SlideShare a Scribd company logo
REPORT ON VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT




                               Submitted By:-
                      Kumar Nishant (10201026)
                       Sunil Kumar (10201055)
 (VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT REPORT SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL
     FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER IN
      BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ON RURAL MANAGEMENT)




HOST ORGANIZATION                           VSS CO-ORDINATOR

UDYOGINI                                    Prof. Jyotirmayee Acharya

REPORTING OFFICER                          FACULTY GUIDE
Ms. Ketaki Narkar                           Prof. H.S. Ganesha

Enterprise Promotion Manager                MBA-RM Coordinator
Udyogini School of Entrepreneurship



        KIIT SCHOOL OF RURAL MANAGEMENT (KSRM)
                        BHUBANESWAR, INDIA
                (VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT 2010-12)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost we are thankful to Prof. (Dr.) L. K. Vaswani, DIRECTOR, KIIT School of
Rural Management for placing the Village Study Segment (VSS) fieldwork Component as a part
of our course curricula. We would like to express our gratitude to Professor (Dr.) Jyotirmayee
Acharya, Coordinator, VSS to facilitate throughout by playing different roles as mentor,
coordinator and supervisor and for inputs and moral support for designing and completion of the
report. We are thankful to the faculty guide Prof H. S. Ganesha for his guidance and assessment
of this report.

We have immense pleasure in expressing our deep sense of gratitude, indebtedness and sincere
thanks to our esteemed Reporting Officer Ms. Ketaki Narkar, Enterprise Promotion Manager and
team member Mr. Kumar Padmanabh of Udyogini who facilitated our accommodation and made
us to learn all the VSS components by doing and interacting with the villagers. We are thankful
for their feedback and insight to our theme paper and support for the RAC and to share with us
useful experiences during the village study. We are also thankful to Mr. Prashanto Mandal,
EPM; Ms. Yojana Lama, EPE and Ms. Punam Rai, EPE of Udyogini who helped us immensely
in our project and ensured that our visit turns more meaningful.

In order to complete fieldwork successfully, I would like to present special thanks to all the
research participants and villagers who provided their valuable time and made our stay
meaningful and study valuable. We are extremely happy to reveal our special thanks to our
classmates for their inspiration.




Kumar Nishant (10201026)

Sunil Kumar (10201055)




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                Page 2
ABSTRACT

Author: Kumar Nishant and Sunil Kumar

Host Organization: UDYOGINI, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh

Village Report: A report of the Samaiya village of Niwas Block, Mandla district was developed
by conducting household survey through a structured schedule.

Rural Action Components: The action component aimed to provide Grass roots management
training to the Women Entrepreneur Group (WEG) formed by Udyogini, conduction of a rally on
Women’s day to promote enterprise and entrepreneurship among women’s and a skit on
advantages of enterprise and entrepreneurship.

National Service Scheme: The main objective of NSS activities carried out is to create
awareness about of common diseases and prevention. To discuss among the villagers about the
State Govt. health schemes for women also we focused our NSS on children to increase their
awareness level and motivate them to come to school.

Theme paper: Assessment of willingness to pay of the community for the services and products
identified for being offered through Village Level Service Centers
Organization profile of the host organization was documented. The major objective was study of
existing supply chain established by Udyam Jagaran Sansthan (UJAS), to check for the
willingness of the community to pay for the identified products and services in the project areas
of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. A study in both financial and operational aspects of
different opportunities was carried out to understand the various perspectives for the initiatives
undertaken by Udyogini

Research Design: The main endeavor in the study was to check the willingness of the products
and services for Tribal community people that can be incorporated into the existing supply chain
of the UJAS. For this Semi Structured questionnaire is develop to collect the primary data.
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Focused Group Discussion (FGD) and Mass Meetings are
organized to conduct NSS and Rural Action Component activities, 32 Household surveys was
carried out and a schedule is designed to collect information from the individual on their

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                  Page 3
priorities on alternative livelihood. The secondary data is provided by organization. Interaction
with concerned officials also helped to understand the things better.


Study Findings:
During our stay in the village we found that giving right information can help people to make
right decision. We observed that the people of the villages have the potential and skill to come up
from poverty and misery but the most important thing they lack is information and knowledge
about what is happening around the World. We saw that mere distribution of money by
government and NGOs has degraded the communities’ value and generated a feeling of
dependency. We learnt the importance of life skills & functional literacy which will help them to
operate & manage their enterprise. The households have very small amount of savings which is
not enough for their risk mitigation. The rate of interest charged is 5-10 percent per month and
repayment period remain longer with number of self consumption loans being more taken by the
households. We also learnt that social rural marketing can bring an economic empowerment
with the help of WEG formation as this inculcates saving habits among the rural women.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                   Page 4
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1: VILLAGE REPORT



INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 11
2 OBJECTIVES: ......................................................................................................................... 11
3 METHODOLOGY: ................................................................................................................. 12
   3.1 SOURCE OF DATA: ............................................................................................................................. 12
   3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN: ............................................................................................................................... 12
   3.3 DATA ANALYSIS: ................................................................................................................................ 12
   3.4 LIMITATIONS OF DATA COLLECTION:................................................................................................ 12
4 GEOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE...................................................................... 13
   4.1 Location:............................................................................................................................................ 13
   4.2 History of the Village:........................................................................................................................ 13
   4.3 Demography of Village: ..................................................................................................................... 14
   4.4 Literacy Level: ................................................................................................................................... 14
   4.5 Social Structure: ................................................................................................................................ 14
   4.6 Institutions: ....................................................................................................................................... 15
   4.7 Gender Clock ..................................................................................................................................... 15
5 Weather and Seasonality ......................................................................................................... 16
   5.1 Weather ............................................................................................................................................ 16
   5.2 Temperature ..................................................................................................................................... 16
   5.3 Seasonality of Cropping Pattern: ...................................................................................................... 16
   5.4 Seasonality of Food Availability: ....................................................................................................... 17
   5.5 Seasonality of Diseases: .................................................................................................................... 17
   5.6 Period of happiness and sorrow: ...................................................................................................... 18
   5.7 Seasonality of Migration: .................................................................................................................. 18
      5.7.1 Force field analysis of Migration: ............................................................................................... 19
6 Natural Resources .................................................................................................................... 19
   6.1 Land:.................................................................................................................................................. 19
   6.2 Water: ............................................................................................................................................... 20

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                                                                             Page 5
6.3 Forestry: ............................................................................................................................................ 20
7 INFRASTRUCTURE .............................................................................................................. 21
   7.1 Roads:................................................................................................................................................ 21
   7.2 Electricity:.......................................................................................................................................... 21
   7.3 Drainage: ........................................................................................................................................... 21
   7.4 Communication: ................................................................................................................................ 21
   7.5 Social infrastructure .......................................................................................................................... 21
      7.5.1 Educational infrastructure ......................................................................................................... 21
      7.5.2 Anganwadi: ................................................................................................................................ 22
      7.5.3 Infrastructure Related to Health ................................................................................................ 22
      7.5.4 Defecation .................................................................................................................................. 22
      7.5.5 Infrastructure Related to the Drinking water ............................................................................ 22
      7.5.6 Cultural place ............................................................................................................................. 23
      7.5.7 Micro Enterprise: ....................................................................................................................... 23
      7.5.8 Community hall .......................................................................................................................... 23
8 Local Economy ......................................................................................................................... 23
   8.1 Income Source .................................................................................................................................. 23
   8.2 Livelihood .......................................................................................................................................... 23
   8.3 Primary and Secondary Occupation of the Village ........................................................................... 24
   8.4 Land holding pattern:........................................................................................................................ 24
   8.5 Agriculture......................................................................................................................................... 25
   8.6 SERVICE HOLDERS ............................................................................................................................. 26
      8.6.1 Government Service: ................................................................................................................. 26
      8.6.2 Private Service:........................................................................................................................... 26
   8.7 Market Linkage ................................................................................................................................. 26
   8.8 Expenditure Pattern .......................................................................................................................... 26
9 Consumption ............................................................................................................................ 27
   9.1 Products ............................................................................................................................................ 27
   9.2 Food availability ................................................................................................................................ 27
   9.3 Housing Pattern: ............................................................................................................................... 28
   9.4 Banks ................................................................................................................................................. 28


School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                                                                             Page 6
9.5 Credit................................................................................................................................................. 28
      9.5.1 Trader/ Money Lenders: ............................................................................................................ 28
      9.5.2 Friends and Acquaintances: ....................................................................................................... 28
      9.5.3 Banks: ......................................................................................................................................... 29
   9.6 SHGs: ................................................................................................................................................. 29
10 Village Level Committee: ...................................................................................................... 29
11 Political and Governance System ......................................................................................... 30
   11.1 Political system: .............................................................................................................................. 30
   11.2 Panchayati Raj Institutions:............................................................................................................. 30
   11.3 Gram Sabha:.................................................................................................................................... 30
12 Government Schemes: ........................................................................................................... 30
13 STATUS OF WOMEN .......................................................................................................... 31
14 PLANS OF THE VILLAGE ................................................................................................. 32
   14.1 Short Term Plans: ............................................................................................................................ 32
   14.2 Long term plans: ............................................................................................................................. 32
15 SWOT Analysis: ..................................................................................................................... 32
16 Relationships with Other Communities ............................................................................... 33
17 CONCLUSIONS: ................................................................................................................... 33
Appendices ................................................................................................................................... 36




PART 2: ORGANIZATION PROFILE
1 Organization Overview ........................................................................................................... 41
   1.1 Vision................................................................................................................................................. 42
   1.2 Mission .............................................................................................................................................. 42
2 Operational Areas .................................................................................................................... 42
   2.1 Where it works:................................................................................................................................. 43
3 Organization Structure ........................................................................................................... 44
4 Retrospective: ........................................................................................................................... 44
5 Approaches: .............................................................................................................................. 45


School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                                                                             Page 7
6 Operational Frameworks: ....................................................................................................... 46
7 Services offered: ....................................................................................................................... 46
8 Major funding partners: ......................................................................................................... 46
9 Operational Model of VLSC ................................................................................................... 47
10 Overall Activities: .................................................................................................................. 47
11 Key Achievements:................................................................................................................. 48
12 Future plan of organization: ................................................................................................. 48



PART 3: THEME PAPER
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 50
   1.1 Background of the study: .................................................................................................................. 50
   1.2 Rationale of the Project: ................................................................................................................... 51
   1.3 Objective of the Study: ..................................................................................................................... 51
   1.4 Scope: ................................................................................................................................................ 51
   1.5 Limitations of the Study: ................................................................................................................... 51
RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 52
   2.1 Study area and target group: ............................................................................................................ 52
   2.2 Sample Design: .................................................................................................................................. 53
   2.3 Sampling Method: ............................................................................................................................. 53
   2.4 Survey Design: ................................................................................................................................... 53
      2.4.1 Collection of primary data: ........................................................................................................ 53
      2.4.2 Collection of Secondary Data: .................................................................................................... 53
   2.5 Methods of Data Analysis Techniques: ............................................................................................. 53
   2.6 Time Frame: ...................................................................................................................................... 53
   2.7 Study Area Profile: ............................................................................................................................ 53
WILLINGNESS PROFILE ....................................................................................................... 54
   3.1 Products and Services for which willingness has to be found: ......................................................... 54
   3.2 Demands for Products and Services: ................................................................................................ 55
   3.3 Description of Services:..................................................................................................................... 55
4 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 67
   4.1 Major findings of the Study: ............................................................................................................. 67

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                                                                             Page 8
5 Suggestions: .............................................................................................................................. 68
We suggest the following services for feasibility check: .......................................................... 68



PART 4: RURAL ACTION COMPONENT
1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 74
2 Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 74
3 Methodology: ............................................................................................................................ 74
4 Activity Profile: ........................................................................................................................ 75
5 RAC Place: ............................................................................................................................... 75
6 The Process: .............................................................................................................................. 76
7 Outcomes and Impact: ............................................................................................................ 76
8 Key Success Factor: ................................................................................................................. 77
9 Lessons Learnt: ........................................................................................................................ 77
10 Overall observations as a grassroots change agent ............................................................. 77
   10.1 Challenges Ahead:........................................................................................................................... 77
   10.2 Suggestions to the above challenges: ............................................................................................. 78
Case Study ................................................................................................................................... 79



PART 5: NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 83
2 Objective of NSS: ..................................................................................................................... 83
3 Activity Profile: ........................................................................................................................ 84
Skit: Advantages of doing Enterprise and Entrepreneurship ................................................ 89




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                                                                   Page 9
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
Adivasi: Tribal
Gond tribe: A Caste of Tribal
Baiga tribe: A caste of Tribal
Karma: A flok dance of Gond and Baiga Tribal
Hareli: A Tribal festival
Madayi Mela: A Seasonal Local Fair.
Paddy: An Agriculture Produce
Kodu: An Agriculture Produce
Kutki: An Agriculture Produce
Jagni: An Agriculture Produce
Massor: An Agriculture Produce
Alsi: An Agriculture Produce
Mahua: NTFPs
Amla: NTFPs
Tendu Patta: NTFPs
Galla: Agriculture Produce
UJAS: Udyam Jagran Santhan
VLSCs: Village Level Service Center
CLSCs: Cluster Level Service Center
FGDs: Focus Group Discussion
PRA: Participatory Rural Appraisal
NTFPs: Non Timber Forest Produce




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar   Page 10
INTRODUCTION

As part of the field work module of Village Study Segment course, we conducted survey of

village Samaiya in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. We were assigned a host organization, a

non government organization named UDYOGINI working in the Mandla district of Madhya

Pradesh. We had the opportunity to closely observe the various forms of interventions and

interactions taking place within the village and understand the impact of such interventions on

the lives of the people of the village.




2 OBJECTIVES:
The main objective of village study segment is:

     To get insight into the socio-economic and cultural realities of rural life.
     To understand the dynamics of various village level institution in addressing the
        developmental work
     To understand the status of women; their contribution and the role played by them in
        developing rural entrepreneurship
     To understand the dynamics of social structure, infrastructure, resources, and various
        intervention on the villagers and how it effects them
     To blend class room learning with the field experience




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                              Page 11
3 METHODOLOGY:
The data collected are on demography, social structure, infrastructure facilities, agro-climatic
resources, village economy, village organizations and people’s institutions and the issues of
development. Both Quantitative and Qualitative data were collected. The quantitative data were
on population, land holding, literacy rate. The qualitative data were quality of drinking water,
quality of the road, housing pattern, sanitation, food habit which were obtained from the village
after the interaction with the villagers and with use of tools like PRAs, Focused Group
discussion, informal meetings.

3.1 SOURCE OF DATA:
The required data were collected from both primary source and secondary source.

The primary data were collected from direct interaction with villagers during household surveys
(through questionnaire given by college), PRA exercise, focused group discussions, informal
interviews, SHGs meeting, non- participatory observation and other village meetings.

The secondary data were collected from Gram Panchayat Office, veterinary hospital, Revenue
Office, Patwari, Anganwadi, Primary School, Sarpanch and Internet.

3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN:
For questionnaire survey systematic random sampling was done. 32 households were selected
randomly; efforts were made to collect different information regarding social and economical
status of the villagers from all caste, and economic group.

3.3 DATA ANALYSIS:
Statistical tools like tables, graphs, bar charts, averages, percentages etc. were used to analyze
the data collected on various things like, caste, sex ratio, different occupations, livestock, assets,
land holding pattern, literacy level, and different infrastructure like road, electrification etc

3.4 LIMITATIONS OF DATA COLLECTION:
a). People hesitate to tell about the details regarding income and assets.

b). Most of the people are working under MNREGA therefore they are available only in the
evening.

c). People are not clear about the present value of their asset.



School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                       Page 12
4 GEOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE
4.1 Location:
Samaiya village is located in Niwas block of Mandla district in the state of Madhya Pradesh. It
comes under Singhpur Panchayat. It is located 7 km from Niwas, 60 km from Mandla town and
65 km from Jabalpur. The village is divided into four hamlets, It is situated on upland, and has
an area of about 400 acre out of which 200 acre is under forest.

