY AND JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY
  2. 2. 1828 ushered in thebeginning of themodern politicalparty system H/O
  3. 3. Jackson had been denied thepresidency in 1824 despitewinning a plurality of the voteHe put together asupport network
  4. 4. coalition of state political organizations, newspaperpublishers, and other community leaders
  5. 5. That groupbecame thepresent-dayDemocratic party
  6. 6. Jackson accused Adamsof being a corrupt careerpolitician, while Adamsaccused Jackson of beinga stupid and violentdrunkard
  7. 7. The modernpoliticalcampaign wasborn
  8. 8. He dismissed numerousgovernment -officials andreplaced them with politicalsupportersTrading jobs for politicalfavors came to be known asthe "spoils system." H/O
  9. 9. Jacksonian democracy replacedJeffersonian democracy
  10. 10. Jefferson had conceived of anation governed by middle-and upper-class educatedproperty holders, in whichthe government would beonly as large as absolutelynecessary
  11. 11. Jacksonian democracy wasbased on universalmanhood suffrage,meaning the extension ofvoting rights to all whitemales, even those who didnot own property
  12. 12. A strongpresidency also characterized Jacksonian democracy
  13. 13. Jacksoniandemocracy is not acoherent vision ofhow a governmentshould function
  14. 14. Strongest support came fromthe western frontier statesJackson accordinglypursued an aggressiveIndian removalprogram
  15. 15. The Supreme Court hadprotected NativeAmerican rights to theirland in Cherokee Nationv. Georgia and Worcesterv. Georgia
  16. 16. Jackson forcibly evicted tribesRemoval Act of 1830set in motion theevents that resulted inthe Trail of Tears
  17. 17. Jackson wanted to“downsize” the federalgovernment.
  18. 18. He saw to it that theSecond Bank of theUnited States failedDeposited Federalfunds in state banks
  19. 19. Remember, Clay (theAmerican System) hadhelped deny Jacksonthe presidency earlier
  20. 20. Jackson put a haltto all programsassociated withClays AmericanSystem
  21. 21. made extensiveuse of thepresidentialveto
  22. 22. One of the majorissues of Jacksonspresidency focusedon nullification
  23. 23. Individual stateshave the right todisobey federal lawsif they find themunconstitutional
  24. 24. View expressed byJefferson andMadison in theVirginia andKentucky Resolutions
  25. 25. Tariff of 1828also known as theTariff of Abominations
  26. 26. Became a national crisis duringJacksons administrationSome states started toconsider nullifyingthe tariff in 1830
  27. 27. 1830 nullification movementfailedLaid the groundworkfor opposition to theTariff of 1832, whichSouth Carolinanullified
  28. 28. Compromise Tariff (1833)agreed to reduce tariffgradually over time (1842)but gave president power toemploy troops to collect fromthe states.
  29. 29. Jackson threatened to call introopscrisis subsided withthe compromiseHowever ……..
  30. 30. it would continueto be an issue untilthe War Betweenthe States
  31. 31. Jacksons economicpolicies demonstrated hisdistrust of both biggovernment andNortheastern powerbrokers
  32. 32. Political expediencyseemed to affect Jackson’sefforts (just as they hadCalhoun’s).
  33. 33. (He may not havewanted BIGgovernment, but he didwant POWERFULPresidency.)
