- Sailee Gurav
MSc. Biochemistry Part 1
MSc. Biochemistry Part-1
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and
redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions;
collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and
reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to
determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
Objectives Research Process
Each research study has its own specific purpose.
• To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new
insights into the subject.
• To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group.
To determine the frequency with which something occurs or
with which it is associated with something else
• To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables
Types of Research
• Descriptive vs. Analytical Research
• Applied vs. Fundamental Research
• Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
• Conceptual vs. Empirical Research
Formulating the research problem
In research process, the first and foremost step happens to be that of
selecting and properly defining a research problem. A researcher
must find the problem and formulate it so that it becomes
susceptible to research.
• Statement of the problem in a general way
• Understanding the nature of the problem
• Surveying the available literature
• Developing the ideas through discussions
• Rephrasing the research problem
Extensive literature survey
• Researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with
• Academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books
must be tapped depending on the nature of the problem.
Development of working hypotheses
• Its assumption is made to draw out & test its logical or empirical
• Affect the manner in which tests must be conducted in analysis of data &
indirectly quality of data.
• Should be very specific & limited to piece of research because it has to be
• Its role is to guide researcher & keep him
on the right track.
• It also indicates type of data required &
methods of data analysis to be used.
Preparing the Research Design
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data
in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in
The design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the
hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data.
Research design, in fact, has a great bearing on the reliability of the results arrived at
and as such constitutes the firm foundation of the entire edifice of the research work.
Research purposes grouped into 4,
DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGN
• Research design in case of exploratory research studies
• Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies
Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies
There are several research designs and the researcher must decide in advance
of collection and analysis of data as to which design would prove to be more
appropriate for his research project.
Determining sample design
When field studies are undertaken in practical life, considerations of time and
cost almost invariably lead to a selection of respondents i.e., selection of only
a few items. The respondents selected should be as representative of the total
population as possible in order to produce a miniature cross-section. The
selected respondents constitute what is technically called a ‘sample’ and the
selection process is called ‘sampling technique.’ The survey so conducted is
known as ‘sample survey’.
Researcher must keep in view the two causes of incorrect inferences
viz., systematic bias and sampling error. Usually a systematic bias is
the result of one or more of the following factors:
• Inappropriate sampling frame
• Defective measuring device
• Indeterminacy principle
• Natural bias in the reporting of data
DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAMPLE DESIGNS
• Non-probability sampling
• Probability sampling
COMPLEX RANDOM SAMPLING DESIGNS
• Systematic sampling
• Stratified sampling
• Cluster sampling
• Area sampling
• Multi-stage sampling
• Sampling with probability proportional to size
• Sequential sampling
Collecting the data
Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through
survey. If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some
quantitative measurements, or the data, with the help of which he
examines the truth contained in his hypothesis
Through personal interview
Through telephone interviews:
Through telephone interviews:
Preparation of the report or the thesis
• Finally, the researcher has to prepare the report of what has been done by
• Writing of report must be done with great care keeping in view the
• The layout of the report should be as follows:
(i) the preliminary pages
(ii) the main text
(iii) the end matter.
• In its preliminary pages the report should carry title and date followed by
acknowledgements and foreword.
• Then there should be a table of contents followed by a list of tables and
list of graphs and charts, if any, given in the report.
The main text of the report should have the following parts:
(a) Introduction: It should contain a clear statement of the objective of
the research and an explanation of the methodology adopted in
accomplishing the research.
(b) Summary of findings: After introduction there would appear a
statement of findings and recommendations in non-technical
(c) Main report: The main body of the report should be presented in
logical sequence and broken-down into readily identifiable
(d) Conclusion: Towards the end of the main text, researcher should
again put down the results of his research clearly and precisely.
At the end of the report, appendices should be enlisted in respect of all
Bibliography,i.e., list of books, journals, reports, etc.
Index should also be given specially in a published research
Report should be written in a concise and objective style in simple
language avoiding expressions such as ‘it seems,’ ‘there may be’, and
Charts and illustrations in the main report should be used
Calculated ‘confidence limits’ must be mentioned and the various
constraints experienced in conducting research operations.
Helping International Students Succeed Academically
through Research Process and Plagiarism Workshops
• Workshops on the research process and plagiarism were designed to meet
the needs of international students at the University at Albany.
• The research process workshop covered formulating research questions,
as well as locating and evaluating sources.
• The plagiarism workshop focused on acknowledging sources, quoting,
paraphrasing, and summarizing materials, citation styles, and avoiding
• The effectiveness of the workshops was measured by administering preand post-tests and by interviewing students several months after the
• The results showed that students achieved significant improvement for
both the research process and plagiarism by attending the training, and
they continued to apply new skills several months later.
• Research Methodology Methods and techniques C.R
Kothari ,2nd revised edition Chapter 1 Pages : 10-20
• Current Research :
• Human Kinetics Journal
• Steps of the research process By Diane C. Blankenship