Table 1: Location of the Village
Village                                              Samaiya
Block                                                Niwas
District                                             Mandla
State                                                Madhya Pradesh
Boundaries
       East                                          Singhpur
       West                                          Khudri
       North                                         Pipariya
       South                                         Devdungari
Parliamentary Constituency                           Niwas
Source: Transect walk, Panchayat Office

4.2 History of the Village:
Time 2: Line of the Village
Year                Description
1950                Village Established
1955                First Bicycle
1976                First Open Well
1979                Establishment of Primary School
1986                First Boy to pass high school(10th)
1990                First Hand pump
1990                Electrification
1991                First Girl to pass high school(10th)
1995                First Television
1996                Establishment of Anganwadi
1996                Construction of Durga Manch
2005                Village included in MPRLP
2006                Starting of NREGA work
2006                First Tractor
2006                Ladali Yojana
2007                Samuhik Vivah Yojana
2007                First motorbike
2008                Metal Road
2009                Construction of Temple

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                               Page 13
2009             Formation of SHG
2010             First Mobile phone
Source: Informal meetings, Focused group discussion with villagers

4.3 Demography of Village:
Total population of the village is 613; out of which total numbers of male is 324 and total
number of female is 289. The sex ratio of the village is 892 female per 1000 males. The total
number of children is 206 out of which number of boys and girls (between 0-18) is 115 and 91
respectively. The population belonging to the age group of 18 and above constitutes 66 % of the
total population, 9% per cent belong to the age group of 0-6 years and 25% per cent belong to the
age group 7-18.
Table 3: Households and Population dynamics of Samaiya
Caste-wise distribution        Total No. of     Total No. of    No. of      No. of       Total
                               households       BPL             Males       Females      Population
ST         SC         OBC                       households
  112         12          4         128               35           324         289           613
Source: Survey done by MPRLP in 2009

4.4 Literacy Level:
The literacy level of the village is 58%, out of this 72% males of the village are literate whereas
just 43% females of the village are literate. Adult male literacy rate is found to be 69% and adult
female literacy rate is 33%. Also 75% and 59% of the boy’s and girl’s respectively in the age
group of 0-18 are literate. This increase in literacy level of girl’s indicates that the villagers are
now concerned about the girl’s education also this increase is mainly due to the programs
launched by government.

4.5 Social Structure:
The village has a homogenous population of Hindu. The social group composition of village
Samaiya is divided amongst the Schedule Tribes (ST), Schedule Castes (SC) and Other
Backward Caste (OBC). Hierarchy based class structure is not very visible 88% of the
households i.e. 112 belong to schedule tribe, 9% i.e. 12 belongs to schedule caste and rest 3% i.e.
4 is of backward class.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                     Page 14
4.6 Institutions:
Various formal and Informal institutions in and around the village Samaiya are as follows:

Table 4: formal and informal institutions
        From                          To                Institutions             Distance
       Samaiya                     Jabalpur           Railway Station             70 KM
       Samaiya                     Mandla           District Headquarter          60 KM
       Samaiya                      Niwas                   Tehsil                 7 KM
       Samaiya                      Niwas                  Janpath                 7 KM
       Samaiya                      Niwas          Primary Health Centre           7 KM
       Samaiya                      Niwas           Veterinary Hospital            7 KM
       Samaiya                      Niwas              Police Station              7 KM
       Samaiya                      Niwas           State Bank of India            7 KM
       Samaiya                     Pipariya                Market                  2 KM
       Samaiya                     Pipariya          Cooperative Bank              2 KM
       Samaiya                     Pipariya            Cattle market               2 KM
       Samaiya                     Pipariya             High School                2 KM
       Samaiya                     Pipariya            Middle School               2 KM
       Samaiya                     Pipariya              Bus Stand                 2 KM
       Samaiya                    Singhpur                   PDS                  ½ KM
       Samaiya                    Singhpur            Gram Panchayat              ½ KM
       Samaiya                  Inside Village       Anganwadi centre              0 KM
       Samaiya                  Inside Village        Primary School               0 KM
       Samaiya                  Inside Village             Temple                  0 KM
Source: PRA

4.7 Gender Clock
Table 5 Gender Clock
Time                   Activities of female       Time             Activities of male
4:00-5:00 am           Get up                     4:00-5:00 am     Get up
5:00-6:00 am           Go for Toilet, Bringing    5:00-6:00 am     Go for Toilet, brush
                       water, Cleaning house,                      teeth and go to field
                       Cleaning utensils,                          for inspection
6:00 – 8:00 am         preparing tea, Bathing,    6:00-8:00 am     Having tea, Take
                       cooking                                     animal for grazing

8:00-9:00 am           Serving food, send         8:00-9:00 am     Take bath, breakfast
                       children to school, take                    and go to work/field
                       breakfast go to
                       field/forest/labor work
9:00-12:00 pm          field/forest/labor work/   9:00-12:00 pm    field/forest/labor work
                       household chores


School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                   Page 15
12:00-1:00 pm         Come back from             12:00-1:00 pm    Come back from
                      field/work, Take Lunch                      field/work, Take
                      and go back to field/labor                  Lunch and go back to
                      work.                                       field/labor work.
1:00-5:00 pm          Work/field                 1:00-5:00 pm     Work/field

5:00-6:00 pm          Bringing water, cleaning   5:00-6:00 pm     Come back from the
                      utensils                                    field, go to bring
                                                                  livestock from field
7:00-8:00 pm          Cooking                    7.00 - 8:00 pm   Get fresh, take tea,
                                                                  gather to chat with
                                                                  friends/neighbors
8:00-9:00 pm          Dinner                     8:00 -9:00 pm    Dinner

9:00-5:00 am          Sleep                      9:00-5:00 am     Sleep

Source: Focused Group Discussion


5 Weather and Seasonality
5.1 Weather
The Mandla district receive average rainfall of 1580 mm. 70-80% of annual rainfall is received
southwest monsoon period i.e. June-September. The agriculture in the village is rain fed. The
climate is hot and humid during summer and cold during winter.

5.2 Temperature
The climate is hot and humid during summer and cold during winter. The mercury rises sharply
in the summer and touches about 44-45 degree Celsius in the summer and dips as far as 1-2
degree Celsius in the winter. The climate of the village is characterized by an oppressively hot
summer with high humidity. Summer generally commences in the month of March.
Seasonality:

5.3 Seasonality of Cropping Pattern:
Table 6: Major NTFP
Sl. No.   Name of Product                 Time of Flowering         Time of Harvesting
1         Maua                            Chait (March-April)       Baisakh (April-May)
2         Tend leaf                                                 Fagun (February-March)
Source: PRA



School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                 Page 16
Table 7: Major crops
Sl.     Season             Name of Crop     Time of Sowing               Time of Harvesting
No.
1                          Paddy            Ashadh (June-July)           Mid Kartik (October)
2                          Maize            Ashadh (June-July)           Kuwar (September-Oct.)
3                          Kutki            Sawan (July-August)          Aghan (December-Jan.)
4       Kharif             Kodo             Mid ashadh (June)            Aghan (December-Jan.)
5                          Ramtilla         Sawan (July-August)          Aghan (December-Jan.)
6                          Arhar            Ashadh (June-July)           Magh (January-Feb.)
7                          Wheat            Mid Kartik (October)         Mid Baisakh (April-May)
8       Rabi               Rai              Aashin (September-Oct.)      Aghan (December-Jan.)
9                          Batra            Kartik (October-Nov.)        Fagun (February-March)
10                         Masoor           Kartik (October-Nov.)        Fagun (February-March)
Source: PRA

5.4 Seasonality of Food Availability:
Although more than 90% of the villagers are engaged in agriculture but due to low fertility of the
soil and lack of irrigation facility production is not up to the mark. Scarcity of food is common
during June, July, and August.

5.5 Seasonality of Diseases:
Table 7: Seasonality of Disease
Types of       Jan     Feb     Marc   Apri May       June Jul      Aug      Sept   Oct   Nov     Dec
Disease                        h      l                   y
Cold/Coug
h              ***     ***     **     *       *      *       *     *        *      *     ***     ***
Headache
               *       *       **     ***     ***    **      ***   ***      *      *     *       *
Diarrhea
               *       *       ***    ***     ***    **      ***   ***      *      *     *       *
Malaria
               *       *       *      *       *      **      **    **       *      *     *       *
Sun Stroke
               *      *     *         *** ***       ***    *      *      *       *      *        *
*, **, *** indicate rare occurrence, often observed and severely occurred respectively.

Source: PRA




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                     Page 17
5.6 Period of happiness and sorrow:
Table 8: Happiness and Sorrow
       Indicator      Season                         Reason
                      Magh (January-Feb)             Greenery
                                                     Good climate
       Sorrow         Jeth (May-June)                Very hot, Sum stroke, malaria
       Sorrow         Ashadh (June-July)             No work no money
                      Sawan (July-August)
       Average        Fagun (February-March)         Availability of food
                      Baisakh (April-May)
Source: PRA



5.7 Seasonality of Migration:
Migration is very common in the village and it is mainly cyclic migration. Migration is mainly
due to push factor, the primary reason for migration is lack of employment opportunities in the
village. Other reasons are lack of food availability need for money etc. People mostly migrate to
the nearby city like Jabalpur. Most of them engage in labor work and very few people work as

agricultural labor Migration is common in the          Migration Details
month of January, February, July and August as         Migrated                         72%
there is no work available in the village and          For Job                          100%
during this time no cropping is done. On an            City                             74%
average a person migrate for 36 days, 48%              Town                             26%
people live in tent in the city where they migrate     Avg. no. of days for migration   36 days
and just 30% people live in pucca house during         Avg. earning/month               1878
migration and 22% people lives in kuchha house         Residence (pucca)                30%
at the destination place. .                            Residence (kuchha)               22%

Source: FGD, Survey                                    Residence (Tent)                 48%




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                Page 18
5.7.1 Force field analysis of Migration:
                INHIBITING FORCE                           INDUCING FORCE




                 1. Emotional attachment to the
                       Village                          1. Unemployment



.                          2. High cost of living

                                                      2. Food shortage
                        3. Excess work during
                                   Migration

                                                       3. Debt

                      4. Lack of proper housing

                                      facility       4. Landlessness




                           5. Low quality food         5. Low agriculture production




                               6. Illness or death        6. Draught

Source: focused group discussion


6 Natural Resources
6.1 Land:
According to the villagers the fertility of soil is not good because of which yield per hectare is
very less. The village is situated on uplands or mid up land where texture of soil is loamy
Murom with or without clay. Depth of soil is also shallow to moderate. Fertility is moderate;
the soil is black, red or rocky in texture. The land use pattern in village is as follows:




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                     Page 19
Table 9: Land Holding Pattern


              Land use                            Area in hectare
Cultivable land                                   185 acre
Fallow Land                                       15 acre
Forest Land                                       200 acre
Total geographical area                           400 acre


Source: Patwari of the village

6.2 Water:
The Village has six hand pumps for the drinking water of which one is not functioning now.
Village has good drinking water facility as these pumps provide hygienic water. There are few
households which are little far away from the hand pump and well therefore they face a lot of
problem for drinking water. There are also few households who use River water for drinking
purpose and the water is not suitable for drinking purpose. Villages have 11 open wells of which
4 are public and rest is of private ownership. The village has a pond of approximately 0.5 acre
for drinking water for their livestock. The water in two of the open well is present throughout the
year and is used by most of the villagers. One of these well is used for drinking purpose while
other is used for bathing purpose. There is also a small River Balai flowing south of the village
which is used for drinking and bathing for the nearby households.

6.3 Forestry:
As village is situated on upland, it is surrounded by forest. Though a large part of forest is
depleted due to excessive use of resources but it still provides a lot of tangible and intangible
benefits to the villagers. Villagers gets not only fuel wood but also a number of non timber forest
produce like Maua and Tend patta which adds to their source of livelihood. The forest has
mainly tress of sagon, mahua, palash, Tend and other trees which are used as fuel. Forest doesn’t
have any animal species except wild pig, fox, monkey, rabbit and some varieties of birds like
peacock.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                  Page 20
7 INFRASTRUCTURE
7.1 Roads:
The village is connected through a concrete Road, near the village there is PCC which is of 1km
in stretch. Inside the village road are both Kuchha and Pucca. The sample survey shows that 59%
of the households say that the road is dilapidated, 22% of the road is of poor quality, 16% of the
road is average and just 3% of the sample says that the road is of good quality.

7.2 Electricity:
The village was electrified in 1990; most of the households are electrified. Electricity is available
approximately 12 hours with two interruptions in a day. The sample survey shows that 80% of
the households are electrified. There are 4 mohallas in the village out of which three are
electrified. The village receives electricity for 12 hours every day with two breaks in a day.

7.3 Drainage:
Drainage is a problem in the village because there is lack of drainage line on both side of roads,
even road is Kaccha on some places. That is why water stagnation is a serious problem in the
village, especially in rainy season in this particular season stagnant water invites monsoon
diseases like malaria and diarrhea.

7.4 Communication:
There is no land line phone available in this village. Mobile phone network was available 1km
away from village till 2009. The proper use of mobile phone started in 2010. The village has
network connectivity of BSNL, Reliance CDMA & GSM

7.5 Social infrastructure
7.5.1 Educational infrastructure
There is one Primary school in the village, Middle school is situated in the neighboring village
Singhpur which is just half km from the village, and High school is situated at Pipariya which is
two km from the village. The strength of the school is 67 including 39 boys and 28 girls and
three teachers to teach them. The school has been provided with midday meal facilities for the
children under Sarvashiksha Abhiyan. There is no toilet facility for students in the school.

During our village stay and teaching in the Primary School we noticed that in spite of good
facilities provided the learning of the children is very poor. The students of 5th std. are not able to

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                     Page 21
read properly nor are they good at solving simple mathematical problems. Students of different
classes’ seat together, teachers are inefficient in teaching and are not able to bring discipline
among students and nor are they willing to do so.

7.5.2 Anganwadi:
The Anganwadi is established in 1996 in the village but till now it’s not having its own building;
its building is under construction and is expected to become functional by next one month.
Anganwadi worker and Asha are in village itself and are working efficiently. They provide
services like Supplementary nutrition, Non-formal pre-school education, Immunization, Health
Check-up, Referral services, Nutrition and Health Education.

7.5.3 Infrastructure Related to Health
There is no health facility available in the village. The Primary Health Centre is located 7 km
from the village. According to the villagers the PHC is running well, the number of Doctors is
adequate and all the health facilities are in good condition. General fever, Malaria, Diarrhea, are
common in the village. There is an Asha worker in the village that provides vaccination to the
children and also informs people about different diseases.
From the household survey we found that 41.5 percent of the respondent feels the PHC is
running well while 39 percent feel there are not sufficient doctors while 14 percent are not happy
with the competence of doctor. 4.5% people feel PHC is lacking in basic facilities.

7.5.4 Defecation
91% of the houses in the village practice open defecation while the rest have toilet facilities.
Households having toilet facility also prefer to go in the open for defecation; toilets are mostly
used by small children’s.



7.5.5 Infrastructure Related to the Drinking water
The village has 6 Hand pumps for drinking water facility out of which one is not functioning.
There are 11 open well out of which 4 are for use others are of private. Most of the households
use water from an open well for drinking purpose, very few people use water from hand pump as
the water is not suitable for drinking purpose. Few households use water from river for drinking
purpose but the water is not hygienic. Few house hold complained about the distant location of
the hand pump.


School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                  Page 22
7.5.6 Cultural place
There are 2 temples in which the villagers offer their prayers.

7.5.7 Micro Enterprise:
Out of 128 households only five households have small shop which keeps some basic need items
like, Matchbox, Bidi, Candies, Snacks, Soap, detergent, cosmetics, biscuit, gutkha etc. There are
three women SHGs which are involved in handicraft work and a men SHG involved in fishing
activity.

7.5.8 Community hall
There is a community hall present in the village and is presently being used as Durga Manch.


8 Local Economy
8.1 Income Source
According to the house hold survey the average annual income of the family is Rs 31300,
average annual expenditure is Rs 21100 and average annual savings is Rs 12000.These savings is
used for the creating assets and some part of it is saved to cope with future crises.

8.2 Livelihood
The livelihood of villagers is multidimensional; people are engaged in a number of activities.
Villagers try to do maximum work to meet the family needs. Most of the people in the village
have agriculture as the primary source of income, apart from this they also do work as wage
laborers in government schemes or private works. If they do not have work in village they
migrate to nearby city to earn some livelihood. Since the village is surrounded by forest they
gather Maua and Tend patta from there and either sell it in the market to get some money or keep
some for their own consumption. Few women’s are engaged in handicraft activity from last one
year and few men also do fishing for their livelihood.
Figure 1: Economic Activities
                                     8%                        4%
                                7%
                                                                                 Agricultural
                                                         41%
                                      13%                                        wage labour
                                                                                 salaried job
                                                                                 Migration
                                            27%                                  Business
                                                                                 forest Produce


Source: Household Survey

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                   Page 23
8.3 Primary and Secondary Occupation of the Village
 Figure 2: Primary Occupation                        Figure 3 Secondary Occupation
                                                                                     Non Agri-laborer

    19%                                                                              Farmer Cultivator
                                                          6% 3% 3%
                                                    3%
                                                                                     Salaried Job

                  81%           Farmer/Cultivator                                    No secondary
                                                                       72%           Occupation
                                                    13%
                                                                                     Homemaker
                                Non Agri-laborer                                     (housewife)
                                                                                     Agri-laborer



Source: Household Survey

From the household survey we found that 26 of 32 households were engaged in agriculture as
primary occupation and only 6 households were engaged in other activity.
Apart from agriculture people are engaged in Activities like non-agriculture laborer, farm
cultivator, Services, agriculture laborer, home maker etc as secondary occupation. 72% People
are engaged in non agriculture- laborer as secondary occupation. 13% are engaged as farm
cultivator. From the household survey we found that 56% of the earning members are male and
44% earning members are female. The wage rate in the village is Rs 100 for both male and
female working under MNREGA; whereas for village work, wage rate is Rs 60.