  34. 34. suspicious of paper moneySpecie Circularended the policy of sellinggovernment land on credit(buyers now had to pay"hard cash")
  35. 35. … caused a moneyshortage, a sharpdecrease in thetreasury, and overalleconomic hardship
  36. 36. Slavery H/O Civil War – Road to War H/O
  37. 37. controversialissue duringJacksons tenure
  38. 38. South experienced severalslave revoltsNat TurnersRebellion
  39. 39. Turner had a visionand took this vision asa sign from God that ablack liberationmovement wouldsucceed
  40. 40. rallied a gang thatproceeded to killand then mutilatethe corpses of sixtywhites
  41. 41. In retaliation, 200slaves were executedStates passed a series ofrestrictive laws, known asblack codes, prohibitingblacks from congregatingand learning to read
  42. 42. THE ELECTION OF 1836 AND THE RISE OF THE WHIGS
  43. 43. Jacksons Democratic partycould not represent the interestsof all its constituenciesNorthern abolitionists,Southern plantationowners, Western pioneers
  44. 44. 1834Opposition party, theWhigs, was formed… loose coalition thatshared opposition to oneor more of theDemocrats policies
  45. 45. Whigs believed ingovernment activism --supported thetemperance movementand enforcement of theSabbath (Sunday BlueLaws)
  46. 46. 1836, Jacksonsupported his secondvice-president,democrat Martin VanBuren, who …
  47. 47. had the misfortune totake over thepresidency just as thecountry entered amajor economic crisis(Panic of 1837)
  48. 48. Van Buren made thesituation worse bycontinuing Jacksons policyof favoring hard currencyDownturn lasted throughVan Burens term
  49. 49. 1841, former militaryhero William HenryHarrison became thefirst Whig presidentHe died of pneumonia amonth after taking office
  50. 50. John Tyler, a former Democrat,assumed the presidency …began championingstates rights …much to his ownpartys chagrin
  51. 51. He alienated Whig leadership… referred to as the"president without a party"his presidency lastedonly one term
  52. 52. ECONOMIC HISTORY,1800-1860
  53. 53. BEGINNINGS OF AMARKET ECONOMY
  54. 54. Market economy:people trade their laboror goods for cash, whichthey then use to buyother peoples labor orgoods
  55. 55. From the time the firstsettlers arrived mostpeople made their ownclothing and built theirown furniture andhomes
  56. 56. Developments inmanufacturing andtransportation changed allthat.Made it possible to massproduce goods and transportthem across country cheaply
  57. 57. Market economies favorthose who specialize Market economies grow more quickly and provide more services than subsistence economies
  58. 58. They also makepeople moreinterdependent
  59. 59. They are also muchmore prone to change(see panics of 1819 and 1837)Changes are referred to asboom-and-bust cycles
  60. 60. War of 1812 and theevents leading up to itforced the UnitedStates to become lessdependent on imports
  61. 61. The cotton gin, invented in 1793, revolutionized Southern agricultureTell about RI woman’s input. Now easier and cheaper to use cotton
  62. 62. Demand for cotton grewSpread of cotton as theregions chief crop alsointensified the Southsdependence on slavelabor
  63. 63. Whitneys secondinnovation was theuse of interchangeableparts inmanufacturing
  64. 64. Interchangeable parts gave birthto the machine-tool industryWhitneys advanceshelped promote assemblyline production
  65. 65. THE NORTH AND THE TEXTILE INDUSTRYMachine technology, coupled witha U.S. embargo on British goodsprior to and during the War of1812 (England was then Americaschief source of textiles), spurredthe development of textile mills inNew England
  66. 66. mills produced threadand hired local womento spin the thread intocloth at home
  67. 67. Invention of the firstpower loom in 1813meant that textilemanufacturers couldproduce both threadand finished fabric
  68. 68. Women who hadpreviously woven theirown fabrics at homestarted to buy cloth
  69. 69. Growth of the textileindustry resulted in ashortage of labor inNew England
  70. 70. Manufacturers had to"sweeten the pot" toentice laborersalmost all of whom werewomen from nearby farms
  71. 71. The Lowell systemalso called the Waltham system
  72. 72. Guaranteed employeeshousing in a respectable,chaperoned boardinghouse,cash wages, andparticipation in culturaland social events organizedby the mill
  73. 73. lasted until greatwaves of Irishimmigration in the1840s and 1850s madefactory labor plentiful
  74. 74. Working conditionsstarted to deteriorateworkers began toorganize laborunions
