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Understanding Typography
         Part One




        A brief history of written and printed communication,
        the function of typography in graphic design and the
        essential typographic terminology.
Early Writing Systems




              Photo Source: http://www.sanford-artedventures.com




Earliest known attempts to communicate with imagery
was around 25,000 B.C.

This was primarily pictorial forms (i.e cave drawings)

Early humans used symbols to communicate ideas
Pictographs



                                                              Systems of symbols that represent concepts
                                                              in a consistent manner

                                                              Simplified drawings represent objects

                                                              Example is Egyptian system of hieroglyphics
                                Photo Source: A Typographic Workbook, Kate Clair	

                                                              Advantage of this system is the ability to
                                                              communicate universally (no language barriers)




Image Source: http://bit.ly/bHhnx3
Pictographs



                                                               Systems of symbols that represent concepts
                                                               in a consistent manner

                                                               Simplified drawings represent objects

                                                               Example is Egyptian system of hieroglyphics
                                 Photo Source: A Typographic Workbook, Kate Clair	

                                                               Advantage of this system is the ability to
                                                               communicate universally (no language barriers)




Image Source: http://bit.ly/6gAvue
Early Alphabets
   Phoenician




        The Phoenicians developed an alphabet
        of 22 symbols around 1000 B.C

        Symbols related to the sounds in the language

        Consonants only; no vowels

        Eliminated the need for people to memorize
        thousands of symbols

        The term Phonetics comes from this concept
Early Alphabets
     Greek




         Greeks expanded on Phoenician alphabet

         Added vowels and named each character

         First system for reading left to right and top
         to bottom
Early Alphabets
     Roman




    Romans developed the Greek alphabet further

    Modern alphabet that we now use

    Added lowercase versions to letters, condensed
    forms of text and cursive writing that flowed more
    naturally by hand
Writing During the Dark Ages




                                     Books were hand-produced for hundreds of years

                                     Primarily religious (illuminated manuscripts)

                                     Due to the painstaking effort (often years) to create
                                     a single volume, books were considered very
                                     valuable treasures




Photo Source: http://bit.ly/bQJRH6
Invention of the Printing Press


                                              German metal carver Johannes Gutenberg,
                                              invented the printing press in mid 15th century

                                              Letters carved onto a small metal plate, punch

                                              Letters arranged to form blocks of text. Molten
                                              metal poured over the top to make a mold

                                              Used to print books in larger quantities than had
                                              previously been possible

                                              This invention changed the world, allowing rapid
                                              production and distribution of printed ideas

                                              The Bible was first complete book ever printed	




Photo Source: www.artemis.austincollege.edu
What Role Does Typography
 Play in Graphic Design?




Helps clarify a message that the designer sends to an audience

The properly selected font has a huge impact on getting a message
across to an intended audience

A poorly chosen font or bad typographic layout can detract from
or even block the message all together
What Role Does Typography
  Play in Graphic Design?




Poor typography will prevent a reader from connecting with a design,
and at worst may make your message illegible!
What Role Does Typography
             Play in Graphic Design?



                                           Typography can provide an element of expression
                                           to accompany a message

                                           A carefully crafted typography increases emotional
                                           impact of a message much more than just plain type
                                           by itself, adding another dimension to a message

                                           A well-conceived typographic composition allows
                                           the designer to connect with the reader




Photo Source: Type Rules, Ilene Strizver
What Role Does Typography
                    Play in Graphic Design?




                                                              Letters and numbers can be arranged in a
                                                              clever way that strengthens the message	





Photo Source: Design Basics, David Lauer and Stephen Pentak
What Role Does Typography
                     Play in Graphic Design?




                                                              Letters and numbers can be arranged in a
                                                              clever way that strengthens the message	





Photo Source: Design Basics, David Lauer and Stephen Pentak
What Role Does Typography
             Play in Graphic Design?




                                                  Of course, some of the most innovative
                                                  and creative typography breaks all of the
                                                  established rules!




Photo Source: The End of Print, David Carson	

      Photo Source: www.davidcarsondesign.com
Typographic Terms




Typeface: Refers to the upper and lowercase letters and numbers
          of a specific design/ font.
          Examples: Helvetica, Times, etc.