8.4 Land holding pattern:
The land holding pattern of Samaiya village is pointed out in the pie chart. There are 9% people
who do not have land; they are dependent on wage labor as well as migration for livelihood. 22%
has below three acre land and they are engaged both in agriculture as well as non-agriculture job
to sustain their livelihood. 22% have between 3-5 acre land and they used the land in proper
manner for cultivation because the land is limited and most of the household members are
engaged in agriculture. 31% households have land between 5-10 acre and above 10 acre land
holder are 16%.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                       Page 24
Figure 4 Land Distribution

                                        16%       9%
     Landless
                                                            22%
     Below 3 Acre
     Between 3 to 5
                                      31%
     Between 5 to 10                             22%
     Above 10 Acr




Source: Patwari of the Village

8.5 Agriculture

Most of the people are dependent on agriculture; the agriculture practice is mainly primitive in
nature and labor intensive. Agriculture is mainly rain fed due to non availability of water for
irrigation purpose. It is found that the soil is blackish to red loamy and even rocky at some
places. Though some of the farmers use urea along with cow dung as fertilizers; however,
application of cow dung is found to be prevalent in the village. Most of the crops produced are
consumed only a small part of it is sold in the local market. On an average a household earns Rs
13000 per year from agriculture.
              Table 10: Yield per Hectare
               Product Name          Yield
               Rice                  16.5 quintal/hectare
               Wheat                 29 quintal/hectare
               Maize                 12 quintal/hectare
               Rai                   14 quintal/hectare
               Batra                 18 quintal/hectare
               Masoor                7 quintal/hectare
               Arhar                 6.5 quintal/hectare
               Ramtilla              6 quintal/hectare
               Kodo                  5 quintal/ hectare
               Kutki                 5 quintal/hectare
               Chana                 13 quintal/hectare
               Alsi                  7.5 quintal/hectare
               Urad                  5 quintal/hectare


Source: FGD




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                               Page 25
8.6 SERVICE HOLDERS
There are ten service holders in the village out of which 8 are envolved in government service
and two are involved in private service. From household survey we found that on an average a
service holder earns Rs 2000 per month.

8.6.1 Government Service:
      Kotwar of village
      Asha worker
      Anganwadi worker
      Peon ( Education Department)
      Peon (Irrigation Department)
      Teacher ( High School)
      Stenographer (Irrigation Department)
      SAF ( MP Police)

8.6.2 Private Service:
      Program Assistant
      Health Worker

8.7 Market Linkage
The nearest market available for the villagers is at Pipariya which is 2 km from the village. The
market is held weekly i.e. on Saturday. Every household of the village go to this market for
purchasing goods for the whole week. The market is very huge containing almost all products
required by the villagers ranging from fruits, vegetables, clothes, makeup products, soaps &
detergents, sweets, all type of galla items etc. Many villagers also sell their products in the
market. Villagers usually go to the market by walking with their family.

A major product which come in and goes out from the village are annexed at the end.

8.8 Expenditure Pattern
From the household survey we found that 64% of the income is spend on food, on an average a
household spends Rs 1100 per month of food consumption.7% i.e. approx. Rs 1400 p.a. is spend
on clothing, 5% i.e. approx. Rs 1100 p.a. is spend on health care, 5% i.e. Rs 1000 p.a. is spend
on toiletries. Rest others constitute 20% of the total expenditure.


School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                 Page 26
Figure 5: Average Expenditure
                                      1% 4%   2%                          Food Consumption
                      10% 1%
                                                                          Clothing
                       11%                                                Health Care
                                                    64%                   Electricity & Travelling
                        7%                                                Housing
                                                                          Education
                                                                          Social Function
                                                                          Agri. Related Exp.


Source: Survey


9 Consumption
9.1 Products
There is no processing unit in the village. So people sell their raw material and grain stock in the
nearby market Main products of the village are the agricultural and forest produce. The
production of agricultural produce is just sufficient for the villagers, though they sell some
produce like Rai, Kodo, Kutaki, Jagni, Wheat, Arhar, Masoor, Batra etc. in the local and weekly
market of Pipariya. Apart from this they also sell NTFP like Mahua and Tend leaf to these
markets.

9.2 Food availability
According to the household survey most of the households are deficit in food availability. In case
of cereals 41% of the households have sufficient production and just 3% have surplus
production. In case of pulse 34% households have sufficient production; in case of oil 22% have
sufficient production. The village has very less production of vegetables, fruits and cash crops.

Figure 6: Food Availability

 100%
   80%
                                                                                       Surplus
   60%
                                                                                       Deficit
   40%
   20%                                                                                 Sufficient for
                                                                                       Family
    0%
            Cereals           Pulse      Oil/Ghee   Vegetable   Fruit   Cash Crop


Source: Survey

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                     Page 27
9.3 Housing Pattern:
The village is divided in to 4 small hamlets’. The houses in the village are scattered, most of the
houses are located alongside the road of the village. Two houses of the village are Pucca houses,
except that all the houses in the village are thatched house made from brick, mud, stone, logs etc.
The walls are plastered with mud and colors are applied on them, roofs are made up of logs with
on them. All the houses in the village are painted either with white, sky blue or in combination of
both. Villagers keep their houses very clean by coating the floor regularly with cow dung or
mud.

Houses lack windows for ventilation. The housing area including the kitchen garden varies from
20×40-60×40. In most of the household average number of the room are 3 except in few
household which are having 2 rooms. The houses are more in width than in length. In almost all
house hold the animal living is situated just after the entrance.

9.4 Banks
There are two banks located near the village, one is the Co-operative Bank which is located 2 km
from the village and another one is the State Bank of India which is located 7 km from the
village. Very few villagers have account in the Co-operative bank; most of the people have
account in the State Bank. The reason is the villagers receive their payment for working under
NREGS from State Bank Only. Before this scheme came very few villagers had a bank account
but after the starting of this scheme as well as a number of SHGs, most of the people are account
holder.

9.5 Credit
9.5.1 Trader/ Money Lenders:
This is the major source of the informal credit for the villagers, may it be for daily expenditure,
social function, medical expenses purchasing cattle’s or crop loan. The interest rate varies from
60-80% p.a. depending upon the emergency of credit.

9.5.2 Friends and Acquaintances:
This is source of informal credit system for the villagers. Borrowing of money and grains mostly
take place. In case of cash borrowings it is repaid by working as a wage labor where as the grains
are returned back after harvesting.



School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                  Page 28
9.5.3 Banks:
Very few people take loan from the bank primary reason is the process of taking loan is very
complicated in banks. Also taking loan from bank requires a lot of paper work and people have
to deposit their documents where as it is much easier to take money from money lenders as
people can get money very quickly.

9.6 SHGs:
Village has 6 SHGs formed by three different NGOs working in this village. An NGO naming
Ajeevika funded by MPRLP has formed 4 SHGs, Udyogini has formed 1 SHG and FES has
formed 1 SHG respectively.

1. Ajeevika is working very efficiently in this village; they have launched a number of poverty
   elevation schemes in the village. It is working on the basis of three tier systems, first they are
   working on group basis by forming SHGs, second on individual basis by providing fund for
   business and third they are creating assets which can be used by all the villagers
2. Udyogini: It formed its first WEG in 2008 but this group broke up. Currently it has formed a
   new group which is just 3 months old. This group is new and is involved in saving; each
   member of the group saves Rs 50 every month.
3. Foundation for Ecological Security: It is working in this village since 2009 and has formed
   one SHG.


10 Village Level Committee:
There are 5 village level committee, they are as follows:

       1. Gram Vikas Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005 with an objective to works
           for the development of the village and looks into new opportunities for development.
       2. Van Suraksha Samiti: it is the oldest committee formed in this village. It was formed
           in 1995 with the aim of protecting the forest and its resources. But now this
           committee is not working properly.
       3. Prashfutan Samiti: This committee was formed in 2008. This committee provides
           utensils, tent and other related goods at the time of marriage or any other social
           functions.



School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                    Page 29
4. Nigarani Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005.the main objective of this
           committee is to look after various constructions and development work in the village.
        5. Gram Kosh Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005. It works for any type of
           disaster management in the village. This committee is funded by Ajeevika which is a
           Madhya Pradesh Government Project. Its main objective is to provide financial
           support in case of Snake bite, delivery of child, sudden death in a poor family etc.


11 Political and Governance System
11.1 Political system:
There is no political party in the village, but there are some people using the political and social
influence to enhance the household income.

11.2 Panchayati Raj Institutions:
Panchayat office is located in the village Singhpur which is half km from the village. Mr. Munna
Singh Paraste is the Sarpanch of the Panchayat and he lives in the village Samaiya. Mr. Laman
Singh Warkare is the Up Sarpanch of the Panchayat. Village Panchayat take good care of the
villager’s day-to-day problems and the problems are sorted out in monthly Gram Sabha. Almost
all eligible voters participate in the Panchayat elections.

11.3 Gram Sabha:
Gram Sabha is a special type of meeting conducted in the village. Its main aim is to identify and
solve the problems related to village development plans. All the villagers attend these meetings
since they deal with the major problems of the village. Earlier Gram Sabha used to be held on 6th
of every month but now there is no fixed date as such, but it is held every month.


12 Government Schemes:
       Poverty Alleviation Program: National Rural Employment Gurantee Act (NAREGA) is
        running in the village. Currently it is working on water availability by digging wells
        throughout the Panchayat also work on “Merdh bandh” is to be done after completion of
        wells.
       Ladali Yojana: Under this scheme girl child would be given Rs 2 lakh when they
        complete 18 yr of age.


School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                    Page 30
   Samuhik Vivah: Under this scheme girl will be given jewelry, cloth and Rs 10,000 at the
        time of marriage.
       Antyodaya Yojana: It is distributing food grains, kerosene and sugar under Public
        Distribution System (PDS) to the villagers.

Source: Revenue Department


13 STATUS OF WOMEN
Table 11: Gender Analysis
Women’s participation       Women do not participate in local politics. Women’s vote is controlled
in Politics                 by men and Political parties do not see women as vote bank.
Agriculture                 Work is divided between both men and women. Women do the work
                            of removing weeds from the field and harvesting of the crops. Men do
                            the work of plough and sowing of seeds.
Land                        Both men and women have equal ownership over their ancestors land,
                            both gets equal amount of land.
Labor                       Both men and women receives equal wage for labor work
Marriage                    Girl is not forced for marriage by their parents. Girl is free to select the
                            person of her choice but inter caste marriage is not permitted.
Education                   Due to the government scheme of free education, girls are given all the
                            facilities like bicycle, books, stationary items, dress etc therefore most
                            of the girls go to school.
Family Planning             Women have equal right to decide the number of children she could
                            have.
Dowry                       Dowry is common in the village. Girls Parent’s have to give some
                            dowry in cash or kind to the boy’s family. Only after settlement of
                            dowry, wedding takes place
Decision making             Males are the decision maker in the family; women have a small role
                            in decision making.
Control over finance        Head of the family have the control over finance, most often males are
                            the head of the family
Source: FGD
School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                      Page 31
14 PLANS OF THE VILLAGE
14.1 Short Term Plans:
        Providing water for both drinking and an irrigation facility for this it is digging 15 wells
         throughout the Panchayat. 13.2 Long Term Plans:

14.2 Long term plans:
        Work on “merh bandh” i.e. boundary along the fields would be done throughout the
         village.
        Electrification of one part of the village i.e. a mohalla which is not yet electrified have to
         be electrified
        Construction of roads in the remaining part of the village which is kuchha.


15 SWOT Analysis:
                        STRENGTH                                   WEAKNESS
       Land                                          Lack of Water and irrigation equipments
       Forest                                        Illiteracy
       Jute                                          Low wage payment
       Handicraft, Brick making skill                Low saving habit
       Social capital
       Nuclear family

       Demand for Agriculture/NTFP                   Natural calamities
       Presence of Piparia Market                    Job insecurity
       Road connectivity                             Low repayment habit
       Weekly haat
       NGO intervention
       Government Schemes
                 OPPORTUNITIES                                     THREAT




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                       Page 32
16 Relationships with Other Communities
As life in the village is interwoven the villagers have harmonious relationship with nearby
villages. The village lack many basic facilities and therefore people have to visit these villages
for their day today requirement. They to go to Pipariya to buy Kirana items, weekly haat is also
located in Piapriya, Flour mill is also located in Pipariya, middle school is located in Singhpur,
Panchayat is also situated in Singhpur etc.


17 CONCLUSIONS:
The village study enabled me in studying the various aspects of the village life. We came to
know various things knowing which perhaps were not possible without staying in the village
among the rural population. My stay helped me to understand the lives of the villager, their need
and various dynamics relating to it.        The Firsthand experience is how they sustain their
livelihood, which kind of difficulties they face for livelihood and other expenses of household.
And we also saw the various development plans running in the village and impact of it helped
me to sharpen my understanding of these plans and ground realities associated with them. It’s
easy to stay outside the village and suggests various means for the development of village but the
real picture is quite different in the village. The village do have its bright color which is absent in
urban areas, even in many developed cities of the country. The facts like equality between
different caste, female position in the house, unity among villagers etc are among some of the
positive aspects of the village. Still there is sufficient scope of improvements in the village
related to the providing of livelihood opportunity to the villagers. We can say that providing
subsidies will not help but what the villagers actually needed is the information and knowledge
about their products, their value and their demand in the outside market, so that they could get
appropriate return for their hard work. And the second hand experience is how they cope up with
the expenditure when there have no job and suddenly natural disaster happened on the village
like Pala and other disasters.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                      Page 33
PRA techniques used:

1). Social Mapping and Resource Mapping:




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar   Page 34
2) Chapatti Diagram:




3) Seasonal Calendar:




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar   Page 35
Appendices
Annexure- 1: Caste wise Population Distribution (Source: PRA)

                  Caste Wise Population
Sl. No.   Surname          Caste     No. of Household
      1   Marawi             ST              9
      2   Amro               ST              6
      3   Paraste            ST              43
      4   Kulaste            ST              7
      5   Uike               ST              9
      6   Oiyam              ST              25
      7   Saiyam             ST              2
      8   Sakhde             ST              1
      9   Masram             ST              3
     10   Warkare            ST              2
     11   Pandram            ST              2
     12   Udaste             ST              3
     13   Vishwakarma       OBC              1
     14   Yadav             OBC              3
     15   Sarthi             SC              12
               Total                        128



School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar        Page 36
Annexure-2
Inflow of products
               Products/services used                                                  Local
Sl. No.        but not produced                 Annual Consumption in the area         Production
                                            Quantity    Price/Unit     Total Value
           1           Chocolate             48000          0.5           24000               No
           2           Body Soap              1700          10            17000               No
           3         Washing Soap             1700           5             8500               No
           4        Washing Powder            1700           5             8500               No
           5          Face Cream              2400           5            12000               No
           6             Gotha               48000           1            48000               No
           7         Vegetable Oil            2500          60           150000               No
           8         Dry Coconut              1000           5             5000               No
           9          Finger chips           24000           1            24000               No
          10             Sugar                1000          35            35000               No
          11              Tea                 6000           1             6000               No
          12           Agarbatti              500            5             2500               No
          13           Shampoo                2000           1             2000               No
          14          Tooth paste             2500          10            25000               No
          15             Biscuit              1500           5            75000               No
          16            Hair Oil              2000           1             2000               No
                                   Total Inflow                          444500
Source: Informal interview

Annexure-3

Outflow of Products:
Sl. No.             Products            quantity      price/unit     total value   demanded in
                1   Wheat               3000 kg       Rs 11/kg       Rs 33000      Pipariya
                2   Rai                 20000 kg      Rs 13/kg       Rs 260000     Pipariya
                3   Ramtilla            6000 kg       Rs 22/kg       Rs 132000     Pipariya
                4   Kodo                2500 kg       Rs 7/kg        Rs 17500      Pipariya
                5   Kutki               2500 kg       Rs 8/kg        Rs 20000      Pipariya
                6   Maize               2500 kg       Rs 7/kg        Rs 17500      Pipariya
                7   Arhar               2500 kg       Rs 22/kg       Rs 55000      Pipariya
                8   Batra               2000 kg       Rs 60/kg       Rs 120000     Pipariya
                9   Masoor              1000kg        Rs 12/kg       Rs 12000      Pipariya
               10   Maua                20000 kg      Rs 15/kg       Rs 300000     Pipariya
                                        200000
               11 Tendu patta           piece         Rs 0.4/piece   Rs 8000       Pipariya
               12 Handicraft                                         Rs 50000      Jabalpur
                                Annual Sell of products              Rs 102500
Source: Survey




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                  Page 37
Annexure: 4
Literacy rate
          75                            Male   Female


                                                                41
                                        34
                        29
                                                                           19
                                                 10


                Total                   Between 6-18                Above 18

Source: Household Survey


Annexure: 5
Health Issues

                                          knowledge
                                      84%    84%                        88%
                             60%                        66%   63%

                  22%




Source: Household Survey


Annexure: 6
Source of knowledge about Health
                                      OTHERS      RADIO
                                                        T.V
                                        1%         8%
                                                        6%




                                   HEALTH
                                   WORKER
                                    85%

Source: Household Survey

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                        Page 38
Annexure: 7
Drinking Water Facility


                             9%
                                        13%



                  78%
                                                    Pond/tank/River    Tubewell   Openwell




Source: Household Survey


Annexure: 8
Quality of Road


                                               3%
                           good          average    poor      dilapidated

                                        22%


                                  16%                        59%




Source: Household Survey


Annexure: 9

Livestock Distribution
                Type of Animal     Number of Animal        Number of family
                      Cow                     32                      21
                    Bullock                   64                      27
                    Buffalo                    2                      2
                      Calf                    16                      11
                  Goat/Sheep                  21                      5
                    Poultry                   22                      10
Source: Household Survey



School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                Page 39
ORGANIZATION
         PROFILE




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar   Page 40
1 Organization Overview
Udyogini which means “women entrepreneur” came into existence in 1992 as a World Bank
initiative to pilot a program to develop a curriculum, methodology and service provider for micro
enterprise management services, principally training for poor, asset less and mainly illiterate
women in the backward states of India.

