Research process


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Research process

  1. 1. Research Process Research Process - Sailee Gurav MSc. Biochemistry Part 1 -Sailee Gurav MSc. Biochemistry Part-1
  2. 2. Research Process Definition According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
  3. 3. Objectives Research Process Each research study has its own specific purpose. • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into the subject. • To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. • To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else • To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables
  4. 4. Types of Research • Descriptive vs. Analytical Research • Applied vs. Fundamental Research • Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research • Conceptual vs. Empirical Research
  5. 5. Research Process Flow Chart
  6. 6. Formulating the research problem In research process, the first and foremost step happens to be that of selecting and properly defining a research problem. A researcher must find the problem and formulate it so that it becomes susceptible to research. • Statement of the problem in a general way • Understanding the nature of the problem • Surveying the available literature • Developing the ideas through discussions • Rephrasing the research problem
  7. 7. Extensive literature survey • Researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem. • Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books must be tapped depending on the nature of the problem.
  8. 8. Development of working hypotheses • Its assumption is made to draw out & test its logical or empirical consequences. • Affect the manner in which tests must be conducted in analysis of data & indirectly quality of data. • Should be very specific & limited to piece of research because it has to be tested. • Its role is to guide researcher & keep him on the right track. • It also indicates type of data required & methods of data analysis to be used.
  9. 9. Preparing the Research Design A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. The design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. Research design, in fact, has a great bearing on the reliability of the results arrived at and as such constitutes the firm foundation of the entire edifice of the research work. Research purposes grouped into 4, (i) Exploration (ii) Description (iii) Diagnosis (iv) Experimentation
  10. 10. DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGN • Research design in case of exploratory research studies • Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies • Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies There are several research designs and the researcher must decide in advance of collection and analysis of data as to which design would prove to be more appropriate for his research project.
  11. 11. Determining sample design When field studies are undertaken in practical life, considerations of time and cost almost invariably lead to a selection of respondents i.e., selection of only a few items. The respondents selected should be as representative of the total population as possible in order to produce a miniature cross-section. The selected respondents constitute what is technically called a ‘sample’ and the selection process is called ‘sampling technique.’ The survey so conducted is known as ‘sample survey’.
  12. 12. Researcher must keep in view the two causes of incorrect inferences viz., systematic bias and sampling error. Usually a systematic bias is the result of one or more of the following factors: • Inappropriate sampling frame • Defective measuring device • Non-respondents • Indeterminacy principle • Natural bias in the reporting of data
  13. 13. DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAMPLE DESIGNS • Non-probability sampling • Probability sampling COMPLEX RANDOM SAMPLING DESIGNS • Systematic sampling • Stratified sampling • Cluster sampling • Area sampling • Multi-stage sampling • Sampling with probability proportional to size • Sequential sampling
  14. 14. Collecting the data Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey. If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements, or the data, with the help of which he examines the truth contained in his hypothesis • By observation • Through personal interview • Through telephone interviews: • Through telephone interviews: • Through schedules
  15. 15. Preparation of the report or the thesis • Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by him. • Writing of report must be done with great care keeping in view the following: • The layout of the report should be as follows: (i) the preliminary pages (ii) the main text (iii) the end matter. • In its preliminary pages the report should carry title and date followed by acknowledgements and foreword. • Then there should be a table of contents followed by a list of tables and list of graphs and charts, if any, given in the report.
  16. 16. The main text of the report should have the following parts: (a) Introduction: It should contain a clear statement of the objective of the research and an explanation of the methodology adopted in accomplishing the research. (b) Summary of findings: After introduction there would appear a statement of findings and recommendations in non-technical language. (c) Main report: The main body of the report should be presented in logical sequence and broken-down into readily identifiable sections. (d) Conclusion: Towards the end of the main text, researcher should again put down the results of his research clearly and precisely.
  17. 17. • At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all technical data. • Bibliography,i.e., list of books, journals, reports, etc. • Index should also be given specially in a published research • Report should be written in a concise and objective style in simple language avoiding expressions such as ‘it seems,’ ‘there may be’, and the like. • Charts and illustrations in the main report should be used • Calculated ‘confidence limits’ must be mentioned and the various constraints experienced in conducting research operations.
  18. 18. Current Research Helping International Students Succeed Academically through Research Process and Plagiarism Workshops • Workshops on the research process and plagiarism were designed to meet the needs of international students at the University at Albany. • The research process workshop covered formulating research questions, as well as locating and evaluating sources. • The plagiarism workshop focused on acknowledging sources, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing materials, citation styles, and avoiding plagiarism. • The effectiveness of the workshops was measured by administering preand post-tests and by interviewing students several months after the workshops. • The results showed that students achieved significant improvement for both the research process and plagiarism by attending the training, and they continued to apply new skills several months later.
  19. 19. References • Research Methodology Methods and techniques C.R Kothari ,2nd revised edition Chapter 1 Pages : 10-20 • • ml • Current Research : • ps-of-the-research-process • Human Kinetics Journal • Steps of the research process By Diane C. Blankenship
  20. 20. Thank You