Characters: The individual letters, numbers and punctuation
            used when setting type

Uppercase: The capital letters of the alphabet

Lowercase: The small letters of the alphabet
Typographic Terms




 Baseline: An imaginary line on which the characters seem to be standing

 Meanline: The imaginary line that runs along the top of most lowercase letters,
           such as i, c, e, m, n, u,v, w and x

  X-Height: The height of the body or main element of the lowercase letterform,
            which falls between the meanline and the baseline

Cap Height: The imaginary line that runs across the top of capital letters and
            ascenders in a line of type
Serif vs. San Serif Letterforms




Serif: Letters with finishing strokes, or brackets, that project from letters
Gives letters finished appearance
Letters flow together, making serif typefaces easy to read
Often used in books, magazines and newspapers

San Serif: Type with no serif
Also has no variation in the width of its strokes; computer generated look
Useful for signs and large-scale text meant to be seen from a distance
Text is harder for a reader s eye to follow in large blocks of text
Script Fonts




Script fonts are decorative and suggest a hand written appearance.
Often used to suggest formality. Difficult to read in large bodies of text;
most effective when used as headings or sub headings in a layout.
Ex: Porcelain
Decorative and Novelty




General term used to describe fonts that can’t be easily categorized.
This includes dingbats and contemporary specialty fonts.

Dingbats used most effectively as a decorative element within a
layout or a heading/ sub heading to separate information on a page.
Typestyles




Roman: Upright letterforms; represents the majority of typeset copy

  Italic: Slanting version of a typeface; meant to accompany Roman style letters
          Usually slants at a 12–15 degree angle

Oblique: Type that is simply slanted to the right
Typestyles




Regular: The standard weight of a typeface (also called normal )

  Light: A thinner/ lighter version of the regular typeface. Also called thin

   Bold: A thicker, heavier version of the regular typeface
Typestyles




 Condensed: A narrower version of the regular typeface to fit letters into
            small space; also called compressed

   Extended: A wider version of the regular typeface; also called expanded

Type families: A combination of all typestyles (roman, bold, italic, etc) of a font
              Typestyles share common characteristics (design, x-height, etc)
Typographic Measurements




Two basic units of measurement used to describe type:

Points: Very small units used to measure both type sizes and the spaces
in between the lines of type.

Picas: Larger unit of measurement. 12 points= 1 Pica (6 picas in 1 inch)
72 point type = 1 inch
Typographic Measurements




   Text Type: Refers to smaller sizes of type, usually between 5 and 14 points
              Used to print books, magazines, newspapers, etc.

Display Type: Refers to the larger sizes of type used to call attention, such as
              newspaper headlines or posters; usually 16-72 point type or larger

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Typography Essentials: Part 1