Udyogini was set up to co-ordinate and facilitate management training for grassroots women's
groups for the World Bank Institute-funded Women's Enterprise Management Training Outreach
Program (WEMTOP). This was a three-year participatory action learning project aimed at
strengthening the capacity of intermediary NGOs to deliver management training to poor women
micro entrepreneurs in 1992. The training program consisted of Grassroots Management
Training (GMT) carried out for women producers and the Training of Enterprise Support Teams
(TEST) for the trainers of GMT. The trainings were carried out through NGOs who were
responsible for group formation and bringing together the women. NGO staff was trained as
trainers or Enterprise Support Teams (ESTs).

Udyogini from 1997 to 2001 scaled up its training services to many clients in existing and
additional states of India. It also introduced marketing services to NGOs that were working with
potential micro-entrepreneurs as well as to middle-level entrepreneurs working with women
producers to help scale up their enterprises. In 2002, as a result of a strategic planning process,
Udyogini made changes in implementing strategy, deciding to initiate programs to engage
directly with women producers at the grassroots.

By early 2010, Udyogini had a presence in 7 states of North, Central and Eastern India working
on aggregating and/or value-addition to commodities as diverse as lac, mahua, honey, bamboo,
silk, other medicinal plants, maize, mustard, vegetables, and pulses and services like child-care
center demonstrating considerable scale and breadth of experience and impact. It had also
facilitated registration of producers' institutions called UJAS in three of its locations. UJAS
(Udyam Jagaran Sansthan) is now an established national brand identity for producer-owned
entities and business products.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                  Page 41
Most significantly, in 2010, it has taken up the challenge of microenterprise development for
older sex workers who want to move out of the profession and want to ensure that their young
daughters develop employable skills so that they are not vulnerable to sex work.

Its intervention at Mandla district, M.P began in 13 villages to support around 200 women. They
work in three clusters namely Niwas, Babaliya and Bakori at Mandla district. By the end of
2005, Udyogini worked with nearly 1200 women from 60 villages.

1.1 Vision
To become a nationally and internationally recognized agency specializing in business
development services for NGOs and poor women.



1.2 Mission
To provide quality and appropriate business development services for promotion of poor women
as entrepreneurs.


2 Operational Areas
 Implementation Projects                             BDS Centre’s

 Bikaner, Udaipur (Rajasthan)                        Udaipur (Rajasthan)

Mandla, Seoni, Raisen, Chindwada (MP)                Jabalpur (M.P.)

Saharanpur (U.P)                                     Dehradun (Uttrakhand)

Chamoli (Uttrakhand)                                 Patna (Bihar)

Ranchi (Jharkhand)                                   Ranchi (Jharkhand)

Kalahandi (Orissa)

Nawada, Gaya (Bihar)




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                              Page 42
2.1 Where it works:




It is working in some of the most backward regions of India (desert and tribal districts of
Rajasthan, forest areas of Madhya Pradesh, insurgency-affected districts of Jharkhand, higher
reaches of the hill state of Uttarakhand, neglected areas of Bihar and Assam

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                            Page 43
3 Organization Structure


                                       Board of Directors




                                     Chief Executive Officer




                                     Chief Operating Officer




                            Business Development Service Manager




                                 Enterprise Promotion Manager




                                Enterprise Promotion Executive




                                       Program Assistant



4 Retrospective:

URMUL, SURE and LUPIN in Rajasthan; NIPDIT and Samanwita in Orissa and ADITHI in
Bihar are few of the distinguished alumni of Udyogini's enterprise.

Udyogini also has two flagship programs namely Training of Enterprise support teams (TEST)
and Grassroots Management Training (GMT).



School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                          Page 44
 TESTs are for those people who are professional and Para-professional but yet do not
       have much knowledge and business skills in this area. It is a residential course in which
       participants have to undergo an intensive training for four to five days. It covers a vast
       range of topics including motivation for entrepreneurship, business idea generation and
       marketing, risk analysis, market survey, value-chain analysis, business plan creation and
       linkages building with a woman focus, this is known as “Orientation TESTs”.

    Udyogini also has "Advanced TESTs" which deal more intensively with particular
       aspects of enterprise management (such as feasibility and business planning), for those
       already familiar with the basics

    GMT is a core activity in Udyogini’s work. This program focuses on women; they help
       marginalized women to become entrepreneur not just skilled producers. The topics
       covered under GMT are same as that of TESTs but the methodology and training aids
       used are quite different. Udyogini build the capacity of women by training them in fields
       like: assessing the feasibility of an enterprise planning and schedule production,
       understanding and assessing the market, production / quality management. To simplify
       these concepts for women, the training program includes tools like case studies and
       simulation exercise, role-play and group works.

    There is also a program called “hybrid TESTs” which are designed for local
       entrepreneurs who have a certain level of education. The hybrid TESTs are customized
       version from TESTs and GMTs.




5 Approaches:

1. Gender Focused (women viewed as drivers and leaders)
2. Capacity building model for women (Starts with incremental steps towards livelihood
   security for poverty alleviation and moves to empowerment through promotion of Micro
   Enterprise)
3. Thrust in Inclusive Market Development
4. Innovation, Learning and Change in Business Services’ content and delivery mechanism

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                Page 45
6 Operational Frameworks:

1. Enterprise motivation and management awareness for grassroots women.
2. Creation of grassroots business development service providers
3.    Enterprise promotion and incentives for producers and market players
4. Ownership and scale up through systems and institution
5.    Expansion and outreach


7 Services offered:

1. Cluster identification, mobilization and development
2. Conducting market related Action Research & Assessment Studies
3. Conducting Feasibility Studies
4. Conducting Micro-plans for villages
5. Formulation of Business Plans for SMEs
6. Enterprise motivation / orientation training
7. Facilitation of market information, linkages & support
8. Facilitation for financial including social venture capital support
9. Building BDSP capacity through training, orientation & exposures
10. Mentoring selected BDSPs as entrepreneurs with access to venture finance




8 Major funding partners:
     MISEREOR                                       NABARD
     Intel Corporation                              Government of India
     Ford Foundation Forest Department              ICCW
     Government of Madhya Pradesh                   Reliance Life Sciences
     Government of Rajasthan                        Government of Uttarakhand
     European Union ICCO




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                        Page 46
9 Operational Model of VLSC




10 Overall Activities:

1. Integrated BDS in diversified sub-sectors of Craft, Consumables, Agriculture & NTFP
    through its Field Projects.
2. GMT (Capsule-based enterprise trainings for SHG women/Leaders).
3. TEST (Training of Enterprise Support Team).
4. Training Material Development.
5. Market Surveys, Action Research & Impact Assessment.
6. Feasibility Studies for Micro-enterprise activities.
7. Business Plan Preparation.
8. Product to Market Mapping / Value Chain Analysis.
9. Supply Chain Development (Primary Level).
10. Building Market Linkages & Trade Network.

School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                      Page 47
11 Key Achievements:

   •   Institutionalization of UJAS as a Producers’ Organization in all 3 implementation
       locations;
   •   Has trained over 1000 NGO and government staff through TEST.
   •   Has trained over 5000 producer women through GMTs
   •   Establishment of local level supply chain with a growth-oriented enterprise model for
       various sub-sectors in all project locations;
   •   Facilitated market linkages for various products with companies like Reliance, Safal,
       Fab-India, UTMT and more corporate houses;
   •   Developed a cadre of more than 100 women producers as service providers handling &
       coaching other women on enterprise functions;
   •   Chanelized a sales turnover of more than 50 lacs in 2 project locations each (M.P & Raj.)
       and more than 25 lacs in 1 location (U.P);
   •   Facilitated around 3500 producers to move up the value chains with more technical
       operations as processors;
   •   Build around 50% of the women to an extent to take up more technical production &
       market operation and unions independently.


12 Future plan of organization:

      To strengthen customer base by expansion and outreach to other districts like Katni,
       Shingroli.

      To strengthen and improvise the quality of training.

      To improvise the BDS by adding up more services and products in the supply chain.

      To set up a franchise model for the existing and upcoming VLSCs




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                               Page 48
THEME PAPER
Assessment of willingness to pay of the community for
the services and products identified for being offered
        through Village Level Service Centers




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar   Page 49
INTRODUCTION

As part of the Village study segment, the major objective was study of existing supply chain
established by Udyam Jagaran Sansthan (UJAS), to check for the willingness of the community
to pay for the identified products and services in the project areas of Mandla district of Madhya
Pradesh. A study in both financial and operational aspects of different opportunities was carried
out to understand the various perspectives for the initiatives undertaken by Udyogini. In order to
identify challenges for the organization in current and future context different concepts that were
learnt in the classroom were utilized. The period of the study was from the 7th of January 2010
to the 29th January, 2011.




1.1 Background of the study:
The main endeavor in the study was to check the willingness of the products and services for
Tribal community people that can be incorporated into the existing supply chain of the UJAS.
The organization is expanding in terms of opening up new VLSCs but the profit is not increasing
in the same proportion therefore the organization is willing to find out the problems in the supply
chain and launch new products and services in order to increase their profitability.

The operational areas of the organization i.e. Mandla district have agriculture as their primary
source of earning and livelihood. As the geographical condition of this area is not suitable for
good production from agriculture due to lack of water and irrigation equipment, most of the
farmers have to depend on rain. There is a need to introduce some services to minimize these
problems to some level or some extent. All the identified products will be provided by the UJAS
through its supply chain i.e. through the chain of CLSCs and VLSCs. Udyogini desires to
identify potential services according to the need and demand of the villagers, so that they can
improve their livelihood and also UJAS can improve its profit.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                  Page 50
1.2 Rationale of the Project:
Even though the organization is expanding in terms of number of VLSCs but the profit is not
increasing in same proportion, thus there is felt need to re-monitor the overall working of the
supply chain and identify the problems. Also there is a need of introducing new products and
services by keeping in mind the needs of the village and the villagers. Identification of products
& services has already been done therefore to check the willingness of the villagers to pay for the
identified products services, the main rationale lies behind the primary occupation of the
villagers, their income & expenditure pattern and the most critical period/ month in a year. Based
on the identified list of products and services, to fulfil the needs of the villagers at their own
village at fair prices so that they can increase their income and decrease their expenditure.

1.3 Objective of the Study:
The long term goal of this project is to increase the profitability of the CLSCs, VLSCs by solving
the identified problems in the supply chain and also to introduce new services and products in the
supply chain of UJAS. To achieve this goal the objective is to check for the willingness of the
community/ villagers to pay for the identified products and services.

1.4 Scope:
The information and the recommendations derived from this study helps to take appropriate
decisions for launching new identified products and services in the existing supply chain of the
UJAS to improve the lifestyle of the villagers. The primary data collected regarding their
willingness to pay for identified products and services and systemic knowledge generated by this
will result in the creation of a resource for other future study.

1.5 Limitations of the Study:
   1) Poor and delayed transportation facility delayed the data collection.
   2) As some of the villages are not operational areas of the organization, cause problems in
       collecting villagers for FGD and data collection.
   3) As the field staff was not familiar to such kind of surveys, they took time in
       understanding and implementing right survey.




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                                    Page 51
RESEARCH DESIGN
2.1 Study area and target group:
The study area is extended to 6 villages of Niwas Block, 7 villages of Narayanganj Block and 7
villages of Mandla Block. These 20 villages are divided into three clusters namely Niwas,
Babaliya and Bakori cluster of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh.

Table 2 Village names
                 Babaliya                   Bakori                     Niwas
                  Keriba                   Singarpur                 Khamariya
                 Padhriya                  Muradeeh                 Phadki Raiyat
                 Sukhram                Bakchheda Gondi              Bandariya
                 Chakdehi                  Dungariya                  Mohpani
                  Banar                 Chirayi Dongari               Umariya
                Mukas Khurd                 Khuksar                    Lohari
                  Barbati                   Sijhori
                        7                       7                        6




School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar                             Page 52
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report
Village report

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Report on "A Study on Brahmanmara Village in Odisha"
Report on "A Study on Brahmanmara Village in Odisha"Report on "A Study on Brahmanmara Village in Odisha"
Report on "A Study on Brahmanmara Village in Odisha"
 
VILLAGE PROFILE AND MICRO PLANNING, Etah, Uttar Pradesh
VILLAGE PROFILE AND MICRO PLANNING, Etah, Uttar PradeshVILLAGE PROFILE AND MICRO PLANNING, Etah, Uttar Pradesh
VILLAGE PROFILE AND MICRO PLANNING, Etah, Uttar Pradesh
 
Socio-Economic Status of a Rural Society
Socio-Economic Status of a Rural SocietySocio-Economic Status of a Rural Society
Socio-Economic Status of a Rural Society
 
Village survey ppt
Village survey pptVillage survey ppt
Village survey ppt
 
Role of panchayati Raj in Rural Development
Role of panchayati Raj in Rural DevelopmentRole of panchayati Raj in Rural Development
Role of panchayati Raj in Rural Development
 
Role of self-help groups in rural development
Role of self-help groups in rural developmentRole of self-help groups in rural development
Role of self-help groups in rural development
 
Village Study Segment Presentation by Nishant & Sunil
Village Study Segment Presentation by Nishant & SunilVillage Study Segment Presentation by Nishant & Sunil
Village Study Segment Presentation by Nishant & Sunil
 
Pra tools
Pra toolsPra tools
Pra tools
 
Self Help Group
Self Help GroupSelf Help Group
Self Help Group
 
Indian rural society
Indian rural societyIndian rural society
Indian rural society
 
A study on Socio-Economic status of farmers of villages in Jaisalmair distric...
A study on Socio-Economic status of farmers of villages in Jaisalmair distric...A study on Socio-Economic status of farmers of villages in Jaisalmair distric...
A study on Socio-Economic status of farmers of villages in Jaisalmair distric...
 
Mgnrega
MgnregaMgnrega
Mgnrega
 
Village report
Village reportVillage report
Village report
 
Rural issues and development
Rural issues and developmentRural issues and development
Rural issues and development
 
Village Visit
Village VisitVillage Visit
Village Visit
 
Role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in rural development
Role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in rural  development Role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in rural  development
Role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in rural development
 
NRLM
NRLMNRLM
NRLM
 
1.4 tribal development in india
1.4 tribal development in india1.4 tribal development in india
1.4 tribal development in india
 
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
PROJECT REPORT ON NGOS (GOONJ & SAVE THE CHILDREN)
 
Village Case Study : PRA tools
Village Case Study : PRA tools Village Case Study : PRA tools
Village Case Study : PRA tools
 

Viewers also liked

My first village ppt in bhubanaswar
My first village ppt in bhubanaswarMy first village ppt in bhubanaswar
My first village ppt in bhubanaswar
Anoop K Mishra
 
Rural development (In India)
Rural development (In India)Rural development (In India)
Rural development (In India)
Bhargav Upadhyay
 
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMAJHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
Dr.Vijay Prakash Sharma
 
Field trip report writeup
Field trip report writeupField trip report writeup
Field trip report writeup
Amake
 
Village health survey format
 Village health survey format  Village health survey format
Village health survey format
Rizwan S A
 
Ankapur a model village in india
Ankapur  a model village in indiaAnkapur  a model village in india
Ankapur a model village in india
Kiran Reddy Paidi
 
Market Research_Rural_Marketing
Market Research_Rural_MarketingMarket Research_Rural_Marketing
Market Research_Rural_Marketing
Prathik Shetty
 

Viewers also liked (20)

My first village ppt in bhubanaswar
My first village ppt in bhubanaswarMy first village ppt in bhubanaswar
My first village ppt in bhubanaswar
 
Indian villages
Indian villagesIndian villages
Indian villages
 
Case study on village devp.
Case study on village devp.Case study on village devp.
Case study on village devp.
 
