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Defects and Discontinuities ESC DEFECTS TRAINING QA/QC
Defect ,[object Object]
Discontinuity ,[object Object]
Weld Joint Discontinuities ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Misalignment  (hi-lo) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Misalignment
Undercut ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Undercut   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Under Cut
Insufficient Fill or Under fill ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Under fill
Insufficient Fill on the Root Side (suckback) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cause for Insufficient Fill at the Root Some liquids, like water or molten steel, try to cover as much surface area of whatever they are in contact with as possible. Welding a root pass too wide can also cause the bead to sag (overhead position).
 
 
Removing a root pass by grinding 1. Recreate the groove geometry as closely as possible. 2. Use a saw or die grinder and 1/16 - 1/8” cut off wheel to recreate root opening. Remember repairs are sometimes required to be made with a smaller electrode. 3. Open the groove angle. Be careful to leave the proper root face dimension.  4. Feather the start and stop to blend smoothly into and out of the existing weld.
 
Excessive Concavity or Convexity ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Concavity
Root Concavity
Convexity
Reinforcement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The amount of a groove weld which extends beyond the surface of the plate Face Reinforcement Root Reinforcement
Excessive Reinforcement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Excessive Penetration
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Insufficient Reinforcement
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],135 0 Improper Weld Contour
Overlap ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Overlap Overlap is measured with a square edge such as a 6” rule. No amount of overlap is typically allowed.
Burn-through  (non-standard) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Incomplete or Insufficient Penetration ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
ICP
Incomplete Fusion ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lack of Side Wall Fusion
Arc Strike ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Arc Strike
Weld Spatter Causes Prevention High arc power Reduce arc power Magnetic arc blow Reduce arc length or switch to AC power Incorrect settings for GMAW process Modify electrical settings (but be careful to maintain full fusion Damp electrodes Use dry electrodes
Inclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Slag Inclusion
Slag Inclusion
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Wagon Tracks  (non-standard)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Tungsten Inclusion
Inclusions ,[object Object]
Whiskers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Spatter ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Arc Craters ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cracks ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Longitudinal Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Transverse Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Crater Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Throat Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Toe Crack
Toe Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Root Crack
Root Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Underbead Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Hot Crack
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cold Crack
Cold Crack or Weld Metal Hydrogen Crack
Repairs to Cracks ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Base Metal Discontinuities ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lamellar Tearing
Laminations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Lamination effects can be reduced by joint design:
Laps and Seams A mill-induced discontinuity in which results from a lump of metal being squeezed over into the surface of the material.  If beyond acceptable limits, must be removed and repaired or discarded.
Porosity ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Porosity
Single Pore ,[object Object]
Uniformly Scattered Porosity ,[object Object],[object Object]
Cluster Porosity ,[object Object]
Linear Porosity ,[object Object]
Piping Porosity ,[object Object]
Porosity  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Heat-affected zone microstructure alteration ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Size or dimension ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Hammer marks ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
REPAIR TECHNIQUES ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Only repair defects. Discontinuities are by definition  acceptable. Repair is therefore unnecessary and not cost effective.

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Welding Defects

  • 1. Defects and Discontinuities ESC DEFECTS TRAINING QA/QC
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 10.
  • 12.
  • 13. Cause for Insufficient Fill at the Root Some liquids, like water or molten steel, try to cover as much surface area of whatever they are in contact with as possible. Welding a root pass too wide can also cause the bead to sag (overhead position).
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. Removing a root pass by grinding 1. Recreate the groove geometry as closely as possible. 2. Use a saw or die grinder and 1/16 - 1/8” cut off wheel to recreate root opening. Remember repairs are sometimes required to be made with a smaller electrode. 3. Open the groove angle. Be careful to leave the proper root face dimension. 4. Feather the start and stop to blend smoothly into and out of the existing weld.
  • 17.  
  • 18.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. Overlap Overlap is measured with a square edge such as a 6” rule. No amount of overlap is typically allowed.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. ICP
  • 32.
  • 33. Lack of Side Wall Fusion
  • 34.
  • 36. Weld Spatter Causes Prevention High arc power Reduce arc power Magnetic arc blow Reduce arc length or switch to AC power Incorrect settings for GMAW process Modify electrical settings (but be careful to maintain full fusion Damp electrodes Use dry electrodes
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 53.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58. Cold Crack or Weld Metal Hydrogen Crack
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 62.
  • 63. Lamination effects can be reduced by joint design:
  • 64. Laps and Seams A mill-induced discontinuity in which results from a lump of metal being squeezed over into the surface of the material. If beyond acceptable limits, must be removed and repaired or discarded.
  • 65.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 76.
  • 77. Only repair defects. Discontinuities are by definition acceptable. Repair is therefore unnecessary and not cost effective.

Editor's Notes

  1. Maybe have picture of over reinforced but weld
  2. Carelessness = lazyness just sounds less aggressive? WORKMANSHIP= STUPID ####
  3. Explain about dogs and wedges and how to remove and repair!! If the weld is 100% pen no worries apart from ugly!!
  4. Reinforce about the correct settings!! The ER70S-6 has high silicon because Malaysia only uses co2 whish needs more deoxidants.
  5. This needs to be explained for on site bridge abutments