  • 1.
  • 2. Understanding Typography Part One A brief history of written and printed communication, the function of typography in graphic design and the essential typographic terminology.
  • 3. Early Writing Systems Photo Source: http://www.sanford-artedventures.com Earliest known attempts to communicate with imagery was around 25,000 B.C. This was primarily pictorial forms (i.e cave drawings) Early humans used symbols to communicate ideas
  • 4. Pictographs Systems of symbols that represent concepts in a consistent manner Simplified drawings represent objects Example is Egyptian system of hieroglyphics Photo Source: A Typographic Workbook, Kate Clair Advantage of this system is the ability to communicate universally (no language barriers) Image Source: http://bit.ly/bHhnx3
  • 5. Pictographs Systems of symbols that represent concepts in a consistent manner Simplified drawings represent objects Example is Egyptian system of hieroglyphics Photo Source: A Typographic Workbook, Kate Clair Advantage of this system is the ability to communicate universally (no language barriers) Image Source: http://bit.ly/6gAvue
  • 6. Early Alphabets Phoenician The Phoenicians developed an alphabet of 22 symbols around 1000 B.C Symbols related to the sounds in the language Consonants only; no vowels Eliminated the need for people to memorize thousands of symbols The term Phonetics comes from this concept
  • 7. Early Alphabets Greek Greeks expanded on Phoenician alphabet Added vowels and named each character First system for reading left to right and top to bottom
  • 8. Early Alphabets Roman Romans developed the Greek alphabet further Modern alphabet that we now use Added lowercase versions to letters, condensed forms of text and cursive writing that flowed more naturally by hand
  • 9. Writing During the Dark Ages Books were hand-produced for hundreds of years Primarily religious (illuminated manuscripts) Due to the painstaking effort (often years) to create a single volume, books were considered very valuable treasures Photo Source: http://bit.ly/bQJRH6
  • 10. Invention of the Printing Press German metal carver Johannes Gutenberg, invented the printing press in mid 15th century Letters carved onto a small metal plate, punch Letters arranged to form blocks of text. Molten metal poured over the top to make a mold Used to print books in larger quantities than had previously been possible This invention changed the world, allowing rapid production and distribution of printed ideas The Bible was first complete book ever printed Photo Source: www.artemis.austincollege.edu
  • 11. What Role Does Typography Play in Graphic Design? Helps clarify a message that the designer sends to an audience The properly selected font has a huge impact on getting a message across to an intended audience A poorly chosen font or bad typographic layout can detract from or even block the message all together
  • 12. What Role Does Typography Play in Graphic Design? Poor typography will prevent a reader from connecting with a design, and at worst may make your message illegible!
  • 13. What Role Does Typography Play in Graphic Design? Typography can provide an element of expression to accompany a message A carefully crafted typography increases emotional impact of a message much more than just plain type by itself, adding another dimension to a message A well-conceived typographic composition allows the designer to connect with the reader Photo Source: Type Rules, Ilene Strizver
  • 14. What Role Does Typography Play in Graphic Design? Letters and numbers can be arranged in a clever way that strengthens the message Photo Source: Design Basics, David Lauer and Stephen Pentak
  • 15. What Role Does Typography Play in Graphic Design? Letters and numbers can be arranged in a clever way that strengthens the message Photo Source: Design Basics, David Lauer and Stephen Pentak
  • 16. What Role Does Typography Play in Graphic Design? Of course, some of the most innovative and creative typography breaks all of the established rules! Photo Source: The End of Print, David Carson Photo Source: www.davidcarsondesign.com
  • 17. Typographic Terms Typeface: Refers to the upper and lowercase letters and numbers of a specific design/ font. Examples: Helvetica, Times, etc. Characters: The individual letters, numbers and punctuation used when setting type Uppercase: The capital letters of the alphabet Lowercase: The small letters of the alphabet
  • 18. Typographic Terms Baseline: An imaginary line on which the characters seem to be standing Meanline: The imaginary line that runs along the top of most lowercase letters, such as i, c, e, m, n, u,v, w and x X-Height: The height of the body or main element of the lowercase letterform, which falls between the meanline and the baseline Cap Height: The imaginary line that runs across the top of capital letters and ascenders in a line of type
  • 19. Serif vs. San Serif Letterforms Serif: Letters with finishing strokes, or brackets, that project from letters Gives letters finished appearance Letters flow together, making serif typefaces easy to read Often used in books, magazines and newspapers San Serif: Type with no serif Also has no variation in the width of its strokes; computer generated look Useful for signs and large-scale text meant to be seen from a distance Text is harder for a reader s eye to follow in large blocks of text
  • 20. Script Fonts Script fonts are decorative and suggest a hand written appearance. Often used to suggest formality. Difficult to read in large bodies of text; most effective when used as headings or sub headings in a layout. Ex: Porcelain
  • 21. Decorative and Novelty General term used to describe fonts that can’t be easily categorized. This includes dingbats and contemporary specialty fonts. Dingbats used most effectively as a decorative element within a layout or a heading/ sub heading to separate information on a page.
  • 22. Typestyles Roman: Upright letterforms; represents the majority of typeset copy Italic: Slanting version of a typeface; meant to accompany Roman style letters Usually slants at a 12–15 degree angle Oblique: Type that is simply slanted to the right
  • 23. Typestyles Regular: The standard weight of a typeface (also called normal ) Light: A thinner/ lighter version of the regular typeface. Also called thin Bold: A thicker, heavier version of the regular typeface
  • 24. Typestyles Condensed: A narrower version of the regular typeface to fit letters into small space; also called compressed Extended: A wider version of the regular typeface; also called expanded Type families: A combination of all typestyles (roman, bold, italic, etc) of a font Typestyles share common characteristics (design, x-height, etc)
  • 25. Typographic Measurements Two basic units of measurement used to describe type: Points: Very small units used to measure both type sizes and the spaces in between the lines of type. Picas: Larger unit of measurement. 12 points= 1 Pica (6 picas in 1 inch) 72 point type = 1 inch
  • 26. Typographic Measurements Text Type: Refers to smaller sizes of type, usually between 5 and 14 points Used to print books, magazines, newspapers, etc. Display Type: Refers to the larger sizes of type used to call attention, such as newspaper headlines or posters; usually 16-72 point type or larger