Rural development ppt
Rural development pptRural development ppt
Rural development ppt
 
Indian villages Strength and weakness
Indian villages Strength and weaknessIndian villages Strength and weakness
Indian villages Strength and weakness
 
Village Life
Village LifeVillage Life
Village Life
 
Rural development (In India)
Rural development (In India)Rural development (In India)
Rural development (In India)
 
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMAJHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
 
RAWE
RAWERAWE
RAWE
 
Field trip report writeup
Field trip report writeupField trip report writeup
Field trip report writeup
 
A project report on rural marketing
A project report on rural marketingA project report on rural marketing
A project report on rural marketing
 
Village Visit Day
Village Visit DayVillage Visit Day
Village Visit Day
 
Village health survey format
 Village health survey format  Village health survey format
Village health survey format
 
Ankapur a model village in india
Ankapur  a model village in indiaAnkapur  a model village in india
Ankapur a model village in india
 
Market Research_Rural_Marketing
Market Research_Rural_MarketingMarket Research_Rural_Marketing
Market Research_Rural_Marketing
 
Rural Marketing Insights at a Village near Pune
Rural Marketing Insights at a Village near PuneRural Marketing Insights at a Village near Pune
Rural Marketing Insights at a Village near Pune
 
Site visit report
Site visit reportSite visit report
Site visit report
 
15 great thoughts by chanakya
15 great thoughts by chanakya15 great thoughts by chanakya
15 great thoughts by chanakya
 
One day tour report
One day tour reportOne day tour report
One day tour report
 
Rural Development
Rural DevelopmentRural Development
Rural Development
 

Similar to Village report

A nshu final project 20140418-120958
A nshu final project 20140418-120958A nshu final project 20140418-120958
A nshu final project 20140418-120958
Borris Chapman
 
Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...
Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...
Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...
Munas Kalden
 
Dinesh padhi project
Dinesh padhi projectDinesh padhi project
Dinesh padhi project
dineshpadhy
 
MTS I_ Final Report_SRM
MTS I_ Final Report_SRMMTS I_ Final Report_SRM
MTS I_ Final Report_SRM
Vikas Rana
 
CSS Final Report Bidya & Rishi
CSS Final Report Bidya & RishiCSS Final Report Bidya & Rishi
CSS Final Report Bidya & Rishi
Rishi Raj
 
S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006
S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006
S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006
Simone Cuers
 
UNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECT
UNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECTUNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECT
UNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECT
Nancy Haggerty
 
Village Development in Southern India
Village Development in Southern IndiaVillage Development in Southern India
Village Development in Southern India
Stephanie Mecham
 

Similar to Village report (20)

Sustainable Agriculture Farming and Land
Sustainable Agriculture Farming and LandSustainable Agriculture Farming and Land
Sustainable Agriculture Farming and Land
 
A nshu final project 20140418-120958
A nshu final project 20140418-120958A nshu final project 20140418-120958
A nshu final project 20140418-120958
 
Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...
Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...
Participatory context and needs analysis in transitional recovery by munas ka...
 
FAIRFIELD COLLEGE NSS UNIT BROCHURE.pdf
FAIRFIELD  COLLEGE NSS UNIT BROCHURE.pdfFAIRFIELD  COLLEGE NSS UNIT BROCHURE.pdf
FAIRFIELD COLLEGE NSS UNIT BROCHURE.pdf
 
Dinesh padhi project
Dinesh padhi projectDinesh padhi project
Dinesh padhi project
 
Internship report
Internship reportInternship report
Internship report
 
developing a sustainable livelihood for Amrakh Gram Panchayat
developing a sustainable livelihood for Amrakh Gram Panchayatdeveloping a sustainable livelihood for Amrakh Gram Panchayat
developing a sustainable livelihood for Amrakh Gram Panchayat
 
Srishti kumari cv
Srishti kumari cvSrishti kumari cv
Srishti kumari cv
 
MTS I_ Final Report_SRM
MTS I_ Final Report_SRMMTS I_ Final Report_SRM
MTS I_ Final Report_SRM
 
Mizan CV
Mizan CVMizan CV
Mizan CV
 
VAMA PROFILE
VAMA PROFILEVAMA PROFILE
VAMA PROFILE
 
CSS Final Report Bidya & Rishi
CSS Final Report Bidya & RishiCSS Final Report Bidya & Rishi
CSS Final Report Bidya & Rishi
 
S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006
S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006
S.Cuers Strong communites handbook_2006
 
A.K.M.Fazlul Haque
A.K.M.Fazlul HaqueA.K.M.Fazlul Haque
A.K.M.Fazlul Haque
 
UNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECT
UNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECTUNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECT
UNITED WAY SERVICE EXCELLENCE PROJECT
 
A REPORT
A    REPORTA    REPORT
A REPORT
 
Rural Development ppt 12 rd.pptx
Rural Development ppt 12 rd.pptxRural Development ppt 12 rd.pptx
Rural Development ppt 12 rd.pptx
 
#Rural_Agricultural_Work_Experience
#Rural_Agricultural_Work_Experience #Rural_Agricultural_Work_Experience
#Rural_Agricultural_Work_Experience
 
Village Development in Southern India
Village Development in Southern IndiaVillage Development in Southern India
Village Development in Southern India
 
Evaluation of Revolving Loan Fund (An Acceleration of Development Village Pro...
Evaluation of Revolving Loan Fund (An Acceleration of Development Village Pro...Evaluation of Revolving Loan Fund (An Acceleration of Development Village Pro...
Evaluation of Revolving Loan Fund (An Acceleration of Development Village Pro...
 

Recently uploaded

zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdfzidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
zukhrafshabbir
 
NewBase 24 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   24 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   24 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 24 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
Khaled Al Awadi
 
Constitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of AssociationConstitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of Association
seri bangash
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Byrd & Chen’s Canadian Tax Principles 2023-2024 Edition 1st edition Volumes I...
Byrd & Chen’s Canadian Tax Principles 2023-2024 Edition 1st edition Volumes I...Byrd & Chen’s Canadian Tax Principles 2023-2024 Edition 1st edition Volumes I...
Byrd & Chen’s Canadian Tax Principles 2023-2024 Edition 1st edition Volumes I...
 
India’s Recommended Women Surgeons to Watch in 2024.pdf
India’s Recommended Women Surgeons to Watch in 2024.pdfIndia’s Recommended Women Surgeons to Watch in 2024.pdf
India’s Recommended Women Surgeons to Watch in 2024.pdf
 
Potato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdf
Potato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdfPotato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdf
Potato Flakes Manufacturing Plant Project Report.pdf
 
Did Paul Haggis Ever Win an Oscar for Best Filmmaker
Did Paul Haggis Ever Win an Oscar for Best FilmmakerDid Paul Haggis Ever Win an Oscar for Best Filmmaker
Did Paul Haggis Ever Win an Oscar for Best Filmmaker
 
Unleash Data Power with EnFuse Solutions' Comprehensive Data Management Servi...
Unleash Data Power with EnFuse Solutions' Comprehensive Data Management Servi...Unleash Data Power with EnFuse Solutions' Comprehensive Data Management Servi...
Unleash Data Power with EnFuse Solutions' Comprehensive Data Management Servi...
 
Special Purpose Vehicle (Purpose, Formation & examples)
Special Purpose Vehicle (Purpose, Formation & examples)Special Purpose Vehicle (Purpose, Formation & examples)
Special Purpose Vehicle (Purpose, Formation & examples)
 
Using Generative AI for Content Marketing
Using Generative AI for Content MarketingUsing Generative AI for Content Marketing
Using Generative AI for Content Marketing
 
The Leading Cyber Security Entrepreneur of India in 2024.pdf
The Leading Cyber Security Entrepreneur of India in 2024.pdfThe Leading Cyber Security Entrepreneur of India in 2024.pdf
The Leading Cyber Security Entrepreneur of India in 2024.pdf
 
zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdfzidauu _business  communication.pptx /pdf
zidauu _business communication.pptx /pdf
 
HR and Employment law update: May 2024.
HR and Employment law update:  May 2024.HR and Employment law update:  May 2024.
HR and Employment law update: May 2024.
 
A Brief Introduction About Jacob Badgett
A Brief Introduction About Jacob BadgettA Brief Introduction About Jacob Badgett
A Brief Introduction About Jacob Badgett
 
Meaningful Technology for Humans: How Strategy Helps to Deliver Real Value fo...
Meaningful Technology for Humans: How Strategy Helps to Deliver Real Value fo...Meaningful Technology for Humans: How Strategy Helps to Deliver Real Value fo...
Meaningful Technology for Humans: How Strategy Helps to Deliver Real Value fo...
 
LinkedIn Masterclass Techweek 2024 v4.1.pptx
LinkedIn Masterclass Techweek 2024 v4.1.pptxLinkedIn Masterclass Techweek 2024 v4.1.pptx
LinkedIn Masterclass Techweek 2024 v4.1.pptx
 
Team-Spandex-Northern University-CS1035.
Team-Spandex-Northern University-CS1035.Team-Spandex-Northern University-CS1035.
Team-Spandex-Northern University-CS1035.
 
Copyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know
Copyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to KnowCopyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know
Copyright: What Creators and Users of Art Need to Know
 
Luxury Artificial Plants Dubai | Plants in KSA, UAE | Shajara
Luxury Artificial Plants Dubai | Plants in KSA, UAE | ShajaraLuxury Artificial Plants Dubai | Plants in KSA, UAE | Shajara
Luxury Artificial Plants Dubai | Plants in KSA, UAE | Shajara
 
New Product Development.kjiy7ggbfdsddggo9lo
New Product Development.kjiy7ggbfdsddggo9loNew Product Development.kjiy7ggbfdsddggo9lo
New Product Development.kjiy7ggbfdsddggo9lo
 
NewBase 24 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase   24 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...NewBase   24 May  2024  Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
NewBase 24 May 2024 Energy News issue - 1727 by Khaled Al Awadi_compresse...
 
8 Questions B2B Commercial Teams Can Ask To Help Product Discovery
8 Questions B2B Commercial Teams Can Ask To Help Product Discovery8 Questions B2B Commercial Teams Can Ask To Help Product Discovery
8 Questions B2B Commercial Teams Can Ask To Help Product Discovery
 
Constitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of AssociationConstitution of Company Article of Association
Constitution of Company Article of Association
 