  75. 75. Early unions in the mid-1800smet with strong, frequentlyviolent oppositionStill, they succeeded inshortening the typicalworkday to ten hours
  76. 76. They also got thecourts to confirmtheir right to organize
  77. 77. TRANSPORTATION: CANALS, RAILROADS, HIGHWAYS, AND STEAMSHIPS
  78. 78. Prior to the 1820s, travel andshipping along east-west routeswas difficultThe construction of theNational Road from Marylandto West Virginia (andultimately to central Ohio)made east-west travel easier
  79. 79. Big change came with thecompletion of the ErieCanal in 1825Linked the GreatLakes region to NewYork
  80. 80. It became lucrative for aMidwestern merchant orfarmer to sell his products toEastern buyers, and as a resultthe Northeast soon establisheditself as the United Statescenter of commerce
  81. 81. During the 1830sthousands of miles ofcanals wereconstructed
  82. 82. Meanwhile, therailroads developedBy 1850, the canal erahad ended
  83. 83. Steamships became importantfreight carriers and replacedsailing ships for long sea voyagesBy 1850 passengers couldtravel by steamship fromNew York to England in tendays
  84. 84. Americas first railroadswere built during the 1830sbut rail developmentproceeded slowly due tovarying gauges (widthbetween tracks)
  85. 85. Government often paidthe bill for conversionto common gaugeBy 1853, New York andChicago were linked
  86. 86. Southern raildevelopment was muchslower, and superior railsgave the North a hugeadvantage during theCivil War
  87. 87. The invention of thetelegraph allowedimmediate long-distancecommunication
  88. 88. Developments intransportation andcommunication during thefirst half of the nineteenthcentury revolutionizedAmerican commerce andculture.
  89. 89. FARMINGThe most commonprofession throughoutthe first half of thenineteenth century
  90. 90. Many machines came intocommon use during this timemechanical plow,sower, reaper, thresher,baler, and cotton gin
  91. 91. Market economychanged farming. In1820 about one-third ofall the food grown in theU.S. went to market.
  92. 92. Farming in the Northeast wasbecoming less profitable.Rocky, hilly terrain wasunsuitable to many of themachines that were makingfarming on the plains easierand cheaper
  93. 93. Some New England farmersquit cultivating grain andstarted raising livestock andgrowing fruits and vegetables.Others quit farming entirelyand headed to the cities to takemanufacturing jobs.
  94. 94. Midwestern farms-muchlarger than New Englandfarms-were also much moreadaptable to the newtechnology that allowedfarmers to nearly doubleproduction
  95. 95. In the South, plantationsfocused primarily oncotton, especially in theDeep South; tobaccocontinued to be a majorcash crop in the UpperSouth
  96. 96. Majority of Southernerswere small farmers whodid not own slaves. (In1860 approximately one-quarter of white Southernfamilies owned slaves.)
  97. 97. WESTWARD EXPANSIONLouisiana Purchase removedone major obstacle to U.S.western settlement, and theresolution of the War of 1812removed another by deprivingNative Americans of a powerfulally in Great Britain
  98. 98. Americas manifestdestinyGod-given right tothe Westernterritories
  99. 99. Some argued thatCanada and Mexicoeventually would beannexed by the UnitedStates
  100. 100. When Mexico declared itsindependence from Spain in1821, the new country includedwhat is now TexasMexico wantedsettlers for itsterritories
  101. 101. The Mexican governmentestablished liberal landpolicies to entice settlers,and tens of thousands ofAmericans flooded theregion
  102. 102. Settlers were supposed tobecome Mexican citizensInstead, they ignoredMexican law, including-and especially-the oneprohibiting slavery
  103. 103. settlers declaredindependence from MexicoBattle at the Alamowas fought (1836)
  104. 104. Texas was an independentcountry called theRepublic of TexasTexas was notadmitted to the Unionuntil 1845 (slavery)
  105. 105. By the late 1840s those headingalong the Oregon Trail had a newdestination-California1848 the discovery of goldin the California mountainsset off the Gold Rush
  106. 106. More than 100,000 peoplewent to the Golden State injust two yearsMost did NOT getrich, but …
  107. 107. Many prospectors-settledthe area afterdiscovering that it wasvery hospitable toagriculture
  108. 108. Pacific Ocean allowedmajor cities such as SanFrancisco to develop asimportant tradecenters.

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