Village report

  • 1. REPORT ON VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT Submitted By:- Kumar Nishant (10201026) Sunil Kumar (10201055) (VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT REPORT SUBMITTED FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ON RURAL MANAGEMENT) HOST ORGANIZATION VSS CO-ORDINATOR UDYOGINI Prof. Jyotirmayee Acharya REPORTING OFFICER FACULTY GUIDE Ms. Ketaki Narkar Prof. H.S. Ganesha Enterprise Promotion Manager MBA-RM Coordinator Udyogini School of Entrepreneurship KIIT SCHOOL OF RURAL MANAGEMENT (KSRM) BHUBANESWAR, INDIA (VILLAGE STUDY SEGMENT 2010-12)
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost we are thankful to Prof. (Dr.) L. K. Vaswani, DIRECTOR, KIIT School of Rural Management for placing the Village Study Segment (VSS) fieldwork Component as a part of our course curricula. We would like to express our gratitude to Professor (Dr.) Jyotirmayee Acharya, Coordinator, VSS to facilitate throughout by playing different roles as mentor, coordinator and supervisor and for inputs and moral support for designing and completion of the report. We are thankful to the faculty guide Prof H. S. Ganesha for his guidance and assessment of this report. We have immense pleasure in expressing our deep sense of gratitude, indebtedness and sincere thanks to our esteemed Reporting Officer Ms. Ketaki Narkar, Enterprise Promotion Manager and team member Mr. Kumar Padmanabh of Udyogini who facilitated our accommodation and made us to learn all the VSS components by doing and interacting with the villagers. We are thankful for their feedback and insight to our theme paper and support for the RAC and to share with us useful experiences during the village study. We are also thankful to Mr. Prashanto Mandal, EPM; Ms. Yojana Lama, EPE and Ms. Punam Rai, EPE of Udyogini who helped us immensely in our project and ensured that our visit turns more meaningful. In order to complete fieldwork successfully, I would like to present special thanks to all the research participants and villagers who provided their valuable time and made our stay meaningful and study valuable. We are extremely happy to reveal our special thanks to our classmates for their inspiration. Kumar Nishant (10201026) Sunil Kumar (10201055) School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 2
  • 3. ABSTRACT Author: Kumar Nishant and Sunil Kumar Host Organization: UDYOGINI, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh Village Report: A report of the Samaiya village of Niwas Block, Mandla district was developed by conducting household survey through a structured schedule. Rural Action Components: The action component aimed to provide Grass roots management training to the Women Entrepreneur Group (WEG) formed by Udyogini, conduction of a rally on Women’s day to promote enterprise and entrepreneurship among women’s and a skit on advantages of enterprise and entrepreneurship. National Service Scheme: The main objective of NSS activities carried out is to create awareness about of common diseases and prevention. To discuss among the villagers about the State Govt. health schemes for women also we focused our NSS on children to increase their awareness level and motivate them to come to school. Theme paper: Assessment of willingness to pay of the community for the services and products identified for being offered through Village Level Service Centers Organization profile of the host organization was documented. The major objective was study of existing supply chain established by Udyam Jagaran Sansthan (UJAS), to check for the willingness of the community to pay for the identified products and services in the project areas of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. A study in both financial and operational aspects of different opportunities was carried out to understand the various perspectives for the initiatives undertaken by Udyogini Research Design: The main endeavor in the study was to check the willingness of the products and services for Tribal community people that can be incorporated into the existing supply chain of the UJAS. For this Semi Structured questionnaire is develop to collect the primary data. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Focused Group Discussion (FGD) and Mass Meetings are organized to conduct NSS and Rural Action Component activities, 32 Household surveys was carried out and a schedule is designed to collect information from the individual on their School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 3
  • 4. priorities on alternative livelihood. The secondary data is provided by organization. Interaction with concerned officials also helped to understand the things better. Study Findings: During our stay in the village we found that giving right information can help people to make right decision. We observed that the people of the villages have the potential and skill to come up from poverty and misery but the most important thing they lack is information and knowledge about what is happening around the World. We saw that mere distribution of money by government and NGOs has degraded the communities’ value and generated a feeling of dependency. We learnt the importance of life skills & functional literacy which will help them to operate & manage their enterprise. The households have very small amount of savings which is not enough for their risk mitigation. The rate of interest charged is 5-10 percent per month and repayment period remain longer with number of self consumption loans being more taken by the households. We also learnt that social rural marketing can bring an economic empowerment with the help of WEG formation as this inculcates saving habits among the rural women. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 4
  • 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: VILLAGE REPORT INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 11 2 OBJECTIVES: ......................................................................................................................... 11 3 METHODOLOGY: ................................................................................................................. 12 3.1 SOURCE OF DATA: ............................................................................................................................. 12 3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN: ............................................................................................................................... 12 3.3 DATA ANALYSIS: ................................................................................................................................ 12 3.4 LIMITATIONS OF DATA COLLECTION:................................................................................................ 12 4 GEOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE...................................................................... 13 4.1 Location:............................................................................................................................................ 13 4.2 History of the Village:........................................................................................................................ 13 4.3 Demography of Village: ..................................................................................................................... 14 4.4 Literacy Level: ................................................................................................................................... 14 4.5 Social Structure: ................................................................................................................................ 14 4.6 Institutions: ....................................................................................................................................... 15 4.7 Gender Clock ..................................................................................................................................... 15 5 Weather and Seasonality ......................................................................................................... 16 5.1 Weather ............................................................................................................................................ 16 5.2 Temperature ..................................................................................................................................... 16 5.3 Seasonality of Cropping Pattern: ...................................................................................................... 16 5.4 Seasonality of Food Availability: ....................................................................................................... 17 5.5 Seasonality of Diseases: .................................................................................................................... 17 5.6 Period of happiness and sorrow: ...................................................................................................... 18 5.7 Seasonality of Migration: .................................................................................................................. 18 5.7.1 Force field analysis of Migration: ............................................................................................... 19 6 Natural Resources .................................................................................................................... 19 6.1 Land:.................................................................................................................................................. 19 6.2 Water: ............................................................................................................................................... 20 School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 5
  • 6. 6.3 Forestry: ............................................................................................................................................ 20 7 INFRASTRUCTURE .............................................................................................................. 21 7.1 Roads:................................................................................................................................................ 21 7.2 Electricity:.......................................................................................................................................... 21 7.3 Drainage: ........................................................................................................................................... 21 7.4 Communication: ................................................................................................................................ 21 7.5 Social infrastructure .......................................................................................................................... 21 7.5.1 Educational infrastructure ......................................................................................................... 21 7.5.2 Anganwadi: ................................................................................................................................ 22 7.5.3 Infrastructure Related to Health ................................................................................................ 22 7.5.4 Defecation .................................................................................................................................. 22 7.5.5 Infrastructure Related to the Drinking water ............................................................................ 22 7.5.6 Cultural place ............................................................................................................................. 23 7.5.7 Micro Enterprise: ....................................................................................................................... 23 7.5.8 Community hall .......................................................................................................................... 23 8 Local Economy ......................................................................................................................... 23 8.1 Income Source .................................................................................................................................. 23 8.2 Livelihood .......................................................................................................................................... 23 8.3 Primary and Secondary Occupation of the Village ........................................................................... 24 8.4 Land holding pattern:........................................................................................................................ 24 8.5 Agriculture......................................................................................................................................... 25 8.6 SERVICE HOLDERS ............................................................................................................................. 26 8.6.1 Government Service: ................................................................................................................. 26 8.6.2 Private Service:........................................................................................................................... 26 8.7 Market Linkage ................................................................................................................................. 26 8.8 Expenditure Pattern .......................................................................................................................... 26 9 Consumption ............................................................................................................................ 27 9.1 Products ............................................................................................................................................ 27 9.2 Food availability ................................................................................................................................ 27 9.3 Housing Pattern: ............................................................................................................................... 28 9.4 Banks ................................................................................................................................................. 28 School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 6
  • 7. 9.5 Credit................................................................................................................................................. 28 9.5.1 Trader/ Money Lenders: ............................................................................................................ 28 9.5.2 Friends and Acquaintances: ....................................................................................................... 28 9.5.3 Banks: ......................................................................................................................................... 29 9.6 SHGs: ................................................................................................................................................. 29 10 Village Level Committee: ...................................................................................................... 29 11 Political and Governance System ......................................................................................... 30 11.1 Political system: .............................................................................................................................. 30 11.2 Panchayati Raj Institutions:............................................................................................................. 30 11.3 Gram Sabha:.................................................................................................................................... 30 12 Government Schemes: ........................................................................................................... 30 13 STATUS OF WOMEN .......................................................................................................... 31 14 PLANS OF THE VILLAGE ................................................................................................. 32 14.1 Short Term Plans: ............................................................................................................................ 32 14.2 Long term plans: ............................................................................................................................. 32 15 SWOT Analysis: ..................................................................................................................... 32 16 Relationships with Other Communities ............................................................................... 33 17 CONCLUSIONS: ................................................................................................................... 33 Appendices ................................................................................................................................... 36 PART 2: ORGANIZATION PROFILE 1 Organization Overview ........................................................................................................... 41 1.1 Vision................................................................................................................................................. 42 1.2 Mission .............................................................................................................................................. 42 2 Operational Areas .................................................................................................................... 42 2.1 Where it works:................................................................................................................................. 43 3 Organization Structure ........................................................................................................... 44 4 Retrospective: ........................................................................................................................... 44 5 Approaches: .............................................................................................................................. 45 School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 7
  • 8. 6 Operational Frameworks: ....................................................................................................... 46 7 Services offered: ....................................................................................................................... 46 8 Major funding partners: ......................................................................................................... 46 9 Operational Model of VLSC ................................................................................................... 47 10 Overall Activities: .................................................................................................................. 47 11 Key Achievements:................................................................................................................. 48 12 Future plan of organization: ................................................................................................. 48 PART 3: THEME PAPER INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 50 1.1 Background of the study: .................................................................................................................. 50 1.2 Rationale of the Project: ................................................................................................................... 51 1.3 Objective of the Study: ..................................................................................................................... 51 1.4 Scope: ................................................................................................................................................ 51 1.5 Limitations of the Study: ................................................................................................................... 51 RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 52 2.1 Study area and target group: ............................................................................................................ 52 2.2 Sample Design: .................................................................................................................................. 53 2.3 Sampling Method: ............................................................................................................................. 53 2.4 Survey Design: ................................................................................................................................... 53 2.4.1 Collection of primary data: ........................................................................................................ 53 2.4.2 Collection of Secondary Data: .................................................................................................... 53 2.5 Methods of Data Analysis Techniques: ............................................................................................. 53 2.6 Time Frame: ...................................................................................................................................... 53 2.7 Study Area Profile: ............................................................................................................................ 53 WILLINGNESS PROFILE ....................................................................................................... 54 3.1 Products and Services for which willingness has to be found: ......................................................... 54 3.2 Demands for Products and Services: ................................................................................................ 55 3.3 Description of Services:..................................................................................................................... 55 4 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 67 4.1 Major findings of the Study: ............................................................................................................. 67 School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 8
  • 9. 5 Suggestions: .............................................................................................................................. 68 We suggest the following services for feasibility check: .......................................................... 68 PART 4: RURAL ACTION COMPONENT 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 74 2 Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 74 3 Methodology: ............................................................................................................................ 74 4 Activity Profile: ........................................................................................................................ 75 5 RAC Place: ............................................................................................................................... 75 6 The Process: .............................................................................................................................. 76 7 Outcomes and Impact: ............................................................................................................ 76 8 Key Success Factor: ................................................................................................................. 77 9 Lessons Learnt: ........................................................................................................................ 77 10 Overall observations as a grassroots change agent ............................................................. 77 10.1 Challenges Ahead:........................................................................................................................... 77 10.2 Suggestions to the above challenges: ............................................................................................. 78 Case Study ................................................................................................................................... 79 PART 5: NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 83 2 Objective of NSS: ..................................................................................................................... 83 3 Activity Profile: ........................................................................................................................ 84 Skit: Advantages of doing Enterprise and Entrepreneurship ................................................ 89 School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 9
  • 10. LIST OF ABBREVIATION Adivasi: Tribal Gond tribe: A Caste of Tribal Baiga tribe: A caste of Tribal Karma: A flok dance of Gond and Baiga Tribal Hareli: A Tribal festival Madayi Mela: A Seasonal Local Fair. Paddy: An Agriculture Produce Kodu: An Agriculture Produce Kutki: An Agriculture Produce Jagni: An Agriculture Produce Massor: An Agriculture Produce Alsi: An Agriculture Produce Mahua: NTFPs Amla: NTFPs Tendu Patta: NTFPs Galla: Agriculture Produce UJAS: Udyam Jagran Santhan VLSCs: Village Level Service Center CLSCs: Cluster Level Service Center FGDs: Focus Group Discussion PRA: Participatory Rural Appraisal NTFPs: Non Timber Forest Produce School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 10
  • 11. INTRODUCTION As part of the field work module of Village Study Segment course, we conducted survey of village Samaiya in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. We were assigned a host organization, a non government organization named UDYOGINI working in the Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. We had the opportunity to closely observe the various forms of interventions and interactions taking place within the village and understand the impact of such interventions on the lives of the people of the village. 2 OBJECTIVES: The main objective of village study segment is:  To get insight into the socio-economic and cultural realities of rural life.  To understand the dynamics of various village level institution in addressing the developmental work  To understand the status of women; their contribution and the role played by them in developing rural entrepreneurship  To understand the dynamics of social structure, infrastructure, resources, and various intervention on the villagers and how it effects them  To blend class room learning with the field experience School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 11
  • 12. 3 METHODOLOGY: The data collected are on demography, social structure, infrastructure facilities, agro-climatic resources, village economy, village organizations and people’s institutions and the issues of development. Both Quantitative and Qualitative data were collected. The quantitative data were on population, land holding, literacy rate. The qualitative data were quality of drinking water, quality of the road, housing pattern, sanitation, food habit which were obtained from the village after the interaction with the villagers and with use of tools like PRAs, Focused Group discussion, informal meetings. 3.1 SOURCE OF DATA: The required data were collected from both primary source and secondary source. The primary data were collected from direct interaction with villagers during household surveys (through questionnaire given by college), PRA exercise, focused group discussions, informal interviews, SHGs meeting, non- participatory observation and other village meetings. The secondary data were collected from Gram Panchayat Office, veterinary hospital, Revenue Office, Patwari, Anganwadi, Primary School, Sarpanch and Internet. 3.2 SAMPLE DESIGN: For questionnaire survey systematic random sampling was done. 32 households were selected randomly; efforts were made to collect different information regarding social and economical status of the villagers from all caste, and economic group. 3.3 DATA ANALYSIS: Statistical tools like tables, graphs, bar charts, averages, percentages etc. were used to analyze the data collected on various things like, caste, sex ratio, different occupations, livestock, assets, land holding pattern, literacy level, and different infrastructure like road, electrification etc 3.4 LIMITATIONS OF DATA COLLECTION: a). People hesitate to tell about the details regarding income and assets. b). Most of the people are working under MNREGA therefore they are available only in the evening. c). People are not clear about the present value of their asset. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 12
  • 13. 4 GEOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE 4.1 Location: Samaiya village is located in Niwas block of Mandla district in the state of Madhya Pradesh. It comes under Singhpur Panchayat. It is located 7 km from Niwas, 60 km from Mandla town and 65 km from Jabalpur. The village is divided into four hamlets, It is situated on upland, and has an area of about 400 acre out of which 200 acre is under forest. Table 1: Location of the Village Village Samaiya Block Niwas District Mandla State Madhya Pradesh Boundaries East Singhpur West Khudri North Pipariya South Devdungari Parliamentary Constituency Niwas Source: Transect walk, Panchayat Office 4.2 History of the Village: Time 2: Line of the Village Year Description 1950 Village Established 1955 First Bicycle 1976 First Open Well 1979 Establishment of Primary School 1986 First Boy to pass high school(10th) 1990 First Hand pump 1990 Electrification 1991 First Girl to pass high school(10th) 1995 First Television 1996 Establishment of Anganwadi 1996 Construction of Durga Manch 2005 Village included in MPRLP 2006 Starting of NREGA work 2006 First Tractor 2006 Ladali Yojana 2007 Samuhik Vivah Yojana 2007 First motorbike 2008 Metal Road 2009 Construction of Temple School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 13
  • 14. 2009 Formation of SHG 2010 First Mobile phone Source: Informal meetings, Focused group discussion with villagers 4.3 Demography of Village: Total population of the village is 613; out of which total numbers of male is 324 and total number of female is 289. The sex ratio of the village is 892 female per 1000 males. The total number of children is 206 out of which number of boys and girls (between 0-18) is 115 and 91 respectively. The population belonging to the age group of 18 and above constitutes 66 % of the total population, 9% per cent belong to the age group of 0-6 years and 25% per cent belong to the age group 7-18. Table 3: Households and Population dynamics of Samaiya Caste-wise distribution Total No. of Total No. of No. of No. of Total households BPL Males Females Population ST SC OBC households 112 12 4 128 35 324 289 613 Source: Survey done by MPRLP in 2009 4.4 Literacy Level: The literacy level of the village is 58%, out of this 72% males of the village are literate whereas just 43% females of the village are literate. Adult male literacy rate is found to be 69% and adult female literacy rate is 33%. Also 75% and 59% of the boy’s and girl’s respectively in the age group of 0-18 are literate. This increase in literacy level of girl’s indicates that the villagers are now concerned about the girl’s education also this increase is mainly due to the programs launched by government. 4.5 Social Structure: The village has a homogenous population of Hindu. The social group composition of village Samaiya is divided amongst the Schedule Tribes (ST), Schedule Castes (SC) and Other Backward Caste (OBC). Hierarchy based class structure is not very visible 88% of the households i.e. 112 belong to schedule tribe, 9% i.e. 12 belongs to schedule caste and rest 3% i.e. 4 is of backward class. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 14
  • 15. 4.6 Institutions: Various formal and Informal institutions in and around the village Samaiya are as follows: Table 4: formal and informal institutions From To Institutions Distance Samaiya Jabalpur Railway Station 70 KM Samaiya Mandla District Headquarter 60 KM Samaiya Niwas Tehsil 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Janpath 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Primary Health Centre 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Veterinary Hospital 7 KM Samaiya Niwas Police Station 7 KM Samaiya Niwas State Bank of India 7 KM Samaiya Pipariya Market 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Cooperative Bank 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Cattle market 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya High School 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Middle School 2 KM Samaiya Pipariya Bus Stand 2 KM Samaiya Singhpur PDS ½ KM Samaiya Singhpur Gram Panchayat ½ KM Samaiya Inside Village Anganwadi centre 0 KM Samaiya Inside Village Primary School 0 KM Samaiya Inside Village Temple 0 KM Source: PRA 4.7 Gender Clock Table 5 Gender Clock Time Activities of female Time Activities of male 4:00-5:00 am Get up 4:00-5:00 am Get up 5:00-6:00 am Go for Toilet, Bringing 5:00-6:00 am Go for Toilet, brush water, Cleaning house, teeth and go to field Cleaning utensils, for inspection 6:00 – 8:00 am preparing tea, Bathing, 6:00-8:00 am Having tea, Take cooking animal for grazing 8:00-9:00 am Serving food, send 8:00-9:00 am Take bath, breakfast children to school, take and go to work/field breakfast go to field/forest/labor work 9:00-12:00 pm field/forest/labor work/ 9:00-12:00 pm field/forest/labor work household chores School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 15
  • 16. 12:00-1:00 pm Come back from 12:00-1:00 pm Come back from field/work, Take Lunch field/work, Take and go back to field/labor Lunch and go back to work. field/labor work. 1:00-5:00 pm Work/field 1:00-5:00 pm Work/field 5:00-6:00 pm Bringing water, cleaning 5:00-6:00 pm Come back from the utensils field, go to bring livestock from field 7:00-8:00 pm Cooking 7.00 - 8:00 pm Get fresh, take tea, gather to chat with friends/neighbors 8:00-9:00 pm Dinner 8:00 -9:00 pm Dinner 9:00-5:00 am Sleep 9:00-5:00 am Sleep Source: Focused Group Discussion 5 Weather and Seasonality 5.1 Weather The Mandla district receive average rainfall of 1580 mm. 70-80% of annual rainfall is received southwest monsoon period i.e. June-September. The agriculture in the village is rain fed. The climate is hot and humid during summer and cold during winter. 5.2 Temperature The climate is hot and humid during summer and cold during winter. The mercury rises sharply in the summer and touches about 44-45 degree Celsius in the summer and dips as far as 1-2 degree Celsius in the winter. The climate of the village is characterized by an oppressively hot summer with high humidity. Summer generally commences in the month of March. Seasonality: 5.3 Seasonality of Cropping Pattern: Table 6: Major NTFP Sl. No. Name of Product Time of Flowering Time of Harvesting 1 Maua Chait (March-April) Baisakh (April-May) 2 Tend leaf Fagun (February-March) Source: PRA School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 16
  • 17. Table 7: Major crops Sl. Season Name of Crop Time of Sowing Time of Harvesting No. 1 Paddy Ashadh (June-July) Mid Kartik (October) 2 Maize Ashadh (June-July) Kuwar (September-Oct.) 3 Kutki Sawan (July-August) Aghan (December-Jan.) 4 Kharif Kodo Mid ashadh (June) Aghan (December-Jan.) 5 Ramtilla Sawan (July-August) Aghan (December-Jan.) 6 Arhar Ashadh (June-July) Magh (January-Feb.) 7 Wheat Mid Kartik (October) Mid Baisakh (April-May) 8 Rabi Rai Aashin (September-Oct.) Aghan (December-Jan.) 9 Batra Kartik (October-Nov.) Fagun (February-March) 10 Masoor Kartik (October-Nov.) Fagun (February-March) Source: PRA 5.4 Seasonality of Food Availability: Although more than 90% of the villagers are engaged in agriculture but due to low fertility of the soil and lack of irrigation facility production is not up to the mark. Scarcity of food is common during June, July, and August. 5.5 Seasonality of Diseases: Table 7: Seasonality of Disease Types of Jan Feb Marc Apri May June Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Disease h l y Cold/Coug h *** *** ** * * * * * * * *** *** Headache * * ** *** *** ** *** *** * * * * Diarrhea * * *** *** *** ** *** *** * * * * Malaria * * * * * ** ** ** * * * * Sun Stroke * * * *** *** *** * * * * * * *, **, *** indicate rare occurrence, often observed and severely occurred respectively. Source: PRA School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 17
  • 18. 5.6 Period of happiness and sorrow: Table 8: Happiness and Sorrow Indicator Season Reason Magh (January-Feb) Greenery Good climate Sorrow Jeth (May-June) Very hot, Sum stroke, malaria Sorrow Ashadh (June-July) No work no money Sawan (July-August) Average Fagun (February-March) Availability of food Baisakh (April-May) Source: PRA 5.7 Seasonality of Migration: Migration is very common in the village and it is mainly cyclic migration. Migration is mainly due to push factor, the primary reason for migration is lack of employment opportunities in the village. Other reasons are lack of food availability need for money etc. People mostly migrate to the nearby city like Jabalpur. Most of them engage in labor work and very few people work as agricultural labor Migration is common in the Migration Details month of January, February, July and August as Migrated 72% there is no work available in the village and For Job 100% during this time no cropping is done. On an City 74% average a person migrate for 36 days, 48% Town 26% people live in tent in the city where they migrate Avg. no. of days for migration 36 days and just 30% people live in pucca house during Avg. earning/month 1878 migration and 22% people lives in kuchha house Residence (pucca) 30% at the destination place. . Residence (kuchha) 22% Source: FGD, Survey Residence (Tent) 48% School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 18
  • 19. 5.7.1 Force field analysis of Migration: INHIBITING FORCE INDUCING FORCE 1. Emotional attachment to the Village 1. Unemployment . 2. High cost of living 2. Food shortage 3. Excess work during Migration 3. Debt 4. Lack of proper housing facility 4. Landlessness 5. Low quality food 5. Low agriculture production 6. Illness or death 6. Draught Source: focused group discussion 6 Natural Resources 6.1 Land: According to the villagers the fertility of soil is not good because of which yield per hectare is very less. The village is situated on uplands or mid up land where texture of soil is loamy Murom with or without clay. Depth of soil is also shallow to moderate. Fertility is moderate; the soil is black, red or rocky in texture. The land use pattern in village is as follows: School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 19
  • 20. Table 9: Land Holding Pattern Land use Area in hectare Cultivable land 185 acre Fallow Land 15 acre Forest Land 200 acre Total geographical area 400 acre Source: Patwari of the village 6.2 Water: The Village has six hand pumps for the drinking water of which one is not functioning now. Village has good drinking water facility as these pumps provide hygienic water. There are few households which are little far away from the hand pump and well therefore they face a lot of problem for drinking water. There are also few households who use River water for drinking purpose and the water is not suitable for drinking purpose. Villages have 11 open wells of which 4 are public and rest is of private ownership. The village has a pond of approximately 0.5 acre for drinking water for their livestock. The water in two of the open well is present throughout the year and is used by most of the villagers. One of these well is used for drinking purpose while other is used for bathing purpose. There is also a small River Balai flowing south of the village which is used for drinking and bathing for the nearby households. 6.3 Forestry: As village is situated on upland, it is surrounded by forest. Though a large part of forest is depleted due to excessive use of resources but it still provides a lot of tangible and intangible benefits to the villagers. Villagers gets not only fuel wood but also a number of non timber forest produce like Maua and Tend patta which adds to their source of livelihood. The forest has mainly tress of sagon, mahua, palash, Tend and other trees which are used as fuel. Forest doesn’t have any animal species except wild pig, fox, monkey, rabbit and some varieties of birds like peacock. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 20
  • 21. 7 INFRASTRUCTURE 7.1 Roads: The village is connected through a concrete Road, near the village there is PCC which is of 1km in stretch. Inside the village road are both Kuchha and Pucca. The sample survey shows that 59% of the households say that the road is dilapidated, 22% of the road is of poor quality, 16% of the road is average and just 3% of the sample says that the road is of good quality. 7.2 Electricity: The village was electrified in 1990; most of the households are electrified. Electricity is available approximately 12 hours with two interruptions in a day. The sample survey shows that 80% of the households are electrified. There are 4 mohallas in the village out of which three are electrified. The village receives electricity for 12 hours every day with two breaks in a day. 7.3 Drainage: Drainage is a problem in the village because there is lack of drainage line on both side of roads, even road is Kaccha on some places. That is why water stagnation is a serious problem in the village, especially in rainy season in this particular season stagnant water invites monsoon diseases like malaria and diarrhea. 7.4 Communication: There is no land line phone available in this village. Mobile phone network was available 1km away from village till 2009. The proper use of mobile phone started in 2010. The village has network connectivity of BSNL, Reliance CDMA & GSM 7.5 Social infrastructure 7.5.1 Educational infrastructure There is one Primary school in the village, Middle school is situated in the neighboring village Singhpur which is just half km from the village, and High school is situated at Pipariya which is two km from the village. The strength of the school is 67 including 39 boys and 28 girls and three teachers to teach them. The school has been provided with midday meal facilities for the children under Sarvashiksha Abhiyan. There is no toilet facility for students in the school. During our village stay and teaching in the Primary School we noticed that in spite of good facilities provided the learning of the children is very poor. The students of 5th std. are not able to School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 21
  • 22. read properly nor are they good at solving simple mathematical problems. Students of different classes’ seat together, teachers are inefficient in teaching and are not able to bring discipline among students and nor are they willing to do so. 7.5.2 Anganwadi: The Anganwadi is established in 1996 in the village but till now it’s not having its own building; its building is under construction and is expected to become functional by next one month. Anganwadi worker and Asha are in village itself and are working efficiently. They provide services like Supplementary nutrition, Non-formal pre-school education, Immunization, Health Check-up, Referral services, Nutrition and Health Education. 7.5.3 Infrastructure Related to Health There is no health facility available in the village. The Primary Health Centre is located 7 km from the village. According to the villagers the PHC is running well, the number of Doctors is adequate and all the health facilities are in good condition. General fever, Malaria, Diarrhea, are common in the village. There is an Asha worker in the village that provides vaccination to the children and also informs people about different diseases. From the household survey we found that 41.5 percent of the respondent feels the PHC is running well while 39 percent feel there are not sufficient doctors while 14 percent are not happy with the competence of doctor. 4.5% people feel PHC is lacking in basic facilities. 7.5.4 Defecation 91% of the houses in the village practice open defecation while the rest have toilet facilities. Households having toilet facility also prefer to go in the open for defecation; toilets are mostly used by small children’s. 7.5.5 Infrastructure Related to the Drinking water The village has 6 Hand pumps for drinking water facility out of which one is not functioning. There are 11 open well out of which 4 are for use others are of private. Most of the households use water from an open well for drinking purpose, very few people use water from hand pump as the water is not suitable for drinking purpose. Few households use water from river for drinking purpose but the water is not hygienic. Few house hold complained about the distant location of the hand pump. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 22
  • 23. 7.5.6 Cultural place There are 2 temples in which the villagers offer their prayers. 7.5.7 Micro Enterprise: Out of 128 households only five households have small shop which keeps some basic need items like, Matchbox, Bidi, Candies, Snacks, Soap, detergent, cosmetics, biscuit, gutkha etc. There are three women SHGs which are involved in handicraft work and a men SHG involved in fishing activity. 7.5.8 Community hall There is a community hall present in the village and is presently being used as Durga Manch. 8 Local Economy 8.1 Income Source According to the house hold survey the average annual income of the family is Rs 31300, average annual expenditure is Rs 21100 and average annual savings is Rs 12000.These savings is used for the creating assets and some part of it is saved to cope with future crises. 8.2 Livelihood The livelihood of villagers is multidimensional; people are engaged in a number of activities. Villagers try to do maximum work to meet the family needs. Most of the people in the village have agriculture as the primary source of income, apart from this they also do work as wage laborers in government schemes or private works. If they do not have work in village they migrate to nearby city to earn some livelihood. Since the village is surrounded by forest they gather Maua and Tend patta from there and either sell it in the market to get some money or keep some for their own consumption. Few women’s are engaged in handicraft activity from last one year and few men also do fishing for their livelihood. Figure 1: Economic Activities 8% 4% 7% Agricultural 41% 13% wage labour salaried job Migration 27% Business forest Produce Source: Household Survey School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 23
  • 24. 8.3 Primary and Secondary Occupation of the Village Figure 2: Primary Occupation Figure 3 Secondary Occupation Non Agri-laborer 19% Farmer Cultivator 6% 3% 3% 3% Salaried Job 81% Farmer/Cultivator No secondary 72% Occupation 13% Homemaker Non Agri-laborer (housewife) Agri-laborer Source: Household Survey From the household survey we found that 26 of 32 households were engaged in agriculture as primary occupation and only 6 households were engaged in other activity. Apart from agriculture people are engaged in Activities like non-agriculture laborer, farm cultivator, Services, agriculture laborer, home maker etc as secondary occupation. 72% People are engaged in non agriculture- laborer as secondary occupation. 13% are engaged as farm cultivator. From the household survey we found that 56% of the earning members are male and 44% earning members are female. The wage rate in the village is Rs 100 for both male and female working under MNREGA; whereas for village work, wage rate is Rs 60. 8.4 Land holding pattern: The land holding pattern of Samaiya village is pointed out in the pie chart. There are 9% people who do not have land; they are dependent on wage labor as well as migration for livelihood. 22% has below three acre land and they are engaged both in agriculture as well as non-agriculture job to sustain their livelihood. 22% have between 3-5 acre land and they used the land in proper manner for cultivation because the land is limited and most of the household members are engaged in agriculture. 31% households have land between 5-10 acre and above 10 acre land holder are 16%. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 24
  • 25. Figure 4 Land Distribution 16% 9% Landless 22% Below 3 Acre Between 3 to 5 31% Between 5 to 10 22% Above 10 Acr Source: Patwari of the Village 8.5 Agriculture Most of the people are dependent on agriculture; the agriculture practice is mainly primitive in nature and labor intensive. Agriculture is mainly rain fed due to non availability of water for irrigation purpose. It is found that the soil is blackish to red loamy and even rocky at some places. Though some of the farmers use urea along with cow dung as fertilizers; however, application of cow dung is found to be prevalent in the village. Most of the crops produced are consumed only a small part of it is sold in the local market. On an average a household earns Rs 13000 per year from agriculture. Table 10: Yield per Hectare Product Name Yield Rice 16.5 quintal/hectare Wheat 29 quintal/hectare Maize 12 quintal/hectare Rai 14 quintal/hectare Batra 18 quintal/hectare Masoor 7 quintal/hectare Arhar 6.5 quintal/hectare Ramtilla 6 quintal/hectare Kodo 5 quintal/ hectare Kutki 5 quintal/hectare Chana 13 quintal/hectare Alsi 7.5 quintal/hectare Urad 5 quintal/hectare Source: FGD School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 25
  • 26. 8.6 SERVICE HOLDERS There are ten service holders in the village out of which 8 are envolved in government service and two are involved in private service. From household survey we found that on an average a service holder earns Rs 2000 per month. 8.6.1 Government Service:  Kotwar of village  Asha worker  Anganwadi worker  Peon ( Education Department)  Peon (Irrigation Department)  Teacher ( High School)  Stenographer (Irrigation Department)  SAF ( MP Police) 8.6.2 Private Service:  Program Assistant  Health Worker 8.7 Market Linkage The nearest market available for the villagers is at Pipariya which is 2 km from the village. The market is held weekly i.e. on Saturday. Every household of the village go to this market for purchasing goods for the whole week. The market is very huge containing almost all products required by the villagers ranging from fruits, vegetables, clothes, makeup products, soaps & detergents, sweets, all type of galla items etc. Many villagers also sell their products in the market. Villagers usually go to the market by walking with their family. A major product which come in and goes out from the village are annexed at the end. 8.8 Expenditure Pattern From the household survey we found that 64% of the income is spend on food, on an average a household spends Rs 1100 per month of food consumption.7% i.e. approx. Rs 1400 p.a. is spend on clothing, 5% i.e. approx. Rs 1100 p.a. is spend on health care, 5% i.e. Rs 1000 p.a. is spend on toiletries. Rest others constitute 20% of the total expenditure. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 26
  • 27. Figure 5: Average Expenditure 1% 4% 2% Food Consumption 10% 1% Clothing 11% Health Care 64% Electricity & Travelling 7% Housing Education Social Function Agri. Related Exp. Source: Survey 9 Consumption 9.1 Products There is no processing unit in the village. So people sell their raw material and grain stock in the nearby market Main products of the village are the agricultural and forest produce. The production of agricultural produce is just sufficient for the villagers, though they sell some produce like Rai, Kodo, Kutaki, Jagni, Wheat, Arhar, Masoor, Batra etc. in the local and weekly market of Pipariya. Apart from this they also sell NTFP like Mahua and Tend leaf to these markets. 9.2 Food availability According to the household survey most of the households are deficit in food availability. In case of cereals 41% of the households have sufficient production and just 3% have surplus production. In case of pulse 34% households have sufficient production; in case of oil 22% have sufficient production. The village has very less production of vegetables, fruits and cash crops. Figure 6: Food Availability 100% 80% Surplus 60% Deficit 40% 20% Sufficient for Family 0% Cereals Pulse Oil/Ghee Vegetable Fruit Cash Crop Source: Survey School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 27
  • 28. 9.3 Housing Pattern: The village is divided in to 4 small hamlets’. The houses in the village are scattered, most of the houses are located alongside the road of the village. Two houses of the village are Pucca houses, except that all the houses in the village are thatched house made from brick, mud, stone, logs etc. The walls are plastered with mud and colors are applied on them, roofs are made up of logs with on them. All the houses in the village are painted either with white, sky blue or in combination of both. Villagers keep their houses very clean by coating the floor regularly with cow dung or mud. Houses lack windows for ventilation. The housing area including the kitchen garden varies from 20×40-60×40. In most of the household average number of the room are 3 except in few household which are having 2 rooms. The houses are more in width than in length. In almost all house hold the animal living is situated just after the entrance. 9.4 Banks There are two banks located near the village, one is the Co-operative Bank which is located 2 km from the village and another one is the State Bank of India which is located 7 km from the village. Very few villagers have account in the Co-operative bank; most of the people have account in the State Bank. The reason is the villagers receive their payment for working under NREGS from State Bank Only. Before this scheme came very few villagers had a bank account but after the starting of this scheme as well as a number of SHGs, most of the people are account holder. 9.5 Credit 9.5.1 Trader/ Money Lenders: This is the major source of the informal credit for the villagers, may it be for daily expenditure, social function, medical expenses purchasing cattle’s or crop loan. The interest rate varies from 60-80% p.a. depending upon the emergency of credit. 9.5.2 Friends and Acquaintances: This is source of informal credit system for the villagers. Borrowing of money and grains mostly take place. In case of cash borrowings it is repaid by working as a wage labor where as the grains are returned back after harvesting. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 28
  • 29. 9.5.3 Banks: Very few people take loan from the bank primary reason is the process of taking loan is very complicated in banks. Also taking loan from bank requires a lot of paper work and people have to deposit their documents where as it is much easier to take money from money lenders as people can get money very quickly. 9.6 SHGs: Village has 6 SHGs formed by three different NGOs working in this village. An NGO naming Ajeevika funded by MPRLP has formed 4 SHGs, Udyogini has formed 1 SHG and FES has formed 1 SHG respectively. 1. Ajeevika is working very efficiently in this village; they have launched a number of poverty elevation schemes in the village. It is working on the basis of three tier systems, first they are working on group basis by forming SHGs, second on individual basis by providing fund for business and third they are creating assets which can be used by all the villagers 2. Udyogini: It formed its first WEG in 2008 but this group broke up. Currently it has formed a new group which is just 3 months old. This group is new and is involved in saving; each member of the group saves Rs 50 every month. 3. Foundation for Ecological Security: It is working in this village since 2009 and has formed one SHG. 10 Village Level Committee: There are 5 village level committee, they are as follows: 1. Gram Vikas Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005 with an objective to works for the development of the village and looks into new opportunities for development. 2. Van Suraksha Samiti: it is the oldest committee formed in this village. It was formed in 1995 with the aim of protecting the forest and its resources. But now this committee is not working properly. 3. Prashfutan Samiti: This committee was formed in 2008. This committee provides utensils, tent and other related goods at the time of marriage or any other social functions. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 29
  • 30. 4. Nigarani Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005.the main objective of this committee is to look after various constructions and development work in the village. 5. Gram Kosh Samiti: This committee was formed in 2005. It works for any type of disaster management in the village. This committee is funded by Ajeevika which is a Madhya Pradesh Government Project. Its main objective is to provide financial support in case of Snake bite, delivery of child, sudden death in a poor family etc. 11 Political and Governance System 11.1 Political system: There is no political party in the village, but there are some people using the political and social influence to enhance the household income. 11.2 Panchayati Raj Institutions: Panchayat office is located in the village Singhpur which is half km from the village. Mr. Munna Singh Paraste is the Sarpanch of the Panchayat and he lives in the village Samaiya. Mr. Laman Singh Warkare is the Up Sarpanch of the Panchayat. Village Panchayat take good care of the villager’s day-to-day problems and the problems are sorted out in monthly Gram Sabha. Almost all eligible voters participate in the Panchayat elections. 11.3 Gram Sabha: Gram Sabha is a special type of meeting conducted in the village. Its main aim is to identify and solve the problems related to village development plans. All the villagers attend these meetings since they deal with the major problems of the village. Earlier Gram Sabha used to be held on 6th of every month but now there is no fixed date as such, but it is held every month. 12 Government Schemes:  Poverty Alleviation Program: National Rural Employment Gurantee Act (NAREGA) is running in the village. Currently it is working on water availability by digging wells throughout the Panchayat also work on “Merdh bandh” is to be done after completion of wells.  Ladali Yojana: Under this scheme girl child would be given Rs 2 lakh when they complete 18 yr of age. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 30
  • 31. Samuhik Vivah: Under this scheme girl will be given jewelry, cloth and Rs 10,000 at the time of marriage.  Antyodaya Yojana: It is distributing food grains, kerosene and sugar under Public Distribution System (PDS) to the villagers. Source: Revenue Department 13 STATUS OF WOMEN Table 11: Gender Analysis Women’s participation Women do not participate in local politics. Women’s vote is controlled in Politics by men and Political parties do not see women as vote bank. Agriculture Work is divided between both men and women. Women do the work of removing weeds from the field and harvesting of the crops. Men do the work of plough and sowing of seeds. Land Both men and women have equal ownership over their ancestors land, both gets equal amount of land. Labor Both men and women receives equal wage for labor work Marriage Girl is not forced for marriage by their parents. Girl is free to select the person of her choice but inter caste marriage is not permitted. Education Due to the government scheme of free education, girls are given all the facilities like bicycle, books, stationary items, dress etc therefore most of the girls go to school. Family Planning Women have equal right to decide the number of children she could have. Dowry Dowry is common in the village. Girls Parent’s have to give some dowry in cash or kind to the boy’s family. Only after settlement of dowry, wedding takes place Decision making Males are the decision maker in the family; women have a small role in decision making. Control over finance Head of the family have the control over finance, most often males are the head of the family Source: FGD School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 31
  • 32. 14 PLANS OF THE VILLAGE 14.1 Short Term Plans:  Providing water for both drinking and an irrigation facility for this it is digging 15 wells throughout the Panchayat. 13.2 Long Term Plans: 14.2 Long term plans:  Work on “merh bandh” i.e. boundary along the fields would be done throughout the village.  Electrification of one part of the village i.e. a mohalla which is not yet electrified have to be electrified  Construction of roads in the remaining part of the village which is kuchha. 15 SWOT Analysis: STRENGTH WEAKNESS Land Lack of Water and irrigation equipments Forest Illiteracy Jute Low wage payment Handicraft, Brick making skill Low saving habit Social capital Nuclear family Demand for Agriculture/NTFP Natural calamities Presence of Piparia Market Job insecurity Road connectivity Low repayment habit Weekly haat NGO intervention Government Schemes OPPORTUNITIES THREAT School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 32
  • 33. 16 Relationships with Other Communities As life in the village is interwoven the villagers have harmonious relationship with nearby villages. The village lack many basic facilities and therefore people have to visit these villages for their day today requirement. They to go to Pipariya to buy Kirana items, weekly haat is also located in Piapriya, Flour mill is also located in Pipariya, middle school is located in Singhpur, Panchayat is also situated in Singhpur etc. 17 CONCLUSIONS: The village study enabled me in studying the various aspects of the village life. We came to know various things knowing which perhaps were not possible without staying in the village among the rural population. My stay helped me to understand the lives of the villager, their need and various dynamics relating to it. The Firsthand experience is how they sustain their livelihood, which kind of difficulties they face for livelihood and other expenses of household. And we also saw the various development plans running in the village and impact of it helped me to sharpen my understanding of these plans and ground realities associated with them. It’s easy to stay outside the village and suggests various means for the development of village but the real picture is quite different in the village. The village do have its bright color which is absent in urban areas, even in many developed cities of the country. The facts like equality between different caste, female position in the house, unity among villagers etc are among some of the positive aspects of the village. Still there is sufficient scope of improvements in the village related to the providing of livelihood opportunity to the villagers. We can say that providing subsidies will not help but what the villagers actually needed is the information and knowledge about their products, their value and their demand in the outside market, so that they could get appropriate return for their hard work. And the second hand experience is how they cope up with the expenditure when there have no job and suddenly natural disaster happened on the village like Pala and other disasters. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 33
  • 34. PRA techniques used: 1). Social Mapping and Resource Mapping: School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 34
  • 35. 2) Chapatti Diagram: 3) Seasonal Calendar: School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 35
  • 36. Appendices Annexure- 1: Caste wise Population Distribution (Source: PRA) Caste Wise Population Sl. No. Surname Caste No. of Household 1 Marawi ST 9 2 Amro ST 6 3 Paraste ST 43 4 Kulaste ST 7 5 Uike ST 9 6 Oiyam ST 25 7 Saiyam ST 2 8 Sakhde ST 1 9 Masram ST 3 10 Warkare ST 2 11 Pandram ST 2 12 Udaste ST 3 13 Vishwakarma OBC 1 14 Yadav OBC 3 15 Sarthi SC 12 Total 128 School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 36
  • 37. Annexure-2 Inflow of products Products/services used Local Sl. No. but not produced Annual Consumption in the area Production Quantity Price/Unit Total Value 1 Chocolate 48000 0.5 24000 No 2 Body Soap 1700 10 17000 No 3 Washing Soap 1700 5 8500 No 4 Washing Powder 1700 5 8500 No 5 Face Cream 2400 5 12000 No 6 Gotha 48000 1 48000 No 7 Vegetable Oil 2500 60 150000 No 8 Dry Coconut 1000 5 5000 No 9 Finger chips 24000 1 24000 No 10 Sugar 1000 35 35000 No 11 Tea 6000 1 6000 No 12 Agarbatti 500 5 2500 No 13 Shampoo 2000 1 2000 No 14 Tooth paste 2500 10 25000 No 15 Biscuit 1500 5 75000 No 16 Hair Oil 2000 1 2000 No Total Inflow 444500 Source: Informal interview Annexure-3 Outflow of Products: Sl. No. Products quantity price/unit total value demanded in 1 Wheat 3000 kg Rs 11/kg Rs 33000 Pipariya 2 Rai 20000 kg Rs 13/kg Rs 260000 Pipariya 3 Ramtilla 6000 kg Rs 22/kg Rs 132000 Pipariya 4 Kodo 2500 kg Rs 7/kg Rs 17500 Pipariya 5 Kutki 2500 kg Rs 8/kg Rs 20000 Pipariya 6 Maize 2500 kg Rs 7/kg Rs 17500 Pipariya 7 Arhar 2500 kg Rs 22/kg Rs 55000 Pipariya 8 Batra 2000 kg Rs 60/kg Rs 120000 Pipariya 9 Masoor 1000kg Rs 12/kg Rs 12000 Pipariya 10 Maua 20000 kg Rs 15/kg Rs 300000 Pipariya 200000 11 Tendu patta piece Rs 0.4/piece Rs 8000 Pipariya 12 Handicraft Rs 50000 Jabalpur Annual Sell of products Rs 102500 Source: Survey School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 37
  • 38. Annexure: 4 Literacy rate 75 Male Female 41 34 29 19 10 Total Between 6-18 Above 18 Source: Household Survey Annexure: 5 Health Issues knowledge 84% 84% 88% 60% 66% 63% 22% Source: Household Survey Annexure: 6 Source of knowledge about Health OTHERS RADIO T.V 1% 8% 6% HEALTH WORKER 85% Source: Household Survey School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 38
  • 39. Annexure: 7 Drinking Water Facility 9% 13% 78% Pond/tank/River Tubewell Openwell Source: Household Survey Annexure: 8 Quality of Road 3% good average poor dilapidated 22% 16% 59% Source: Household Survey Annexure: 9 Livestock Distribution Type of Animal Number of Animal Number of family Cow 32 21 Bullock 64 27 Buffalo 2 2 Calf 16 11 Goat/Sheep 21 5 Poultry 22 10 Source: Household Survey School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 39
  • 40. ORGANIZATION PROFILE School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 40
  • 41. 1 Organization Overview Udyogini which means “women entrepreneur” came into existence in 1992 as a World Bank initiative to pilot a program to develop a curriculum, methodology and service provider for micro enterprise management services, principally training for poor, asset less and mainly illiterate women in the backward states of India. Udyogini was set up to co-ordinate and facilitate management training for grassroots women's groups for the World Bank Institute-funded Women's Enterprise Management Training Outreach Program (WEMTOP). This was a three-year participatory action learning project aimed at strengthening the capacity of intermediary NGOs to deliver management training to poor women micro entrepreneurs in 1992. The training program consisted of Grassroots Management Training (GMT) carried out for women producers and the Training of Enterprise Support Teams (TEST) for the trainers of GMT. The trainings were carried out through NGOs who were responsible for group formation and bringing together the women. NGO staff was trained as trainers or Enterprise Support Teams (ESTs). Udyogini from 1997 to 2001 scaled up its training services to many clients in existing and additional states of India. It also introduced marketing services to NGOs that were working with potential micro-entrepreneurs as well as to middle-level entrepreneurs working with women producers to help scale up their enterprises. In 2002, as a result of a strategic planning process, Udyogini made changes in implementing strategy, deciding to initiate programs to engage directly with women producers at the grassroots. By early 2010, Udyogini had a presence in 7 states of North, Central and Eastern India working on aggregating and/or value-addition to commodities as diverse as lac, mahua, honey, bamboo, silk, other medicinal plants, maize, mustard, vegetables, and pulses and services like child-care center demonstrating considerable scale and breadth of experience and impact. It had also facilitated registration of producers' institutions called UJAS in three of its locations. UJAS (Udyam Jagaran Sansthan) is now an established national brand identity for producer-owned entities and business products. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 41
  • 42. Most significantly, in 2010, it has taken up the challenge of microenterprise development for older sex workers who want to move out of the profession and want to ensure that their young daughters develop employable skills so that they are not vulnerable to sex work. Its intervention at Mandla district, M.P began in 13 villages to support around 200 women. They work in three clusters namely Niwas, Babaliya and Bakori at Mandla district. By the end of 2005, Udyogini worked with nearly 1200 women from 60 villages. 1.1 Vision To become a nationally and internationally recognized agency specializing in business development services for NGOs and poor women. 1.2 Mission To provide quality and appropriate business development services for promotion of poor women as entrepreneurs. 2 Operational Areas Implementation Projects BDS Centre’s Bikaner, Udaipur (Rajasthan) Udaipur (Rajasthan) Mandla, Seoni, Raisen, Chindwada (MP) Jabalpur (M.P.) Saharanpur (U.P) Dehradun (Uttrakhand) Chamoli (Uttrakhand) Patna (Bihar) Ranchi (Jharkhand) Ranchi (Jharkhand) Kalahandi (Orissa) Nawada, Gaya (Bihar) School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 42
  • 43. 2.1 Where it works: It is working in some of the most backward regions of India (desert and tribal districts of Rajasthan, forest areas of Madhya Pradesh, insurgency-affected districts of Jharkhand, higher reaches of the hill state of Uttarakhand, neglected areas of Bihar and Assam School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 43
  • 44. 3 Organization Structure Board of Directors Chief Executive Officer Chief Operating Officer Business Development Service Manager Enterprise Promotion Manager Enterprise Promotion Executive Program Assistant 4 Retrospective: URMUL, SURE and LUPIN in Rajasthan; NIPDIT and Samanwita in Orissa and ADITHI in Bihar are few of the distinguished alumni of Udyogini's enterprise. Udyogini also has two flagship programs namely Training of Enterprise support teams (TEST) and Grassroots Management Training (GMT). School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 44
  • 45.  TESTs are for those people who are professional and Para-professional but yet do not have much knowledge and business skills in this area. It is a residential course in which participants have to undergo an intensive training for four to five days. It covers a vast range of topics including motivation for entrepreneurship, business idea generation and marketing, risk analysis, market survey, value-chain analysis, business plan creation and linkages building with a woman focus, this is known as “Orientation TESTs”.  Udyogini also has "Advanced TESTs" which deal more intensively with particular aspects of enterprise management (such as feasibility and business planning), for those already familiar with the basics  GMT is a core activity in Udyogini’s work. This program focuses on women; they help marginalized women to become entrepreneur not just skilled producers. The topics covered under GMT are same as that of TESTs but the methodology and training aids used are quite different. Udyogini build the capacity of women by training them in fields like: assessing the feasibility of an enterprise planning and schedule production, understanding and assessing the market, production / quality management. To simplify these concepts for women, the training program includes tools like case studies and simulation exercise, role-play and group works.  There is also a program called “hybrid TESTs” which are designed for local entrepreneurs who have a certain level of education. The hybrid TESTs are customized version from TESTs and GMTs. 5 Approaches: 1. Gender Focused (women viewed as drivers and leaders) 2. Capacity building model for women (Starts with incremental steps towards livelihood security for poverty alleviation and moves to empowerment through promotion of Micro Enterprise) 3. Thrust in Inclusive Market Development 4. Innovation, Learning and Change in Business Services’ content and delivery mechanism School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 45
  • 46. 6 Operational Frameworks: 1. Enterprise motivation and management awareness for grassroots women. 2. Creation of grassroots business development service providers 3. Enterprise promotion and incentives for producers and market players 4. Ownership and scale up through systems and institution 5. Expansion and outreach 7 Services offered: 1. Cluster identification, mobilization and development 2. Conducting market related Action Research & Assessment Studies 3. Conducting Feasibility Studies 4. Conducting Micro-plans for villages 5. Formulation of Business Plans for SMEs 6. Enterprise motivation / orientation training 7. Facilitation of market information, linkages & support 8. Facilitation for financial including social venture capital support 9. Building BDSP capacity through training, orientation & exposures 10. Mentoring selected BDSPs as entrepreneurs with access to venture finance 8 Major funding partners: MISEREOR NABARD Intel Corporation Government of India Ford Foundation Forest Department ICCW Government of Madhya Pradesh Reliance Life Sciences Government of Rajasthan Government of Uttarakhand European Union ICCO School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 46
  • 47. 9 Operational Model of VLSC 10 Overall Activities: 1. Integrated BDS in diversified sub-sectors of Craft, Consumables, Agriculture & NTFP through its Field Projects. 2. GMT (Capsule-based enterprise trainings for SHG women/Leaders). 3. TEST (Training of Enterprise Support Team). 4. Training Material Development. 5. Market Surveys, Action Research & Impact Assessment. 6. Feasibility Studies for Micro-enterprise activities. 7. Business Plan Preparation. 8. Product to Market Mapping / Value Chain Analysis. 9. Supply Chain Development (Primary Level). 10. Building Market Linkages & Trade Network. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 47
  • 48. 11 Key Achievements: • Institutionalization of UJAS as a Producers’ Organization in all 3 implementation locations; • Has trained over 1000 NGO and government staff through TEST. • Has trained over 5000 producer women through GMTs • Establishment of local level supply chain with a growth-oriented enterprise model for various sub-sectors in all project locations; • Facilitated market linkages for various products with companies like Reliance, Safal, Fab-India, UTMT and more corporate houses; • Developed a cadre of more than 100 women producers as service providers handling & coaching other women on enterprise functions; • Chanelized a sales turnover of more than 50 lacs in 2 project locations each (M.P & Raj.) and more than 25 lacs in 1 location (U.P); • Facilitated around 3500 producers to move up the value chains with more technical operations as processors; • Build around 50% of the women to an extent to take up more technical production & market operation and unions independently. 12 Future plan of organization:  To strengthen customer base by expansion and outreach to other districts like Katni, Shingroli.  To strengthen and improvise the quality of training.  To improvise the BDS by adding up more services and products in the supply chain.  To set up a franchise model for the existing and upcoming VLSCs School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 48
  • 49. THEME PAPER Assessment of willingness to pay of the community for the services and products identified for being offered through Village Level Service Centers School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 49
  • 50. INTRODUCTION As part of the Village study segment, the major objective was study of existing supply chain established by Udyam Jagaran Sansthan (UJAS), to check for the willingness of the community to pay for the identified products and services in the project areas of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. A study in both financial and operational aspects of different opportunities was carried out to understand the various perspectives for the initiatives undertaken by Udyogini. In order to identify challenges for the organization in current and future context different concepts that were learnt in the classroom were utilized. The period of the study was from the 7th of January 2010 to the 29th January, 2011. 1.1 Background of the study: The main endeavor in the study was to check the willingness of the products and services for Tribal community people that can be incorporated into the existing supply chain of the UJAS. The organization is expanding in terms of opening up new VLSCs but the profit is not increasing in the same proportion therefore the organization is willing to find out the problems in the supply chain and launch new products and services in order to increase their profitability. The operational areas of the organization i.e. Mandla district have agriculture as their primary source of earning and livelihood. As the geographical condition of this area is not suitable for good production from agriculture due to lack of water and irrigation equipment, most of the farmers have to depend on rain. There is a need to introduce some services to minimize these problems to some level or some extent. All the identified products will be provided by the UJAS through its supply chain i.e. through the chain of CLSCs and VLSCs. Udyogini desires to identify potential services according to the need and demand of the villagers, so that they can improve their livelihood and also UJAS can improve its profit. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 50
  • 51. 1.2 Rationale of the Project: Even though the organization is expanding in terms of number of VLSCs but the profit is not increasing in same proportion, thus there is felt need to re-monitor the overall working of the supply chain and identify the problems. Also there is a need of introducing new products and services by keeping in mind the needs of the village and the villagers. Identification of products & services has already been done therefore to check the willingness of the villagers to pay for the identified products services, the main rationale lies behind the primary occupation of the villagers, their income & expenditure pattern and the most critical period/ month in a year. Based on the identified list of products and services, to fulfil the needs of the villagers at their own village at fair prices so that they can increase their income and decrease their expenditure. 1.3 Objective of the Study: The long term goal of this project is to increase the profitability of the CLSCs, VLSCs by solving the identified problems in the supply chain and also to introduce new services and products in the supply chain of UJAS. To achieve this goal the objective is to check for the willingness of the community/ villagers to pay for the identified products and services. 1.4 Scope: The information and the recommendations derived from this study helps to take appropriate decisions for launching new identified products and services in the existing supply chain of the UJAS to improve the lifestyle of the villagers. The primary data collected regarding their willingness to pay for identified products and services and systemic knowledge generated by this will result in the creation of a resource for other future study. 1.5 Limitations of the Study: 1) Poor and delayed transportation facility delayed the data collection. 2) As some of the villages are not operational areas of the organization, cause problems in collecting villagers for FGD and data collection. 3) As the field staff was not familiar to such kind of surveys, they took time in understanding and implementing right survey. School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 51
  • 52. RESEARCH DESIGN 2.1 Study area and target group: The study area is extended to 6 villages of Niwas Block, 7 villages of Narayanganj Block and 7 villages of Mandla Block. These 20 villages are divided into three clusters namely Niwas, Babaliya and Bakori cluster of Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh. Table 2 Village names Babaliya Bakori Niwas Keriba Singarpur Khamariya Padhriya Muradeeh Phadki Raiyat Sukhram Bakchheda Gondi Bandariya Chakdehi Dungariya Mohpani Banar Chirayi Dongari Umariya Mukas Khurd Khuksar Lohari Barbati Sijhori 7 7 6 School of Rural Management, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar Page 52